Critical Incident Deﬁned An extraordinary event which places lives and property in danger and requires the commitment and coordination of numerous resources to bring about a successful resolution
Problems that always arise During a critical incident, the people in the Emergency Operations Center are always 30 – 60 minutes behind the event.
4 Phases of a Critical Incident1. Crisis (0 – 60 minutes)2. Scene Management (hours to days)3. Executive Management (a week or longer)4. Recovery (days or weeks) (each has objectives and strategies)
Examples of Critical Incidents• Natural Disasters• Transportation Accidents• Information Technology Failures• Criminal Activities• Fire/Hazardous Materials Accidents
Goals for the Institution• Contain and Resolve• Restore normal operations and core business and educational functions
Why develop a plan?• Most importantly, to mitigate risk and minimize harm• Fulﬁll legal duty to exercise reasonable care to prevent foreseeable harm
Why the Duty to Prevent Harm?• Well established in tort liability and case law ✓ You own/control premises ✓ You operate programs, on and off campus ✓ Sometimes, you have “special relationships” with students
What risks?• Premises-related• Risks due to employee/other negligence• Risks from those who intend to cause harm• Sometimes, risk of students’ harm to themselves
How to fulﬁll duties?• Plan alternatives: ✓ one approach: script/cookbook ✓ better approach: ﬂexible, all-hazards “concept of operations” plan
Where to ﬁnd guidance?• Beyond NRP, there are now some federal and state statutes governing aspects of emergency planning and NIMS/ICS compliance.• Good news: published, best practice summaries (e.g., Blueprint for Safer Campuses) and post-incident reports may be used to establish standards of care.
Where to ﬁnd guidance?• BAD NEWS: if you fail to consider recommendations and ﬁndings of summaries and reports, argument could be that this course of actions falls below standard of care.
Prevention/Mitigation• Actions taken to prevent...• Actions taken to decrease…• Actions taken to reduce...
Preparedness• Strategies, processes, and protocols to prepare the institution for critical incidents.• Adopt and institute the Incident Command System (ICS) and assign roles and responsibilities that meet the institution’s culture and capabilities.• Acknowledge role of local ﬁrst responders and develop Memorandums of Understanding/ Agreement to support these understandings.
ResponseActions taken to effectively contain, stabilize, andresolve an emergency situation. The institutionshould expand its ability to respond to all-hazards, as the response will be signiﬁcantlyimpact by the severity, magnitude, duration, andintensity of the situation.
Recovery Return to normal operations…• Damage Assessment and Recovery;• Implementation of the COOP;• Emotional and mental health of students, staff, and faculty;• Logistical issues such as receiving donations and volunteers
Problems that always arise• Communications• Who’s in charge?• Resources and Resource Coordination• Intelligence gathering and problem assessment• Crowd and trafﬁc control• Environment• Planning and training• Media• Politics
HSPD-5• Created a National Response Plan (NRP)• Under the NRP, a National Incident Management System (NIMS) developed• Ensures consistent nationwide framework for local, state, and federal agencies• Use of the Incident Command System (ICS)
Concept of Operations• Provides an “All Hazards” campus wide operational plan• Provides Effective and Efﬁcient Incident Management, from Pre- Planning & Initial Response Through Recovery• Provides Effective Communications - Internal and External• System for Incident Management while Providing Critical Campus Operations
Campus Concept of Operations• Initial Response ✓ Scene Isolation and Stabilization• Command Post Operations ✓ Scene Management & Resolution
7 Critical Tasks for the On-Scene Supervisor1. Inner Perimeter 72. Outer Perimeter3. Staging Area (in between perimeters)4. ID and Request Resources5. Identify the “Danger Zone”6. Establish Communications7. Establish Scene Command Post
Campus Concept of Operations• Emergency Operations Center (EOC) ✓ Focus on impact of the incident on the institution ✓ Provides coordination and networking with scene(s) ✓ Major logistics, Maintenance of Routine Operations
Proper Mix of Participants in EOC• The LOCATION of the incident determines the divisions, colleges and departments that should be involved• The KIND of incident dictates the functional departments of the involved divisions or colleges, as well as other agencies that may be involved
Command Post vs. EOC• Command Post – a central decision-making area established by the Incident Commander to house command staff (est. during crisis phase)• Emergency Operations Center – fully expanded ICS for larger management challenges (est. during executive management phase)
Campus Concept of Operations• Executive Policy Group (overall guidance) ✓ Focus on impact to the institution ✓ Organize and direct policy decisions ✓ Insulate ✓ Inform/Update VIPs ✓ Politics ✓ Message to the campus & public
Challenges with Institutional Response• Confusion and/or delays in response can cause further exposure to danger and increased property damage• Don’t need to be an expert (information will come from experts)• Need a system that will allow you to put experts to work rapidly• Must organize quickly to carry out requests from experts and ﬁrst responders
Checklist for Plan• Administrative Framework ✓ Levels of Emergency Response ✓ Phases of Emergency ✓ Deﬁnitions (executive authority; policy group; emergency planning group; roles for each) ✓ Key Roles ✓ EOC
Checklist for Plan• Response Framework ✓ Declare & Coordination of Emergency Condition ✓ Emergency Communications
Checklist for PlanEmergency Communication• Understanding Emergency Notiﬁcations ✓ TAU• How to Notify the Campus Community• Conﬁrmation of Emergency• Content of the Notiﬁcation ✓ AIR• Exempt Circumstances (Prof. Judgment)
Checklist for PlanEmergency Communication• Covers a broad array of potential threats –not just Clery crime statistics• Applies only to threats occurring “on-campus”• Excludes threats occurring off-campus or in public property areas• Only exception is if issuing notice compromise efforts to contain the emergency
Checklist for Plan• Emergency notiﬁcations should be issued when it is determined that there is a “signiﬁcant emergency or dangerous situation involving an immediate threat to the health or safety of students or employees occurring on campus.”
Checklist for Plan• An “immediate threat to the health or safety of students or employees” includes: ✓ All “hazards” - not just Clery crimes ‣ Terrorist Attack ‣ Natural Disaster ‣ Environmental ‣ Other
Checklist for Plan• Conﬁrmation of “Signiﬁcant Emergency” ✓ Articulates the “process used” to conﬁrm the emergency or dangerous situation that threatens the health or safety of students or employees.• Segment or Segments to Receive ✓ Permits institutions to determine which segment or segments are at risk. ✓ Must disclose the “process” used to determine which segment(s) would receive notiﬁcation
Checklist for Plan• Content -- Explain how the notiﬁcation content will be developed. ✓ For example, could designate the campus police department or could jointly designate the University police and public relations. ✓ Intention is to discourage a process that will delay issuance.
Checklist for Plan• Initiate Notiﬁcation “Without Delay” ✓ The regulations do not directly deﬁne what is meant by immediately notify. ‣ Withheld only if issuing would "compromise efforts to contain the emergency." ‣ Includes "efforts to assist a victim or to contain, respond to, or otherwise mitigate the emergency.” ✓ A list of the titles of the person or persons or organization or organizations responsible for carrying out these actions
Checklist for Plan• Need Not Issue Timely Warning ✓ If you issue an emergency notiﬁcation no need to also issue a timely warning based on the "same circumstances.“ ✓ Adequate Follow-Up Information ✓ Provide adequate follow-up information such as an all-clear or updates about continuing steps taken to respond to an emergency, i.e., class cancellations.
Checklist for Plan• Plans & Agreements ✓ All Hazards List ✓ Sample Communications Messages ✓ Mutual Aid Agreements ‣ Other IHEs ‣ Area First Responders
Incident Action PlansWritten or verbal action plans at theﬁeld response level, which reﬂect theoverall strategy and speciﬁc tacticalaction and support information for thenext speciﬁed operational period.
Areas of Emphasis (legal)• Drill EPG on process• Train those who need to know about reporting structures, legal responsibilities, how to care for selves and others• Be sure that threat assessment/student-at- risk teams have shared understanding of privacy vs. safety balance, and applicable laws
Beneﬁts of ICS• Uses a common language and response culture;• Optimizes combined efforts;• Eliminates duplicative efforts;• Establishes a single command post;• Allows for collective approval of operations, logistics, planning, and ﬁnance activities;
Beneﬁts of ICS• Encourages a cooperative response environment;• Allows for shared facilities, reducing response costs, maximizing efﬁciency, and minimizing communication breakdowns; and• Permits responders to develop and implement one consolidated Incident Action Plan (IAP).
Next Steps• STEP 1: Get Organized• STEP 2: conduct a safety and vulnerability study• STEP 3: Develop/Update Emergency Ops Plan• STEP 4: Train to the plan