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# Biology metricsystemscientificnotation

## by MG MBSH on May 14, 2011

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Biology metricsystemscientificnotation

Biology metricsystemscientificnotation

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## Biology metricsystemscientificnotationPresentation Transcript

• Metric System & Scientific Notation
• Measuring with Scientific Units
• ● Most scientists use the metric system when collecting data and performing experiments
• The metric system is a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards.
• The abbreviation SI comes from the French
• SI =Le Système International d’unités
• What makes up the metric system?
• Prefixes plus base units make up the metric system
• Example:
• Centi + meter = Centimeter
• Kilo + liter = Kiloliter
•
• Metric System
• The three prefixes that we will use the most are:
• Kilo= 1000
• centi = 1/100 (one hundredth)
• milli= 1/1000 (one thousandth)
• How do you remember all of them?
• Mnemonic:
• K ing H enry D oesn’t M ind D rinking c hocolate m ilk
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
•
• Typical Metric Units
• What metric unit would you use to measure the length of the room?
• What metric unit would you use to measure your weight?
• What metric unit would you use to measure the amount of liquid in a soda bottle?
• What unit would you use to measure the amount of liquid in an eye dropper?
meter liter gram liter
• Metric System
• These prefixes are based on powers of 10. What does this mean?
• From each prefix every “step” is either:
• 10 times larger
• or
• 10 times smaller
• For example
• Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters
• 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Metric System
• Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters so it takes more millimeters for the same length
• 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
• Example not to scale
1 cm 40 41 41 40 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm
• Metric System
• For each “step” to right, you are multiplying by 10
• For example, let’s go from a base unit to centi
• 1 liter = 10 deciliters = 100 centiliters
• 2 grams = 20 decigrams = 200 centigrams
( 1 x 10 = 10) = (10 x 10 = 100) (2 x 10 = 20) = (20 x 10 = 200) Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Metric System
• An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each “step” desired
• Example: change meters to centimeters
• 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters
• or
• 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100. centimeters
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Metric System
• Now let’s try our previous example from meters to kilometers:
• 16093 meters = 1609.3 decameters = 160.93 hectometers = 16.093 kilometers
• So for every “step” from the base unit to kilo, we moved the decimal 1 place to the left (the same direction as in the diagram below)
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Metric System
• If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left
• If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Metric System
• Now let’s start from centimeters and convert to kilometers
• 400000 centimeters = ? kilometers
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Metric System
• Now let’s start from meters and convert to centimeters
• 5 meters = ? centimeters
• Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to meters
• .3 kilometers = ? meters
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000) Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Metric System
• Summary
• Base units in the metric system are meter, liter, gram
• Metric system is based on powers of 10
• For conversions within the metric system, each “step” is 1 decimal place to the right or left
• Using the diagram below, converting to the right, moves the decimal to the right and vice versa
Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
• Solve each of the following
• 1kilogram(kg)=________ grams (g)
• 2) 1 cm = _________meter (m)
• 3) 10 decimeter (d) = _________m
• 4) 1000 milliters(ml) = ________liter (l)
• 5) 1000 m= _________ kilometer (km)
• 6) 5kg = __________gram
• Lab
• 1) Making Metric Measurements
• In the investigation students will review SI units for measuring length, liquid volume, and mass.
• They will also learn how to use some common laboratory equipments used for measuring.
• 2)Measuring and Graphing
• Develop measuring skills using balance and metric ruler
• Interpret your data using graphing skills and
• Determine the relationship between the mass, length, and number of coins in a roll.
•
• Scientific Notation
• Scientific notation is a way of expressing really big numbers or really small numbers.
• For very large and very small numbers, scientific notation is more concise.
• Scientific Notation always has two parts:
• A number between 1 and 9.9999…
• A power of 10
• N x 10 x
• Writing Scientific Notation
• Place the decimal point so that there is one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal point.
• Count the number of decimal places the decimal point has “moved” from the original number. This will be the exponent on the 10.
• If the original number was less than 1, then the exponent is negative. If the original number was greater than 1, then the exponent is positive.
• Example:
• Given: 289,800,000
• Decimal needs to move 8 places to the right
• Answer: 2.898 x 10 8
• Try this:
• Given: 0.000567
• Decimal needs to move: