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CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
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CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER

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  • 1. Classification Matter Has mass and takes up space Mixture Variable Composition Substance Define composition Compound Two or more kinds of atoms Element One kind of atom Heterogeneous Unevenly mixed Homogeneous Evenly mixed
  • 2. States of Matter
    • Atoms are in constant motion
    • The rate at which atoms or molecules in a substance move determines its state
  • 3. Solution Process
    • A mixture is formed by two or more
    • elements or compounds that are physically
    • mixed together but not chemically joined.
    • example: salt and pepper
    • Mixture can be:
    Homogeneous Evenly mixed Heterogeneous Unevenly mixed
  • 4. The Two Types of Mixture
    • S olution is a homogeneous mixture in which
    • one substances is dissolved in another
    • substance.
    Solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved Solute is the substance dissolved in the solution . When sugar, a solute and water a solvent are mixed, a water sugar solution is formed.
  • 5.
    • Suspension is a mixture of water with non-dissolve material Example sand and water
    The Two Types of Mixture (Cont.)
  • 6.
    • Solute is the substance dissolved in the solution
      • Particles may be ions, atoms, or molecules
    • Solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved
  • 7. Solubility
    • Solubility is the amount of a substance that can dissolve in 100 grams of solvent at a given time.
  • 8. Solubility
    • The ability of a solvent to dissolve a solute depends on temperature and molecular structure.
    • Like dissolve like:
    • When the temperature of a liquid increases, The solubility of the solvent increases.
  • 9. pH Scale
    • logarithmic scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions(H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution.
    • ranges from 0 to 14
  • 10. The pH Scale
    • The purpose of the pH scale is to provide a measure of acidity and basicity.
    • Ph scale ranges from 0 -14
  • 11. Acids
    • Acid formed H+ ions in solution. It has a pH less than 7
    • Number of hydronium ions in solutions is greater than the number of hydroxide ions
    • HCl (Hydrochloric Acid)  H + + Cl
    • It has a sour taste
    • Reactivity with metal.
    • Turned blue litmus paper red.
  • 12. Bases
    • Base forms OH- ions in solution. It has a pH greater than 7.
    • Number of hydroxide ions in solution is greater than the number of hydronium ions
        • NaOH  Na + + OH -
        • They have a bitter taste
        • Turn red litmus paper blue.
  • 13.
    • the lower the pH the stronger the acid
    • the higher the pH the stronger the base
    • pH 7.0 is neutral