Biology Scientific Method

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  • 1. Scientific Method
    • The scientific method is a series of steps taken during an experiment in order to solve a problem.
  • 2. Why is the Scientific Method Important?
    • Continuity
    • Communication within the scientific community
    1
  • 3. Steps of the Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • State the problem
    • Form a hypothesis
    • Experiment
    • Results/Data
    • Analysis
    2
  • 4. Observations
    • Qualitative observation
      • Focus on the qualities of an object.
      • Ex. Color of an object
    • Quantitative observation
      • Characteristics of an object that can be measured.
      • Ex. Mass, Length
    3
  • 5. State the Problem
    • This problem or question is formed from your observations.
    • This is the question you as the scientist want answered.
    • Also called the “purpose”.
    4
  • 6. Form a Hypothesis
    • The hypothesis is a testable explanation to your problem.
    • “ Educated Guess” is not enough. You must be able to test your explanation.
    5
  • 7. Experiment
    • Design an experiment that tests your hypothesis.
    • Control Group: test variables are kept constant
    • “ Normal Conditions”
    • Experimental Group: variables are changed
    6
  • 8. Variables
    • Variables – anything that changes throughout the experiment.
    • There are two types of variables:
      • Independent variable – the change that the experimenter controls.
      • Dependent variable – the change that is measured.
  • 9. Results/Analysis
    • Results
      • This section includes all of the data and information collected.
      • How do you present your data?
    • Analysis
      • The data is explained and the process is wrapped up.
    7
  • 10. OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Uncovered jars Covered jars Several days pass Maggots appear No maggots appear Responding Variable: whether maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur. Redi’s experiment Spontaneous Generation – Life arises from non- living things
  • 11. 06/08/09 Gravy is boiled . Flask is open. Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Gravy is boiled . Flask is sealed. Gravy is free of microorganisms . Section 1-2 Figure 1-10 Spallanzani’s Experiment Spallanzani’s Experiment Theory not supported “vital force in air was killed”
  • 12. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Pasteur intro Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Pasteur’s Experiment Pasteur changed 1 variable in the experiment – he used a curved neck flask
  • 13. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment The curved neck of the flask allowed air to mix in the jar but not bacteria
  • 14. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment
  • 15. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Once the neck was removed bacteria entered and spoiled the broth
  • 16. Assessment
    • Active Art Redi and Pasteur Assesment