EEX 501 Assessment chap 8, 9


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EEX 501 Assessment chap 8, 9

  1. 1. Validity Chapter 8
  2. 2. Validity <ul><li>Definition: appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of the specific inference that can be made on the basis of observation </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of validating test inferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content validity: test’s items actually represent the domain it measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion related validity:extent to which a person’s performance can be estimated from the performance on the assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct validity: extent to which a test measures a theoretical trait (IQ) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Validity <ul><li>Factors affecting generalizability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: upper limits of a test’s validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All valid tests are reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable tests are not valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable tests may or may not be valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid procedures measure the traits they are designed to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematic bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method used to measure a skill or trait is often believed to affect what score a child will receive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A true score can be considered a composite of trait variance and method of measurement variance </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Responsibility for Valid Assessment <ul><li>Valid use of assessment procedures is the responsibility of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The user of the assessment process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity is the only technical characteristic of a assessment in which we are interested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We must know whether inferences drawn from an assessment are accurate </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Adapting Tests to Accommodate Student with Disabilities Chapter 9
  6. 6. Concerns about Testing Adaptations <ul><li>Changes in student population </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in educational standards </li></ul><ul><li>Need for accurate measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards apply to all students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting or modifying assessment measures </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Factors affecting Accurate Assessment <ul><li>Ability to understand the assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to respond to assessment stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of the norm group </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to curriculum being tested </li></ul><ul><li>Legal considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Current practice decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for participation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Testing Accommodations <ul><li>Current practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Braille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape recorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnifying glass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student’s native language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make accommodations so that purpose of testing is not impaired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make normative comparisons </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Making Entitlement Decisions Chapter 16
  10. 10. Rationale for Entitlement <ul><li>Lack of academic success </li></ul><ul><li>No-fault failure </li></ul><ul><li>Political action </li></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with the criteria </li></ul>
  11. 11. Entitlements <ul><li>Special services </li></ul><ul><li>Different outcome expectancies </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural safeguards </li></ul><ul><li>Special fiscal arrangements </li></ul>
  12. 12. Determining Eligibility for Services <ul><ul><li>Official exceptionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific learning disability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional disturbance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech or language impairment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual impairment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deafness and hard of hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orthopedic impairments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other health impaired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deaf-blindness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple disabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental delayed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Determining Eligibility for Services <ul><li>Establishing educational need </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing exceptionality </li></ul><ul><li>Process of determining exceptionality </li></ul>
  14. 14. Assessment of Intelligence: Overview Chapter 17
  15. 15. Intelligence Tests as Samples of Behavior <ul><li>Assess a student’s capacity to profit from instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Samples behavior from a larger domain of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>One can not possibly assess every item in a domain </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effect of Pupil Characteristics on Assessment of Intelligence <ul><li>Acculturation is the most important characteristics to consider in evaluating performance on IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation refers to an individual’s particular set of background experiences and opportunities to learn </li></ul>
  17. 17. Behaviors Sampled by Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Motor behavior </li></ul><ul><li>General Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Induction </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Detail Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Analogical Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern Completion </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dilemmas in Current Practice <ul><li>Currently marked by controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding what that test assesses </li></ul>
  19. 19. Assessment Of Intelligence: Individual Tests <ul><li>Chapter 18 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Why do We give Individual Intelligence Tests? <ul><li>General intelligence tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford-Binet (SB) 4th edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weschler Scales (WAIS,WISC,WPPSI,WASI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Assessment System </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Comprehensive Tests of Nonverbal Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Leiter International </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Non-verbal Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test </li></ul><ul><li>Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test </li></ul>