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  • 1. What does “Good Teaching” look like?
  • 2. Scientific Literacy
    • What do you think the scientifically and technologically literate person should know, value, and as a citizen?
    • Why is it important to develop a scientifically and technologically literate person?
    • Activity1-1
  • 3.
    • The National Science Education Standards define scientific literacy as the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity
  • 4.
    • Science teaching should facilitate students’ learning about science and technology as they need to understand and use them in their personal lives and as future citizens. Science teaching should sustain students’:
      • natural curiosity;
      • develop their skills in inquiry and design;
      • improve their scientific explanations;
      • help them develop an understanding of the role, limits, and possibilities of science and technology in society; and
      • Inform the choices they must make in their personal and social lives
  • 5.
    • In the 21 st century, this country will need many more people with special training in scientific, technical , or health professions, but all will need to be scientifically literate to take an active role in:
      • Recognizing problems,
      • Contributing solutions, and
      • Making informed decisions about local, state, national, and global issues
  • 6. According to the National Science Education Standards …
    • “Lifelong scientific literacy begins with understanding, attitudes, and values established in the earliest years”
  • 7. The Verbs of Doing Science
    • Explore
    • Investigate
    • Solve
    • Justify
    • Represent
    • Formulate
    • Describe
    • Discover
    • Construct
    • Verify
    • Explain
    • Predict
    • Develop
    • Use
    . The to students message is “You are capable of making sense of this and of doing science” These verbs indicate the process of making sense and figuring out .
  • 8. Organizing Instruction
    • Be well-prepared
    • Be thoroughly organized
    • Have a clear direction in your teaching
      • Establish the “Big Picture” – (Scope and Sequence)
      • Divide the year into units and the unit into individual lessons
      • Have a variety of instructional methods (Choose the best for each lesson)
  • 9. How are you going to do this?
    • Traditional Learning Environments
    • Teacher-centered instruction
    • Single-sense stimulation
    • Single-path progression
    • Single media
    • Isolated work
    • Information delivery
    • Passive Learning
    • Factual, knowledge-based learning
    • Reactive response
    • Isolated, artificial context
    • New Learning Environment
    • Student-centered learning
    • Multisensory stimulation
    • Multipath progression
    • Multimedia
    • Collaborative work
    • Information exchange
    • Active/exploratory/inquiry-based learning
    • Critical thinking and informed decision making
    • Proactive/planned action
    • Authentic, real-world context
  • 10. Organizing Instruction
    • Keep in mind the following questions when planning out your lessons:
    • What do I want the students to learn?
    • How will I know my students have learned?
    • What experiences will best help my students learn?
  • 11. Understanding Student Learning
    • Do the students already understand any science concepts?
    • Think of your students has having packed a suitcase for a trip, but many garments are out of fashion, inappropriate for the climate, and inadequate because the students have grown.
  • 12. Understanding Student Learning
    • Student do not enter your classroom as blank slates. They have explanations and concepts about their world, many of these concepts are inadequate when compared to explanations and concepts, and students current concepts influence what and how they learn
    • Activity 1-2
  • 13. Recognizing Personal Meaning in Teaching and Learning
    • Activity 2
    • http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/usgsnps/pltec/index.html
    • Activity 1
    • http://k12science.org/curriculum/musicalplates3/en/studentactivity1.shtml
    Earthquakes
  • 14. Recognizing Personal Meaning in Teaching and Learning
    • Personal meaning has three aspects:
    • The physical closeness of the materials
    • The psychological interest the individual has in the material
    • The social relevancy of the material or topic
    • Learning is enhanced when students have personal involvement with materials that have some direct importance to them.
  • 15. Personalizing Teaching
    • If students are treated as objects , the teacher is less successful in teaching those students.
    • It is very important to treat student with integrity, sincerity, and openness.
    • Interpersonal Rapport
  • 16. Personalizing Teaching
    • Building your relationship with your students could include:
    • Understanding your students
    • Devising different task for different students
    • Individual assessment
    • Varied questioning
    • Use of different materials and equipment
    • Talking and listening to your students
  • 17. Managing the Classroom and Maintaining Discipline
    • How will students form groups for lab?
    • How will they handle materials and equipment safely?
    • How will you get student to change from one type of activity to another?
    • DIRECTIONS, DIRECTIONS, DIRECTIONS
  • 18. Managing the Classroom
    • Some Suggestions:
    • Preparation will resolve many problems.
    • Recognize the need for transition between activities.
    • Try not to panic in nonpanic situations.
  • 19. Maintaining Discipline
    • Center attention on avoiding or resolving the conflict, as opposed who is right or wrong.
    • Establish clear communication and agreement on the issues, rules, or expectations.
    • Use cooperative problem solving
  • 20. Science Standards in the Classroom
  • 21. “Alphabet Soup”
    • NCTM
    • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
    • NSTA
    • National Science Teachers Association
    • AAAS
    • American Association for the Advancement of Science
    • NRC
    • National Research Council
    • NSES
    • National Science Education Standards
    • NCLB
    • No Child Left Behind
    • NAEP
    • National Assessment of Educational Progress
    • TIMSS
    • The Third International Mathematics and Science Study
    • SSS
    • Sunshine State Standards
    • CBC
    • Content Based Curriculum
  • 22. A brief History
    • 1969-present - “The Nation’s Report Card”9 (NAEP) – a criterion reference test (grades 4, 8, and 12) telling us what students know about math concepts and skills.
      • Good News: students are doing better on a small number core items when compared to 1973 and before.
      • Bad News: Overall performance is still dismal.
    • 1983 – A Nation at Risk – Children in the U.S. were academically behind particularly in Math and Science when compared to Japanese children.
    • 1989 - Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM) - initiated a new era in the quest for quality mathematics and science education for all students.
  • 23. A brief History
    • 1991 - Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (NCTM) – articulates a vision of teaching math and builds on the notion that all students can do math.
    • 1993 - Project 2061 - (AAAS) published two documents: Science for All Americans and Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy determining what students needed to know to be scientifically literate in the 21 st century.
    • 1995 - Assessment Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM) – indicates the key role of assessment in implementing change.
  • 24. A brief History
    • 1995 & 1996 - TIMSS – an international study of math and science (41 countries participated in grades 4, 8, and 12 ).
      • Outcomes: 4 th graders are above average, 8thgraders are below average, and 12 th graders are significantly below average when compared to the other countries
    • 1996 - National Science Education Standards (NRC) – define what it means to be scientifically literate.
    • 2000 – Principles and Standards for School Math (NCTM) – an update of the original standards.
    • 2002 – NCLB – requires states to have science standards by 2005-2006 and must administer science assessments by 2007.
  • 25. The Purpose of Standards
    • to provide clear goals for students and teachers, outlining what students should know and be able to do.
    • are based on constructivist theories of learning, and recognize that students learn in different ways and at different rates
    • Formalize high expectations for all students.
    • set criteria for more challenging classrooms, enriching curriculum content and expanding access to improved learning.
    • are closely tied to those of authentic pedagogy: instructional activities that involve active learning.
      • This means that students solve complex problems and construct meaning that is grounded in real-world experiences.
  • 26. National Science Standards
    • Unifying concepts and processes
    • Science as inquiry
    • Physical science
    • Life science
    • Earth and space science
    • Science and technology
    • Science in personal and social perspectives
    • History and nature of science
    • http://books.nap.edu/books/0309062357/html/8.html#pagetop
  • 27. National Science Standards
    • Student Goals:
    • Students should be able to experience the richness and excitement of knowing about and understanding the natural world.
    • Students should be able to use appropriate scientific processes and principles in making personal decisions.
    • Students should be able to engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about matters of scientific and technological concern.
    • Students should be able to increase their economic productivity through the use of the knowledge, understanding, and skills of the scientifically literate person in their careers.
  • 28. Implementing the Standards
    • Science
    • Teachers plan an inquiry-based science program, selecting and adapting content to the interests and abilities of the students, and using teaching and assessment strategies that promote student understanding.
    • Teachers guide and facilitate learning, orchestrating discourse, focusing and supporting student inquiries, and challenging students to share responsibility for their own learning.
    • Teachers engage in ongoing assessment of their practice and of students’ learning, using multiple methods and guiding students in self-assessment.
  • 29. Implementing the Standards
    • Science
    • Teachers design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources they need.
    • Teachers develop communities of learners that reflect the intellectual rigor and social values of scientific inquiry
    • Teachers help plan and develop the school science program, including allocation of time and other resources and implementation of professional development strategies.
  • 30. Standards-based Teachers
    • Focus on the process of science and mathematics, rather than on right answers
    • Encourage students to describe their thinking verbally and in writing
    • Enable students to view science and mathematics as valuable and interesting areas of learning
    • Encourage students to become more self-reliant and validate their own answers
    • Help students to be persistent with problems not solved on the first attempt and to try alternative solutions
    • Demonstrate and model scientific and mathematical ideas in a variety of ways
    • Enable students to become problem solvers and users of science and mathematics in their everyday lives
  • 31. Strategies for Implementing the Standards
    • Present students with questions or problems to solve rather than answers to copy
    • Incorporate and challenge students’ prior knowledge
    • Have students make predictions and then test their ideas
    • Allow students to experiment and explore rather than limiting them to one way of working or finding an answer
    • Incorporate students’ planning and ideas into the curriculum
    • Facilitate a variety of hands-on experiences
    • Assign independent projects and reading, allowing students to pursue their own interests and questions
  • 32. Science Standards in the Classroom
  • 33. “Alphabet Soup”
    • NCTM
    • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
    • NSTA
    • National Science Teachers Association
    • AAAS
    • American Association for the Advancement of Science
    • NRC
    • National Research Council
    • NSES
    • National Science Education Standards
    • NCLB
    • No Child Left Behind
    • NAEP
    • National Assessment of Educational Progress
    • TIMSS
    • The Third International Mathematics and Science Study
    • SSS
    • Sunshine State Standards
    • CBC
    • Content Based Curriculum
  • 34. A brief History
    • 1969-present - “The Nation’s Report Card”9 (NAEP) – a criterion reference test (grades 4, 8, and 12) telling us what students know about math concepts and skills.
      • Good News: students are doing better on a small number core items when compared to 1973 and before.
      • Bad News: Overall performance is still dismal.
    • 1983 – A Nation at Risk – Children in the U.S. were academically behind particularly in Math and Science when compared to Japanese children.
    • 1989 - Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM) - initiated a new era in the quest for quality mathematics and science education for all students.
  • 35. A brief History
    • 1991 - Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (NCTM) – articulates a vision of teaching math and builds on the notion that all students can do math.
    • 1993 - Project 2061 - (AAAS) published two documents: Science for All Americans and Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy determining what students needed to know to be scientifically literate in the 21 st century.
    • 1995 - Assessment Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM) – indicates the key role of assessment in implementing change.
  • 36. A brief History
    • 1995 & 1996 - TIMSS – an international study of math and science (41 countries participated in grades 4, 8, and 12 ).
      • Outcomes: 4 th graders are above average, 8thgraders are below average, and 12 th graders are significantly below average when compared to the other countries
    • 1996 - National Science Education Standards (NRC) – define what it means to be scientifically literate.
    • 2000 – Principles and Standards for School Math (NCTM) – an update of the original standards.
    • 2002 – NCLB – requires states to have science standards by 2005-2006 and must administer science assessments by 2007.
  • 37. The Purpose of Standards
    • to provide clear goals for students and teachers, outlining what students should know and be able to do.
    • are based on constructivist theories of learning, and recognize that students learn in different ways and at different rates
    • Formalize high expectations for all students.
    • set criteria for more challenging classrooms, enriching curriculum content and expanding access to improved learning.
    • are closely tied to those of authentic pedagogy: instructional activities that involve active learning.
      • This means that students solve complex problems and construct meaning that is grounded in real-world experiences.
  • 38. National Science Standards
    • Unifying concepts and processes
    • Science as inquiry
    • Physical science
    • Life science
    • Earth and space science
    • Science and technology
    • Science in personal and social perspectives
    • History and nature of science
    • http://books.nap.edu/books/0309062357/html/8.html#pagetop
  • 39. National Science Standards
    • Student Goals:
    • Students should be able to experience the richness and excitement of knowing about and understanding the natural world.
    • Students should be able to use appropriate scientific processes and principles in making personal decisions.
    • Students should be able to engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about matters of scientific and technological concern.
    • Students should be able to increase their economic productivity through the use of the knowledge, understanding, and skills of the scientifically literate person in their careers.
  • 40. Implementing the Standards
    • Science
    • Teachers plan an inquiry-based science program, selecting and adapting content to the interests and abilities of the students, and using teaching and assessment strategies that promote student understanding.
    • Teachers guide and facilitate learning, orchestrating discourse, focusing and supporting student inquiries, and challenging students to share responsibility for their own learning.
    • Teachers engage in ongoing assessment of their practice and of students’ learning, using multiple methods and guiding students in self-assessment.
  • 41. Implementing the Standards
    • Science
    • Teachers design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources they need.
    • Teachers develop communities of learners that reflect the intellectual rigor and social values of scientific inquiry
    • Teachers help plan and develop the school science program, including allocation of time and other resources and implementation of professional development strategies.
  • 42. Standards-based Teachers
    • Focus on the process of science and mathematics, rather than on right answers
    • Encourage students to describe their thinking verbally and in writing
    • Enable students to view science and mathematics as valuable and interesting areas of learning
    • Encourage students to become more self-reliant and validate their own answers
    • Help students to be persistent with problems not solved on the first attempt and to try alternative solutions
    • Demonstrate and model scientific and mathematical ideas in a variety of ways
    • Enable students to become problem solvers and users of science and mathematics in their everyday lives
  • 43. Strategies for Implementing the Standards
    • Present students with questions or problems to solve rather than answers to copy
    • Incorporate and challenge students’ prior knowledge
    • Have students make predictions and then test their ideas
    • Allow students to experiment and explore rather than limiting them to one way of working or finding an answer
    • Incorporate students’ planning and ideas into the curriculum
    • Facilitate a variety of hands-on experiences
    • Assign independent projects and reading, allowing students to pursue their own interests and questions
  • 44. Assessment in Science
  • 45. Traditional Assessment
    • multiple-choice tests
    • fill-in-the-blanks
    • true-false
    • matching
    •   Students typically select an answer or recall information to complete the assessment.
  • 46. Authentic assessment
    • A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills
    • Performance assessment
    • Authentic assessment
  • 47. Traditional vs. Authentic
    • Traditional ---------------------------------------- Authentic
    • Selecting a Response --------------- Performing a Task
    • Contrived --------------------------------------------- Real-life
    • Recall/Recognition ------------ Construction/Application
    • Teacher-structured ------------------- Student-structured
    • Indirect Evidence ------------------------- Direct Evidence
  • 48. Graphic Organizers
    • Evaluation Purposes:
    • They permit the visual comparison of student understanding to expert knowledge.
    • They illuminate preconceptions.
    • They help students make their thinking visible (developing and supporting visual learning modalities).
    • They can be used as advanced organizers for students since they help students self-assess their current knowledge.
    • Thoughts:
    • Graphic organizers would be more creative, challenging, and fun than traditional essay or objective style questions on tests.
    • Graphic organizers could also be required within presentations and projects.
  • 49. Webbing Assessment Comments: Categories/Hierarchies____________ Content Accuracy____________
  • 50. Flow Chart
  • 51. Right Angle Chart
  • 52. Venn Diagram
  • 53. KWL Charts:
  • 54. Interviews
    • Evaluation Purposes:
    • They are effective at diagnosing both strengths and needs.
    • They encourage students to reflect upon their own thinking.
    • They provide additional information on exceptional students.
    • Thoughts:
    • Interviews can occur formally or informally. Use tools or manipulatives
    • Ask the student to do a task and to explain what they are doing and why as they work, or you can do the task yourself and have the student tell what s/he thinks you are doing and why (valuable for at-risk students).
    • Keep records with either a video/audio recorder, rubric or anecdotal notes.
    • Not all students need to be interviewed on a given set of tasks.
    • Allow plenty of wait time so that the student can give thoughtful responses. Refrain from teaching or asking leading questions.
    • Ask students to describe their thought processes while they are solving problems (use think/talk techniques). Susitna Elementary in Anchorage has piloted a Think/Talk Project
  • 55. Structured Interview
  • 56. Think/Talk Project
    • Discuss your strategy for solving this problem:
    • (Solve the problem then explain how you solved the problem.)
  • 57. Performance Task Interview
    • Collecting Data Materials: 10 colored flower pictures, 4 red, 5 blue, 1 green
    • Data sheet:
    3) Which flower color is most common? 2) Place them on the chart paper in line above the same flower (model if necessary) 1) Sort the flowers by color Comment Interview Questions
  • 58. Project Interview:
    • What question are you trying to answer with your graphing project?
    • Why some carts go faster than others.
    • How will your graph answer that question?
    • Because it will show if heavier carts tend to go down my ramp faster or slower than light carts.
    • Does that answer your question 'why'?
    • It tells me whether or not extra weight improves their speed, but not other things.
    • How would you rephrase your question?
    • How does weight affect the speed of my cart?
  • 59. Questioning Suggestions
    • Ask questions that will help you better understand student behavior and understanding:
    • What did you do first?
    • Why?
    • Can you describe your solution?
    • Will you explain what you are doing?
    • What should you do next?
    • Can you describe any patterns you see?
  • 60. Problem Solving Interview Questions
    • Please describe your problem to me.
    • There might be many ways to solve it. Can you describe several possibilities?
    • What problems can you think of that are similar to your original problem?
    • Evaluation Feedback:_____self_____peer__x__teacher
    • yes/not yet ____Can you explain the problem? ____Can you brainstorm ways to solve it? ____Can you relate this problem to others like it?
  • 61. Observation
    • Evaluation Purposes:
    • Use observations to collect data on behaviors that are difficult to assess by other methods (e.g., attitude toward problem solving, selection and usage of a specific strategy, modeling a concept with a manipulative, ability to work effectively in a group, persistence, concentration).
    • Observe and record the way students solve problems and complete tasks.
    • Ascertain whether students (individually or in a group) are attaining the intended objectives with observational tools. (Do I need to reteach? Are students ready to move on?).
    • Thoughts:
    • Record and date your observations during or soon after the observation. Develop a shorthand system. Distinguish from inferences.
    • Observe students in a natural classroom setting so you can see how they respond under normal conditions. It is easier to observe students' behavior if they are working in small groups rather than alone.
    • Have an observation plan, but be flexible enough to note other significant behavior. You may find it helpful to record either many behaviors for one student or one behavior for many students.
  • 62. Anecdotal Notes, Video, Audio, Photos
    • Observations are a commonly used method to informally assess student behaviors, attitudes, skills, concepts or processes. Anecdotal notes, checklists, video, audio recordings, or photos may be used to formalize and document the observations made.
  • 63. Checklist Format
    • Science Process Skills Students
  • 64. 3x5 Card Notes
    • Student: Larry Week: 1/19/94
    • Objectives: Demonstrates understanding of place value concepts.
    • Observations:
    • Regroups and trades up with 2 digit addition.
    • Still has difficulty trading down for 2 digit subtraction with numbers, but is successful doing it with manipulatives on a place-value chart
  • 65. Problem Solving Checklist
  • 66. Observational Inventory of Scientific Attitudes
  • 67. Performance Tasks
    • Performance tasks are learning activities that are scored according to specified criteria. These may vary from brief, on-demand tasks to long term, complex projects.
  • 68. Performance Tasks
    • Evaluation Purposes:
    • Use performance tasks to assess students' ability to demonstrate and apply skills and concepts.
    • They simultaneously enhance and evaluate students' ability to use appropriate mathematical and science representations.
    • Performance tasks may involve explaining one's work or the process used, formulating hypotheses, explaining mathematical or scientific situations, writing procedures, creating new related problems, making generalizations, describing patterns or solutions, and so on.
    • Scoring is often accomplished through performance task cards, analytical trait scales, checklists, or holistic scales.
    • Thoughts:
    • Criteria for performance tasks: (these will be in a web in final product) Engaging (thought provoking) Equitable Open Ended -vs.- one correct response Feasible Actively engages the student Rich (many possibilities) Authentic/rich/meaningful/relevant/real world Essential to core of curriculum Varying degrees of structure Complete-able
  • 69. Participate with the entire class to learn about the tests that identify the following powders. Take careful notes about the tests and your observations.
  • 70. Draw and design 2 different boats using the materials in your bag. Predict whether or not they will float. Build them. Test them. Circle the picture of your best boat.
    • Assessment Comments:
    • spatial visualization: prediction skills:
    • observation skills:
  • 71. Assessment Checklist
  • 72. Creative Performances and Exhibitions
    • Drama, Dance, Songs, Oral Presentations, Artworks, Authentic Products
    • Allow many opportunities for students to use kinesthetic, artistic, musical, spatial, media, and other modalities to demonstrate their understanding of concepts and application of skills.
  • 73. Creative Performances and Exhibitions
    • Evaluation Purposes:
    • Use creative performance as a way for students to communicate their understanding of concepts that require difficult terminology.
    • Develop collaborative creative performances to assess students' use of group problem solving and collaboration.
    • Encourage your students to demonstrate their mastery of technology while creating performances.
    • Use performances as a means to assess attitudes and awareness.
    • Allow students with different learning and communication styles to express their knowledge through performances.
    • Thoughts:
    • Performances and exhibitions motivate students to get involved and have ownership in their own learning.
    • These may be done individually or with a group.
    • Ask students to create assessment rubrics to help them plan their performances .
  • 74. Drama and Dance
    • Drama:
    • Often animal observations do not occur as planned or predicted. For example, when students observe snails and meal worms for positive, negative or neutral reactions to stimuli, the animals do not always respond consistently. Teachers can augment the effectiveness of the activity by having the students pretend to be food snails and acting out negative, positive, and neutral reactions. They can observe whether or not the students can operationalize these three kinds of reactions, and they simultaneously keep the students productively active while still watching for the responses of the actual animals (Murphy, 1994, p 25).
    • Dance
    • After exploring "air as matter" the teacher asks the students to pretend that they are each an individual molecule of air. They are to pantomime the action of the molecules of air as the teacher pretends to control the temperature. Some students spread their arms and bask in the heat, and they say that they are expanding with the heat. Others coil up from fear of being burned. Others begin to move more actively around the room, bouncing off each other. These demonstrations provide the teacher with important knowledge about the current schema of these students (Murphy, 1994, p 25).
  • 75. Presentation Assessment Checklist
    • ____Does the presentation demonstrate knowledge of the concept?
    • Comments:
    • ____Did the student use an effective process to plan the performance (visualize, preplan, practice, edit, perform)?
    • Comments:
  • 76. Pictorial Math Problem Solving
    • Draw a comic strip of this word problem. In the 5th frame draw a solution to the problem:
    • Frame 1: Three moose swam across the river to the sand bar.
    • Frame 2: One bear swam to the sand bar.
    • Frame 3: Two moose swam back from the sand bar to the river bank.
    • Frame 4: The bear watched them swim.
    • Frame 5: How many animals remain on the sand bar?
    • Frame 6: What happens next?
    • Assessment Checklist:
    • ____Correctly sequences the comic frames
    • ____Includes the correct # of animals in each frame
    • ____Solves the problem
  • 77. Musical Concept Task
    • Write a song about the aurora that explains the reasons for the different colors.
    • Assessment Scoring Guide:
    • ____ 5 pt The correct colors are identified.
    • ____ 5 pt The correct explanations are included.
    • ____ 5 pt The song is engaging, melodic, & rhythmic.
  • 78. Oral Contributions Holistic Scale
  • 79. Self and Peer-Evaluations
    • Students are asked to reflect on, make a judgment about, and then report on their own or a peer's behavior and performance. The responses may be used to evaluate both performance and attitude. Typical evaluation tools could include sentence completion, Likert scales, checklists, or holistic scales.
  • 80. Self and Peer-Evaluations
    • Evaluation Purposes:
    • Self and peer evaluations help us gain information on how students view their own performance and/or how peers view their performance.
    • They provide data on student or group attitudes, feelings, opinions, and views.
    • They encourage reflection and communication about desirable performance criteria.
    • Thoughts:
    • It is common for students to have difficulty when they are first asked to report their feelings, beliefs, intentions, or thinking processes. It is even more difficult to report on their peers' performance. Make the process safer by using it for formative rather than summative purposes.
    • Model evaluating your own performance, or provide examples. Another strategy is to introduce constructive feedback. Models help students develop their sense of standards for their own performance.
    • Work on constructive feedback between students. Do a lot of modeling first, and then make one positive statement and one area for improvement. The students then will pick another classmate to make a positive and an improvement comment as well.
  • 81. More Thoughts…
    • Let students do a private self-assessment that no one else sees. This allows for an honest sense of their own level of understanding and performance.
    • Self-assessment and peer assessment can sometimes be combined onto one checklist format; however, one set of responses may influence the other.
  • 82. Problem Solving Rating Scale
  • 83. Portfolio Reflection Items
    • Choose two sentences to complete for each item in your portfolio:
    • I chose this piece to be in my portfolio because:
    • If I could continue working on this piece, I would:
    • While working on this piece I learned:
  • 84. Reflective Feedback
    • How did you feel about this activity?
    • Would you like to do this activity again?
  • 85. Excellent Resources
    • Kathy Schrock’ s Assessment and Rubric Information
    • http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/assess.html
    • Performance Assessment Links (PALS)
    • http://pals.sri.com/
    • Resources for Teaching and Assessing PreK Through Grade 12
    • http://www.tenet.edu/teks/math/assess/resources.html
  • 86. Assessment in the Classroom
  • 87. Assessment in the Classroom
    • Traditional Assessment
      • Selected Response test
      • Constructed Response Test
    • Alternative Assessment
      • Performance Assessment
      • Portfolio Assessment
  • 88. Traditional Assessment
  • 89. Selected Response test
    • Binary Choice Items
      • Gives students only two items from which to select
        • True and False
          • http://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/t_false/t-f_b.ht
    • Multiple Binary Choice Items
      • One in which a cluster of items is presented to students
        • Multiple choice
          • http:// web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/mchoice/mc_a.htm
        • Matching
          • http://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/match/match_a.htm
  • 90. Constructed Response Test
    • Short Answer
      • http:// web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/short/short_a.htm
    • Fill in the Blanks
    • Essay Items
      • http://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/essay/essay_a.htm
  • 91. Alternative Assessment
  • 92. Performance Assessment
    • Recommendations for Developing Classroom Performance Assessments and Scoring Rubrics
      • http:// pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v =8&n=14
    • Alternative/Performance-Based Assessment
      • http:// www.emtech.net/Alternative_Assessment.html
    • Scoring Performance Assessments
      • http:// web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/scoring/score_a.htm
    • The Rudiments of Rubrics
      • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/weeklytips.phtml/23
    • Intervention Strategies
      • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/weeklytips.phtml/60
    • Peer Review Strategies
      • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/weeklytips.phtml/224
  • 93. Portfolio Assessment
    • What is a Portfolio
      • http://www.pgcps.pg.k12.md.us/~elc/portfolio.html
    • Building Student Portfolios
      • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/weeklytips.phtml/64
    • Education World Assessment
      • http://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/issues288.shtml
    • Sample Online Portfolios
      • http://www.electricteacher.com/onlineportfolio/examples.htm
  • 94. More Resources
    • Assessment Strategies to Inform Science and Mathematics Instruction
      • http:// nwrel.org/msec/resources/pub.html
    • Teaching Today
      • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/tiparchive.phtml/6
    • PALS
      • http:// pals.sri.com /
    • Science A ssessment
      • http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/midlsci/asevmsc.html
    • ENC Assessment
      • http://www.enc.org/topics/assessment/?ls=ho
    • Kathy Schrock
      • http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/assess.html
  • 95. More Resources
    • Create Assessment Instruments for different types of objectives
      • Psychomotor Objectives
      • Cognitive Objectives
      • Affective Objectives
  • 96. Science Process Skills Part I
  • 97. Bubbles, Bubbles Everywhere!
    • Make as many observations about the bubble solution and the resulting products as possible. Be specific.
    • Make observations under different conditions (inside, outside, warm, cold, windy, still, falling, rising, in different containers, in combinations or films, etc.) and during all stages of the bubble's lifetime. Be aware that many observations should be of subtle phenomena; there is much more going on here than just a round (square?) bubble.
  • 98. What makes a good observation?
    • Did you use all your senses?
    • Did you take any quantitative measurements?
    • Did observe any natural changes?
    • Did you raise questions that could lead to new observations?
    • Did you report your observations using clear descriptions, charts, diagrams, drawings, or other methods?
  • 99. What makes a good observation?
    • Using all senses
    • Taking measurements
    • Making alterations and observing responding changes
    • Raising questions
    • Clear communication
    • With this in mind make some more observations about bubbles
  • 100.  
  • 101. What is the difference between and observations and an inferences?
    • Observations are statements about the information made directly by using the five senses.
    • Inferences are interpretations about those observations.
  • 102. Please read
    • The Science Process Skills
    • http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm
  • 103. Planning The key to effective instruction
  • 104. Learning Objectives
    • are called behavioral objectives and instructional objectives
    • “ Behavioral objectives are learning objectives; they specify what behavior a student must demonstrate or perform in order for a instructor to infer that learning took place”.
    • “ An instructional objective is a statement that will describe what the learner will be able to do after completing the instruction.
  • 105. Why Do We Need Learning Objectives
    • They determine what you want the students to learn and how you will know that they learn.
    • Objectives guide the content materials and the teaching methods.
    • You can use objectives to make sure you reach your goals.
    • Students will understand expectations.
    • Assessment and grading is based on the objectives.
    • They ensure that learning is focused clearly enough that both students and teacher know what is going on, and so learning can be objectively measured.
  • 106. Goals are
    • broad, generalized statements about what is to be learned. Think of them as a target to be reached, or "hit.“
    • Do not clarify precisely what a learner must do or how a learner should perform
    • Are NOT measurable
      • “ Improving customer service”
      • “ Improving quality”
      • “ Increasing profitability”
  • 107. Learning Objectives are
    • Specific
      • This means that they should describe precisely what the learner is expected to do.
    • Measurable
      • This means that objectives should describe learning outcomes that can be measured.
    • Outcome based
      • This means that the objective is going to state what the learner should be able to do after the instruction is complete.
    • Observable student behaviors.
      • This means that objectives should relate what the student should be able to do after the instruction.
    • Short-term
    • They indicate the desirable knowledge, skills, or attitudes to be gained.
    • are the foundation upon which you can build lessons and assessments that you can prove meet your overall course or lesson goals.
    • Think of objectives as tools you use to make sure you reach your goals.
    • They are the arrows you shoot towards your target (goal).
  • 108. How can they help you?
    • Serve as a guide for students
      • Objectives alert students to what is expected of them . They eliminate the "guess work". Expectations are very clearly defined.
    • Serve as a basis for the selection of instructional media and materials AND instructional procedures
      • Objectives allow the instructor to determine the media and materials that will facilitate the learning. The procedures to be used to teach the new information become clearer once the objective is defined.
    • Determine the appropriate ways to evaluate
      • Evaluation should always be based on each instructional objective. Determining the objective classification will assist you in determining the appropriate methods for evaluation .
  • 109. How do I write an instructional objective?
    • The ABCD method
    • Audience – Who? Who are your learners?
    • Behavior – What? What do you expect them to be able to do?
      • This should be an overt, observable behavior, even if the actual behavior is covert or mental in nature. If you can't see it, hear it, touch it, taste it, or smell it, you can't be sure your audience really learned it.
      • This is the heart of the objective and MUST be measureable AND observable. In addition, these verbs MUST be specific. Verbs such as know, understand, comprehend, appreciate are difficult to measure and are therefore not good choices for objectives.
      • The Helpful Hundred
  • 110. How do I write an instructional objective?
    • The ABCD method
    • Condition – How? Under what circumstances or context will the learning occur? What will the student be given or already be expected to know to accomplish the learning? What will the instructor allow the student to use in order to complete the instruction. What equipment or tools can the student have access to such as a calculator, map, the book, class notes, etc.
      • Circumstances under which the objective must be completed.
    • Degree – How much? How much will be accomplished, how well will the behavior need to be performed, and to what level? What degree of accuracy does the learner have to meet in order that his/her performance be judged proficient? Do you want total mastery (100%), do you want them to respond correctly 80% of the time, etc. A common (and totally non-scientific) setting is 80% of the time.
      • The degree of accuracy should be related to real-world expectations.
  • 111. Classifying Objectives
    • Teachers should classify objectives because the type of objective attempted dictate the selection of instructional methods, media and evaluation used in the lesson.
    • Objectives may be classified according to the primary learning outcomes that take place.
      • These learning outcomes typically are classified into three domains or categories: cognitive, psychomotor and affective.
  • 112. Cognitive Domain
    • Cognitive: understandings, awareness, insights
    • "Given a description of a planet, the student will be able to identify that planet, as demonstrated verbally or in writing." or "The student will be able to evaluate the different theories of the origin of the solar system as demonstrated by his/her ability to compare and discuss verbally or in writing the strengths and weaknesses of each theory.".
    • This includes knowledge or information recall, comprehension or conceptual understanding, the ability to apply knowledge, the ability to analyze a situation, the ability to synthesize information from a given situation, and the ability to evaluate a given situation.
  • 113. Highest level Lowest level Levels of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Assessing the value of ideas, things, and so on Assembling a whole from parts Disassembling a whole into parts Using what has been previously learned Knowing what a message means Remembering/recalling terms, facts, and so on
  • 114. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Cognitive Domain Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  • 115. Cognitive Domain
    • The Six Major Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain http://www.udel.edu/educ/socstuds/cog_hierarchy.htm
    • Examples of Behavioral Verbs and Student Activities
    • http://www.adprima.com/examples.htm
    • Definitions of Behavioral Verbs for Learning Objectives
    • http://www.adprima.com/verbs.htm
  • 116. Psychomotor Domain
    • actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance or athletic performance.
    • http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/Psychomotor_Taxonomy.shtml
    • "The student will be able to ride a two-wheel bicycle without assistance and without pause as demonstrated in gym class."
  • 117. Affective Domain
    • includes objectives pertaining to attitudes, appreciations, values and emotions.
    • http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/Affective_Taxonomy.shtml
    • "Given the opportunity to work in a team with several people of different races, the student will demonstrate an positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as measured by a checklist utilized/completed by non-team members."
  • 118. Practice Excercises
    • Behavior Practice Exercises
    • Condition Practice Exercises
    • Degree Practice Exercises
  • 119. Tie Different Levels of Learning Objectives with Activities
    • Appropriate strategies and activities will increase the probability that the level of learning you expect will occur.
    • Student activities based on learning objectives will make sure you are teaching what you want to and must teach and that students are learning what they should learn.  
  • 120. Questions you need to think about
    • What do the students need to do in order to achieve the goals and objectives? Is it only memorization of concepts? Probably not. Then what activities are necessary to achieve the level of learning you expect?
    • What is the ideal way to learn course content if money, time, location were not of concern? What of those ways can be incorporated into this course?
    • What kind of knowledge/skills do you want to the students to apply in later courses or in their internship or jobs? Problem-solving, analysis, or what?
    • What learning activities will motivate students; that is, what will convey your passion about the content? 
    • What will the students do in class, out of class and in recitation/small group sessions?
    • What must the students, teaching assistants, and you do to support students as they learn?
    • What is the nature of the class and how might that impact the range of student activities? 
  • 121. Instructional Methods
    • Teacher-centered Approaches
    • Lecture is the most criticized of all teaching methods AND the most commonly used because 1) planning time is limited, 2) lectures are flexible and can be applied to any content and 3) lectures are simple. The most critical fact about lecture is that it puts students in a passive role.
    • Demonstration involves the teacher showing students a process or procedure such a science process, a cooking procedure or a computer procedure. Involving students in demonstrations allow this method to be less passive.
    • Lecture-Discussions is a combination of lectures and teacher questioning.
    • Direct Instruction is used to help students learn concepts and skills. There are various models of Direct instruction but all include similar steps: 1) Intro & Review 2) Presentation of new information 3) Guided practice 4) Independent practice.
  • 122. Instructional Methods
    • Student-centered Approaches
    • Group Discussion Designed to encourage thinking skills, discussion allows learners to increase interpersonal skills.
    • Discovery Learning provides learners with information they use to construct learning.
    • Cooperative Learning involves small heterogeneous student groups working together to solve a problem or complete a task. All students in the group must actively participate with each being independent. The success of the group depends on the input of each individual. This teaching method promotes active participation, individual accountability, student ability to work cooperatively and improves social skills.
    • Learning Centers are self contained areas where students work independently or with small groups (pairs or triads) to complete a task. Centers may take the form of chairs placed around a table for group discussion, display boards that present questions/problems/worksheets, or computer/computers where students perform hands-on activities or research on the web.
  • 123. Instructional Methods
    • Student-centered Approaches
    • Role-play deals with solving problems through action. A problem is identified, acted out and discussed. The role-play process provides students with an opportunity to 1) explore their feelings, 2) gain insight about their attitudes,and 3) increase problem solving skills.
    • Simulations are meant to put the student in a "real" situation without taking the risks involved. Simulations are meant to be as realistic as possible and students are able to experience consequences of their behavior and decisions. Simulations are often used in science such as dissecting a frog using the computer.
    • Problem-Based Learning & Inquiry involves giving the student a problem and they must do inquiry to solve the problem. There are commonly four steps in this model: 1) student receives the problem, 2) student gathers data, 3) student organizes data and attempts an explanation to the problem, and 4) students analyze the strategies they used to solve the problem.
  • 124. The Design Process
    • ID Goals and Objectives
    • Determine Assessment Procedures
    • Design the Instruction
    • Develop the Instruction
    • Pilot-test the Instruction
    • Deliver the Instruction
  • 125. ID Goals and Objectives
    • This is where you develop your blueprint for the instruction. What is it you want your students to learn? How will you break your instruction apart into pieces so you can be sure your students have learned what they need? At this stage in the process, it is often beneficial to meet with one or more instructional designers to determine your goals and objectives.
  • 126. Determine Assessment Procedures
    • Based on your objectives, you should be able to quickly and easily determine how to assess your students.
  • 127. Design the Instruction
    • Now that you know exactly what you want to teach, you can design the instruction.
    • Instructional designers can assist you with this.
    • Many people storyboard their instruction before they actually develop it. A storyboard is a visual layout of the instruction, a sort of "pencil and paper" rough draft of the real thing.
    • Developing and refining your storyboard will save you lots of time in the development phase. Fixing mistakes on paper is far easier than on the screen!
  • 128. Develop the Instruction
    • This is where you take your storyboard and "bring it to life" on the computer.
    • Multimedia experts and programmers can assist you with this.
    • Doing this on your own implies you have a working knowledge of markup languages and media manipulation.
  • 129. Pilot-test the Instruction
    • Now try out the instruction on some students, even if it is still in rough form. Listen to their feedback, and try to work their suggestions into revisions.
  • 130. Deliver the Instruction
    • That's it! The instruction is ready to go!
  • 131.  
  • 132. Inquiry-based Learning Linking Teaching with Learning
  • 133. What is inquiry-based learning?
    • Inquiry" is defined as "a seeking for truth, information, or knowledge -- seeking information by questioning.
    • The natural way in which scientist create knowledge, present it for review and try it out in new settings
  • 134. The process of inquiry…
    • begins with gathering information and data through applying the human senses -- seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling.
    • is complex and involves individuals attempting to convert information and data into useful knowledge.
  • 135. A Model of Inquiry Asking question Searching for answers Interpreting data Sharing explanations Collating
  • 136. The Traditional Classroom vs. Inquiry Classroom
    • Traditional
    • focused on mastery of content
    • Lectures, assigned readings, problem sets and lab work
    • teacher centered, with the teacher focused on giving out information about "what is known”
    • students learn not to ask too many questions, instead to listen and repeat the expected answers
    • Inquiry
    • focused on using and learning content as a means to develop information-processing and problem-solving skills.
    • student centered, with the teacher as a facilitator of learning.
    • There is more emphasis on "how we come to know" and less on "what we know."
    • Students are more involved in the construction of knowledge through active involvement.
  • 137. Student’s Role
    • They look forward to learning.
    • They demonstrate a desire to learn more.
    • They seek to collaborate and work cooperatively with teacher and peers.
    • They are more confident in learning, demonstrate a willingness to modify ideas and take calculated risks, and display appropriate skepticism.
    Students view themselves as learners in the process of learning. Students accept an "invitation to learn" and willingly engage in an exploration process.  
      • They exhibit curiosity and ponder observations.
      • They move around, selecting and using the materials they need.
      • They confer with classmates and teacher about observations and questions.
      • They try out some of their own ideas.
  • 138.
      • They ask questions (verbally and through actions).
      • They use questions that lead them to activities generating further questions or ideas.
      • They observe critically, as opposed to casually looking or listening.
      • They value and apply questions as an important part of learning.
      • They make connections to previous ideas.
    Students raise questions, propose explanations, and use observations.   Students plan and carry out learning activities.  
      • They design ways to try out their ideas, not always expecting to be told what to do.
      • They plan ways to verify, extend, confirm, or discard ideas.
      • They carry out activities by: using materials, observing, evaluating, and recording information.
      • They sort out information and decide what is important.
      • They see detail, detect sequences and events, notice change, and detect differences and similarities.
  • 139.
      • They express ideas in a variety of ways, including journals, drawing, reports, graphing, and so forth.
      • They listen, speak, and write about learning activities with parents, teacher, and peers.
      • They use the language of learning, apply the skills of processing information, and develop their own "ground rules" appropriate for the discipline.
    Students communicate using a variety of methods.   Students critique their learning practice.
      • They use indicators to assess their own work.
      • They recognize and report their strengths and weaknesses.
      • They reflect on their learning with their teacher and their peers .
    This is a modified list based on "Inquiry-Based Science, What Does It Look Like?" published in CONNECT MAGAZINE, March-April 1995.
  • 140. Teacher’s Role
    • He plans ways for each learner to be actively engaged in the learning process.
    • She understands the necessary skills, knowledge, and habits of mind needed for inquiry learning.
    • He understands and plans ways to encourage and enable the learner to take increasing responsibility for his learning.
    • She insures that classroom learning is focused on relevant and applicable outcomes.
    • He is prepared for unexpected questions or suggestions from the learner.
    • She prepares the classroom environment with the necessary learning tools, materials, and resources for active involvement of the learner.
    The teacher reflects on the purpose and makes plans for inquiry learning.
  • 141. Teacher’s Role
      • The teacher's daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly facilitation plans focus on setting content learning in a conceptual framework. They also stress skill development and model and nurture the development of habits of mind.
      • She accepts that teaching is also a learning process.
      • He asks questions, encouraging divergent thinking that leads to more questions.
      • She values and encourages responses and, when these responses convey misconceptions, effectively explores the causes and appropriately guides the learner.
      • He is constantly alert to learning obstacles and guides learners when necessary.
      • She asks many Why? How do you know? and What is the evidence? type of questions.
      • He makes student assessment an ongoing part of the facilitation of the learning process.
    The teacher facilitates classroom learning.  
  • 142.
    • Ultimately, the importance of inquiry learning is that students learn how to continue learning. This is something they can take with them throughout life, beyond a textbook, beyond the time of a master teacher, beyond school to a time when they will often be alone in their learning.
  • 143.
    • What are some ways that you might integrate the ideas of inquiry into your teaching?
  • 144. Explore http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/month6/index_sub7.html
  • 145. Science and Other Disciplines Interdisciplinary Approaches to Curriculum Chapter 10
  • 146. Why Integrate Science With Other Disciplines?
    • Justification:
      • Knowledge growth requires individuals to understand broader concepts that link several disciplines
      • Schools impose artificial boundaries and constraints on students
  • 147. Why Integrate Science With Other Disciplines?
    • Justification Continued:
      • Real-world problems do not present themselves in discipline-bound packages
      • Fragmentation of the curriculum reduces relevance and meaning for students
  • 148. Disadvantages
    • Potpourri Problem (Heidi Hays-Jacobs)
      • Sampling of knowledge from different disciplines without any central focus, scope or sequence in the curriculum.
      • Does not allow for adequate development of ideas and concepts related to science.*
  • 149. SCIENCE and MATHEMATICS
    • Background: The alliance between science and mathematics has a long history. Science provides mathematics with interesting problems to investigate, and mathematics provides science with powerful tools to use in analyzing data.
  • 150. SCIENCE and MATHEMATICS
    • Types of Math used in Science include:
      • Ratio and Proportion
      • Mean, Median and Mode
      • Calculations and Conversions
      • Units and Measurement
      • Graphs
  • 151. SCIENCE and MATHEMATICS
    • Ratio and Proportion
      • For example, concepts used in Biology when discussing length to width of plant leaves and the proportion of nutrition provided for plant growth
      • Or in Chemistry when discussing concepts of pressure, volume and gas laws
  • 152. SCIENCE and MATHEMATICS
    • Mean Medium and Mode
      • Statistical understanding is needed when talking about population and growth
      • Calculation and Conversions
      • To determine degrees of temperatures between Celsius and Fahrenheit
  • 153. SCIENCE and MATHEMATICS
    • Units and Measurements
      • Used in laboratory practices, word problems and classroom exercises in both math in science. In order to achieve desired results in laboratory exercises, for example students need to sharpen their SKILL of measuring.
  • 154. SCIENCE and MATHEMATICS
    • Graphs
      • Are used in analytical processes in both math and science. Students need to have opportunities to assemble data construct graphs accordingly.
      • Students need mathematical skills to solve many practical science problems.
  • 155. SCIENCE AND READING
    • Readers process information by switching between selective perceptions of text-based information such as prints, charts and pictures and comparison of information and experiences with their personal knowledge to construct meaning.
    • Reading is used as an important tool for teaching content learning.
  • 156. SCIENCE AND WRITING
    • Used in preparing lab reports, short essays on science problems, reports of observations made on field trips and excursions and other activities.
    • Encourage students to write in an upbeat, positive tone to help build confidence and prevent boredom
  • 157. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    • Emphasizes science as inquiry, especially higher order thinking skills
    • Focusing on personal and social issues and the connections among science, technology, and society
  • 158. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    • At different levels/grades students can use technology to explore unifying themes between science and technology.
      • 5 th & 6 th Grades: Patterns of Change. Students learn about patterns and the relationship to predictions
  • 159. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
      • 7 th & 8 th Grades: Diversity and Limits. The distribution of characteristics in humans and other organisms and the breadth of normal range. Students may accomplish this task by exploring a variety of products used and comparing the results.
  • 160. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    • 8 th & 9 th Grades:
      • Systems and Change. Students focus on population growth and the human population system specifically to learn the interrelationships that influence system-wide changes.
  • 161. SCIENCE AND ART
    • Activity: Foldable!
    • What is a Foldable? A Foldable is a 3-D, student-made, interactive graphic organizer.
    • Why use a foldable? Fast, kinesthetic activity that help organize and retain information.
  • 162. SCIENCE AND ART
    • Make a Three-Tab Book based on what you learned about
      • Science and Math
      • Science and Reading or Writing
      • Science and Technology