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Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
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Genetics

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  • 1. Genetics Chapter 11
  • 2. Gregor Mendel
    • “ Father” of genetics
    • Austrian monk, mid-1800s
    • Researched pea plant inheritance
      • Easy to grow, fast reproduction
      • Studied plant height, pea shape/color, pod color, etc.
  • 3.  
  • 4. Pea Plant Reproduction
    • Self-pollination
      • Male gametes (pollen) fertilize egg of same flower
      • Produces pure-bred offspring
      • True-breeding: produce offspring identical to parent when self-pollinated
  • 5. Pea Plant Reproduction
    • Cross-pollination
      • Pollen from one plant fertilizes egg of another plant
      • Offspring have two parents
  • 6. Mendel’s Experiments
    • P = Parent generation
    • F 1 = First filial generation
    • F 2 = Second filial generation (F 1 X F 1 )
          • Outcome
    • P Pure Green X Pure Yellow
    • F 1 All Green
    • F 2 3 Green:1 Yellow
  • 7.  
  • 8. Mendel’s Conclusions
    • Law of Dominance – one allele (form of a gene) is dominant, one is recessive
      • Recessive trait was hidden in F 1 generation
      • Green = dominant
      • Yellow = recessive
  • 9. Mendel’s Conclusions
    • Law of Segregation: alleles for a gene separate when gametes form (meiosis I)
      • Each gamete gets one copy of each gene
  • 10. Some Vocab.
    • Genotype – allele combination
      • Capital letter = dominant allele
      • Lowercase letter = recessive allele
      • Ex – AA, Aa, aa
    • Phenotype – physical appearance
      • Ex – green, yellow
  • 11. Some Vocab.
    • Homozygous – two alleles same
      • Homozygous dominant: AA
      • Homozygous recessive: aa
    • Heterozygous – two alleles different
      • Aa
  • 12. Punnett Squares
    • First must determine possible gametes
    • Heterozygous tall plant = Tt
      • Half of gametes will get ‘T’, other half will get ‘t’
    • Homozygous tall plant = TT
      • All gametes will get ‘T’
  • 13. Punnett Squares
    • Monohybrid cross
      • Cross involving one trait
    • Gametes go on the top and side
    • Combine gametes to find possible offspring
    Tt X Tt
  • 14. Punnett Squares
    • Genotype ratio
    • 1TT: 2Tt: 1tt
    • Phenotype ratio
    • 3 tall: 1 short
    Tt X Tt
  • 15. Probability
    • Punnett squares are used to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring of genetic crosses
    • Tt X Tt
      • ½ chance of getting ‘t’ from mom, ½ chance of getting ‘t’ from dad
      • ½ X ½ = ¼ tt in offspring
  • 16. Dihybrid Cross
    • Mendel looked at the inheritance patterns of two traits
      • Seed shape and seed color
    • Found that the traits were inherited independently of each other
    • Law of Independent Assortment
      • Genes on separate chromosomes are inherited at random
      • Due to random chromosome shuffling in Metaphase I
  • 17. Independent Assortment Metaphase I
  • 18.  
  • 19. Non-Mendelian Genetics
    • Not all traits follow Mendel’s Law of Dominance
    • Four Variations
      • Incomplete Dominance (blending)
      • Codominance (two phenotypes)
      • Multiple Alleles
      • Polygenic Traits
  • 20. Incomplete Dominance
    • Neither allele is dominant, both produce a protein
    • Heterozygous phenotype is a blend of both homozygous phenotypes
    • Ex – wavy hair, pink flowers
  • 21. Incomplete Dominance
  • 22. Codominance
    • Neither allele dominates the other, both produce a protein
    • Heterozygous phenotype is a combination of both homozygous phenotypes
    • Ex – checkered chicken, human blood types,
  • 23.  
  • 24. Multiple Alleles
    • Some genes have more than two alleles
    • Each individual only gets two, but there are more than two in the population
    • Ex – Rabbit fur color
  • 25. Multiple Alleles
    • Rabbit fur alleles (in order of dominance)
      • C: dark gray
      • c ch : chinchilla
      • c h : himalayan
      • c: albino
  • 26. Multiple Alleles
  • 27. Polygenic Traits
    • Many traits are controlled by more than one gene
    • Traits show wide variation
    • Ex – human height, IQ, bell pepper colors

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