MATTER NOW LETS DISCOVER MATTER AS MIXTURES THUS FAR WE HAVE REVIEWED MATTER AS PURE SUBSTANCES. PURE SUBSTANCE ELEMENT COMPOUND Carbon (C) H 2 O MIXTURE ?
Classification Matter Has mass and takes up space Mixture Variable Composition Substance Define composition Compound Two or more kinds of atoms Element One kind of atom Heterogeneous Unevenly mixed Homogeneous Evenly mixed
Classifying mixtures The two types of Mixtures : 2) HETEROGENEOUS 1) HOMOGENEOUS Homogeneous Evenly mixed Heterogeneous Unevenly mixed Mixture is formed by two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically joined. example: salt and pepper
The Two Types of Mixture
1. S olution is a homogeneous mixture in which
one substances is dissolved in another
substance. It consists of a solute and solvent.
Solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved Solute is the substance dissolved in the solution . When sugar, a solute and water a solvent are mixed, a water sugar solution is formed.
2. Suspension is a mixture of water with non-dissolve material
Example sand and water
The Two Types of Mixture (Cont.)
Solute is the substance dissolved in the solution
Particles may be ions, atoms, or molecules
Solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved
Mixtures Summary Heterogeneous Mixture (Suspension) Homogeneous Mixture (Solution) Not evenly mixed Evenly mixed Individual components retain their own properties Properties of combined components are usually different than those of each component Individual components can be easily seen Individual components can not be easily seen Can be easily separated Not as easily separated Ex.: salt & pepper mix, rocks, cereal, bag of assorted candy Ex. salt-water solution, tea, kool-Aid drink
Solubility is the amount of a substance that
can dissolve in 100 grams of
solvent at a given time.
The ability of a solvent to dissolve a solute depends on temperature and molecular structure.
Like dissolve like:
When the temperature of a liquid increases, The solubility of the solvent increases.
Classifying Matter Matter Pure Substances Mixtures Elements Compounds Homogeneous Heterogeneous He, O H 2 O, NaCl Tea, kool-aid Rocky Road ice cream, muddy water Review: How matter is classified
OJ with pulp
Practice Problems 1. He 2. Ho 3. Ho 4. He 5. He 6. Ho 7. He 8. He 9. He 10. Ho 6. Tea 7. Banana nut bread 8. Pizza 9. Blood 10. Brass Determine whether each is a heterogeneous or homogeneous mixture: Answers: Return to index
Classify the following substances as: Pure substance, heterogeneous mixture, or homogeneous mixture Return to index More review Gatorade Homogenous mixture Fruit Loops Heterogeneous mixture Pure substance Gasoline Dirt Heterogeneous mixture Sugar Crystals Pure Substance Air Homogeneous mixture Granite Heterogeneous mixture
We are studying CHEMISTRY, the study of ________and how it ________.
Matter is anything that has___ and takes up ___.
___ are the basic building blocks of matter.
Matter can be classified as either a ___ or a ___.
Substances are either ___ or ___.
REVIEW 1. matter, changes 2. mass, space 3. atoms 4. pure substance, mixture 5. elements, compounds Return to index Answers:
MATTER AS MIXTURES
Mixtures are combinations of 2 or more substances where each substance retains its individual properties.
HOW ARE MIXTURES DIFFERENT FROM COMPOUNDS? HOW ARE MIXTURES LIKE COMPOUNDS? THEY ARE MADE FROM TWO OR MORE SUBSTANCES MIXTURES DO NOT FORM CHEMICAL BONDS.
HOMOGENEOUS … a mixture that is the same throughout. A homogeneous mixture has a composition and properties that are identical regardless of the sample Ways to identify a homogeneous mixture: A SOLUTION is another name for a homogeneous mixture is
won’t settle out
HETEROGENEOUS … a mixture that is visibly different throughout. Heterogenous mixtures have a composition and properties that differ in any given sample. is Ways to identify a homogeneous mixture:
not uniformly mixed
more than one phase
will settle out
There are special types of heterogeneous mixtures:
Suspensions-appear uniform when mixed but settle out.
Oil & Vinegar dressing
Colloids-appear uniform but they do not settle out. However, their particles are too large to be classified as a homogeneous solution.
Made of either elements or compounds that are chemically bonded.
Cannot be separated by physical means.
When combined they take on new properties different from the original elements.
Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6
Table Salt: NaCl
Oxygen Gas: O 2
Carbon Dioxide CO 2
Two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined.
Tea = Crushed Leaf + H 2 O
Rocks = minerals + sediments + organic matter
Sugar Water = Sugar + H 2 O
Each component retains its own identity; it does not change into something else.
Can be separated by physical means
Air (O 2 , N 2 , CO 2 , Ar)
Now, lets put it all together and determine how to tell substances (compounds and elements) from mixtures .
Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Two of the descriptions to the right apply to each bottle below. Determine the appropriate descriptions .
Two types of atoms evenly mixed
Two types of atoms chemically combined
One type of atom
Two types of atoms mixed
2_______ 1_______ 3_______ 4_______ d & h b & g c & e a & f Return to Index hydrogen atoms oxygen atoms hydrogen atoms