By Marie Michelle Glemaud Luis Montero Pam Davis Professor: Dr. M. Fahringer 07/15/06 EEX 502 Speech And Language Self-Exploration In Language Development Language And Culture
Schedule of the Day
Scene on Dialect
Culture and Language
Language and culture are at the core of all human society.
language is a primary boundary marker for all cultures.
Language becomes a flag proclaiming one's identity.
Through language, human beings:
Generate collective meanings, actions, thoughts, feelings, social organization.
Express information, ideas, and emotions.
Language is an endlessly creative vehicle for self expression, group expression, and entertainment.
Dialect is a variant of a particular language
It shares most of the features of the main language but different in pronunciation, vocabulary, and/or stylistic features.
The types of Dialects
Is a pattern of language use peculiar to
geographical area and its occupants.
Variantions in regional dialect can be so great
that it can cause difficulty for speakers and
listeners to communicate easily.
Regional Dialects in the United States There are five original coastal centers from which most American dialects developed: Boston, Philadelphia, Tidewater Virginia, Charleston and New Orleans. By the end of the nineteenth century there were almost no foreign born residents in the South, but the Northern dialects were further enriched by other cultures which shaped their dialects.
Type of Dialects cont.
Ways of speaking that are associated with
A particular social group.
There are Two types of Social Dialects
1. Black English
2. Standard American English.
Black English Dialect
Associated with African-American Speakers.
Uses by inner city, low-socioecomic-status, young African-Americans.
Characterized by differences in phonology, syntax and pragmatics as well as in aspect of conversation discourse.
Standard American English
is one spoken by highly educated people in
A phenomenon in which people switch
from one language or one dialect to
Bilangualism is the ability to understand and
use two languages.
The kinds of childhood bilanguality
Infant bilanguality: both language are spoken to the child beginning in early infancy.
2. Early childhood bilanguality: is when one language is poke at home but child get exposed to a second language in the community and in school.
3. The third type is when the child acquires a second language only after beginning school.
STay tune for the next part Thank you! Stay tune for the next part present to you by Mr. Luis Montero
APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT By Luis Montero
TO KNOW ABOUT THE CHILD’S SKILLS IN ENGLISH
TO IDENTIFY THOSE CHILDREN WHO
HAVE SIGNIFICANT LEARNING AND/OR
PROVISIONS OF IDEA (Public Law 101-476)
Testing must be:
conducted in the child’s native language
Designed so that it examines the area tested rather than the child’s communication skills in English
Why IDEA Not Followed
People disagree about cultural bias
Shortage of appropriate assessment materials
Shortage of personnel
Recommendations for Assessment
Consider the abilities and the background knowledge of the child being tested
Baca and Almanza (1991) recommend
consideration of the following factors:
Step 2: Parent interview
Step 3: Assessment of language proficiency
Step 4: Determine the language for assessment
Step 5: Analyze child’s native language abilities.
Step 6: Assess English language skills
Step 7: Summarize the results and
The Assessment cont.
Standardized Tests of Language Proficiency for ESL Students
Basic Inventory of Natural Language
(CHECpoint Systems, 1979); for K-12
Assesses Spanish and 31 other languages.
Language sample is scored for fluency, complexity, and average sentence length.
Bilingual Syntax Measure I and II
(Psychological Corp, 1980); for pre-K—12
Assesses Spanish and English
Tests expressive syntax (rules of grammar)
The goal of competence in English
Two types of language skills (Cummins)
Basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS)
May take 1-2 years to develop
Cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP)
Takes 5-7 years to develop
Able to use English in academic tasks
Danger of transferring kids too early
Government policies that ignore research
Curriculum that is geared toward white, middle-class values and experiences
Shortage of professionals who share the language and culture of ESL students.
STay tune for the next part Thank you! Stay tune for the next part present to you by Ms. Pam Davis
Students with Limited English Proficiency and Special Needs
Problems in learning and/or socializing
Learning or developmentally disabled
Have language and culture differences
Discriminated because of their race and/or social class
Prevalence LEP and Special Needs
Biggest challenge to educators is appropriate identification
Students are over identified and under identified
Children from language minority groups are over represented in special education classes
English as a second language (ESL)
Traditional bilingual education
Structured English immersion strategy (SEIS)
Instruction for children with LEP
Literacy Development of Second-Language Learners
Create a literate classroom environment
Encourage collaborative learning
Utilize oral and written personal narratives
Utilize dialogic writing
Utilize predictable books
Include opportunities for self-selecting reading
Include literacy development as part of content study
Instructional program for language-minority students
Researchers suggest that the following constructs be included
6. Collaborative/coop-erative learning
Techniques for second-language acquisition sheltered English
Respect for cultural diversity
Approaches for students with dialect differences
approach to instruction is the belief that dialects interfere with the child’s ability to achieve success in the mainstream society. Formal instruction is necessary.
approach respect dialect differences and the
development of language skills in child’s
Instruction for students Dialect Differences
Provide students with opportunities to develop and practice standard English while continuing to use their dialect.
Using contrastive analysis where students are given examples of nonstandard and standard English forms for communicating.
Children are taught to analyze and recognize the differences between the two dialects.
Instructions for students with language disorders and language differences
Culturally and linguistically different exceptional (CLDE) students
The bilingual support model
The coordinated service model
The integrated bilingual special education model
Lift eye brows
Blink one eye
Nod head up and down repeatedly
Turn head side to side repeatedly
Hold hand up and repeatedly move fingers up and down
10. Rub hand to chin
11. Rub hand to forehead
Activity continue 12. Hold hand up. Use index finger. Move finger back and forth repeatedly. 13. Extend arm out. Open hand with all fingers spread out and fingers pointed up with the back of your hand facing you. signal 14. Smile 15. hand jive: Giving five 16. Frown 17. One thumb up 18. Shoulder Shrug 19. Handshake 20. Lick tongue around and around on bottom and top lips.