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Biology Scientific Method
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Biology Scientific Method

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Scientific Method
      • The scientific method is a series of steps taken during an experiment in order to solve a problem.
    • 2. Why is the Scientific Method Important?
      • Continuity
      • Communication within the scientific community
      1
    • 3. Steps of the Scientific Method
      • Observation
      • State the problem
      • Form a hypothesis
      • Experiment
      • Results/Data
      • Analysis
      2
    • 4. Observations
      • Qualitative observation
        • Focus on the qualities of an object.
        • Ex. Color of an object
      • Quantitative observation
        • Characteristics of an object that can be measured.
        • Ex. Mass, Length
      3
    • 5. State the Problem
      • This problem or question is formed from your observations.
      • This is the question you as the scientist want answered.
      • Also called the “purpose”.
      4
    • 6. Form a Hypothesis
      • The hypothesis is a testable explanation to your problem.
      • “ Educated Guess” is not enough. You must be able to test your explanation.
      5
    • 7. Experiment
      • Design an experiment that tests your hypothesis.
      • Control Group: test variables are kept constant
      • “ Normal Conditions”
      • Experimental Group: variables are changed
      6
    • 8. Variables
      • Variables – anything that changes throughout the experiment.
      • There are two types of variables:
        • Independent variable – the change that the experimenter controls.
        • Dependent variable – the change that is measured.
    • 9. Results/Analysis
      • Results
        • This section includes all of the data and information collected.
        • How do you present your data?
      • Analysis
        • The data is explained and the process is wrapped up.
      7
    • 10. OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Uncovered jars Covered jars Several days pass Maggots appear No maggots appear Responding Variable: whether maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur. Redi’s experiment Spontaneous Generation – Life arises from non- living things
    • 11. 06/08/09 Gravy is boiled . Flask is open. Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Gravy is boiled . Flask is sealed. Gravy is free of microorganisms . Section 1-2 Figure 1-10 Spallanzani’s Experiment Spallanzani’s Experiment Theory not supported “vital force in air was killed”
    • 12. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Pasteur intro Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Pasteur’s Experiment Pasteur changed 1 variable in the experiment – he used a curved neck flask
    • 13. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment The curved neck of the flask allowed air to mix in the jar but not bacteria
    • 14. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment
    • 15. Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Once the neck was removed bacteria entered and spoiled the broth
    • 16. Assessment
      • Active Art Redi and Pasteur Assesment

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