Biology cell structure function


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Biology cell structure function

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Biology cell structure function

  1. 1. Cell Structure & Function
  2. 2. Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are made up of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from pre-existing cells through cell division. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  4. 4. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  5. 5. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  6. 6. Two Types of Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1 2 Prokaryotes Cell membrane Cytoplasm
  8. 8. Prokaryotic <ul><li>They are the simplest form of life. </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not have structures surrounded by membranes (organelles) </li></ul><ul><li>Few internal structures </li></ul><ul><li>They are unicellular _( One-celled organisms). </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bacteria </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>are the most complex form of life. </li></ul><ul><li>They have nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Contain organelles surrounded by membranes </li></ul><ul><li>They are multicellular organisms (composed of many cells). </li></ul><ul><li>Most living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: animals and plants. </li></ul>Eukaryotic
  10. 10. Common Characteristics <ul><li>All cells are surrounded by a barrier called the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>They contain the molecule that carries biological information-DNA </li></ul>
  11. 11. Eukaryotic Plant Animal
  12. 12. Compare and contrast Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Differences Prokaryote Differences Eukaryote Similarity
  13. 13. “ Typical” Animal Cell
  14. 14. “ Typical” Plant Cell
  15. 15. Differentia between animal and plant cells
  16. 16. Cell Parts Organelles CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
  17. 17. ORGANELLES <ul><li>Cytoplasm lies between the cell membrane and nucleus and contains the organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosol is a gelatin like aqueous fluid that contains salts, minerals and organic molecules </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mitochondria <ul><li>Sites of chemical reactions that transfer energy from organic compounds to ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ATP- main energy source for cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells with high energy requirements have more mitochondria ex: muscle and liver cells </li></ul><ul><li>Have 2 membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth outer membrane serves as a boundary between the mitochondria and the cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Inner membrane has many folds called Cristae – they enlarge the surface area for more chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Have their own DNA ( for reproduction) </li></ul>They are called the “ POWER HOUSE” of the cell
  19. 19. Ribosomes <ul><li>Most numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Not surrounded by a membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of proteins and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA is packaged into the ribosomes then transported to the cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Some ribosomes are free </li></ul><ul><li>Some are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Protein is synthesized (produced) in the ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins to be used in the cytosol – free ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins to be exported or inserted in the cell membrane – ribosomes on the ER </li></ul>
  20. 20. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>System of membranous tubules and sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular Highway – molecules move from one part of the cell to another </li></ul><ul><li>2 types – rough and smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Rough covered by ribosomes – prominent in cells that make large amounts of proteins to be exported from the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth – no ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of steriods in gland cells </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of calcium in muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown of toxic substances in liver cells </li></ul>
  21. 21. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Processing, packaging and secreting organlle </li></ul><ul><li>System of membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Series of flattened sacs with convex shape </li></ul><ul><li>Works with the ER to modify proteins </li></ul>
  22. 22. LYSOSOMES <ul><li>Small spherical organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Enclose hydrolytic enzymes within single membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Digest old organelles, bacterias, viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Rare in plant cells </li></ul>
  23. 23. CYTOSKELETON <ul><li>Maintains the shape and size of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Network of long protein strands </li></ul><ul><li>Not surrounded by a membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in the movement of organelles </li></ul><ul><li>2 major components – microfilaments and microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments – threads made of actin (protein) – smallest strands </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules – largest strands that are hollow tubes – help the cell divide by forming spindle fibers that extend across the cell </li></ul>
  24. 24. CILIA AND FLAGELLA <ul><li>Hairlike organelles that extend from the surface of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in movement </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia – short and present in large numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella – long and less numerous </li></ul>
  25. 25. Nucleus <ul><li>Most prominent structure </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains its shape with a protein skeleton called the nuclear matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Double membrane – nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the envelope – chromation (DNA & protein) </li></ul><ul><li>When the cell is about to divide it forms the chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Stores hereitary information in its DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA is copied from DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA travels from nucleus to the cytosol through small holes in the envelope – nuclear pores </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the nucleolus – the site where ribosomes are synthesized </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nucleolus <ul><li>Inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Contains RNA to build proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Site where ribosome are synthesized </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cell Wall <ul><li>Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Supports & protects cells </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chloroplast <ul><li>Usually found in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Contains green chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Where photosynthesis takes place </li></ul>
  29. 29. Label the parts of the cell http://
  30. 30. Cytoplasm
  31. 31. Ans. The cell structure and function <ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle and liver 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Crytal </li></ul><ul><li>Cristae </li></ul><ul><li>They enlarge the surface area for more </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic rediculum </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Produced </li></ul>Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Hyghway Rought and smooth Ribosome Protein steroids
  32. 32. Ans. <ul><li>Fedex, DHL </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosome </li></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeloeton </li></ul><ul><li>Shape and size </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilament & microtubule </li></ul><ul><li>Spindel fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Cilial and Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelop </li></ul><ul><li>DNE and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Heridity </li></ul>Nucleus Nuclear envelop DNE and protein Heridity Nuleoulus Ribosome
  33. 35. <ul><li>Name: ___________ Date :_____ 1/12/11 </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz: cell structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice 1-22 </li></ul><ul><li>No note can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Color and label parts of cell: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal and plant cells </li></ul>
  34. 36. ANIMAL CELL
  35. 37. PLANT CELL
  36. 43. The Human Cheek Cell http://
  37. 44. The Human Cheek Cell <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Methylene blue </li></ul><ul><li>Toothpick </li></ul><ul><li>Slide </li></ul><ul><li>Cover slide </li></ul>
  38. 45. The Human Cheek Cell Procedure <ul><li>1. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Caution: methylene blue will stain clothes and skin. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a toothpick. Scrape lightly. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Stir the end of the toothpick into the stain and throw the toothpick away. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Place a cover slip onto the slide </li></ul><ul><li>5. Use the SCANNING objective to focus. You probably will not see the cells at this power. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Switch to low power. Cells should be visible, but they will be small and look like nearly clear purplish blobs. If you are looking at something dark purple, it is probably not a cell </li></ul><ul><li>7. Once you think you have located a cell, switch to high power and refocus.(Remember, do NOT use the coarse adjustment knob at this point) </li></ul>
  39. 46. The Human Cheek Cell Low High Sketch Scanning --- Sketch the cell at low and high power. Label the nucleus , cytoplasm , and cell membrane . Draw your cells to scale.
  40. 47. The Human Cheek Cell Questions <ul><li>1.  This cell is which cell type? </li></ul><ul><li>A. animal B. plant C. prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>2.  The shape of this cell, overall, is: </li></ul><ul><li>A. round B. rectangular C. other </li></ul><ul><li>3. What stain did you use to see this cell type? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What material does this particular stain reveal? </li></ul><ul><li>5.  Which organelles were apparent in this cell? </li></ul><ul><li>A. nucleus B. chloroplast C. central vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>6. Which cells are larger? </li></ul><ul><li>A. cheek B. bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>7. Is the cheek cell a eukaryote or prokaryote? How do you know? </li></ul><ul><li>8. Cheek cells do not move on their own, so you will not find two organelles that function for cell movement. Name these organelles. </li></ul>
  41. 48. The Human Cheek Cell Questions <ul><li>1. Why is methylene blue necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cheek cells do not move on their own, so you will not find two organelles that function for cell movement. Name these organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The light microscope used in the lab is not powerful enough to view other organelles in the cheek cell. What parts of the cell were visible? </li></ul><ul><li>4. List 2 organelles that were NOT visible but should have been in the cheek cell. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Is the cheek cell a eukaryote or prokaryote? How do you know </li></ul><ul><li>6. Keeping in mind that the mouth is the first site of chemical digestion in a human. Your saliva starts the process of breaking down the food you eat. Keeping this in mind, what organelle do you think would be numerous inside the cells of your mouth? </li></ul>
  42. 49. Surrounding the Cell
  43. 50. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Double layer </li></ul>
  44. 51. Inside the Cell
  45. 52. Nucleus <ul><li>Directs cell activities </li></ul><ul><li>Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contains genetic material - DNA </li></ul>
  46. 53. Nuclear Membrane <ul><li>Surrounds nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of two layers </li></ul><ul><li>Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus </li></ul>
  47. 54. Chromosomes <ul><li>In nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contain instructions for traits & characteristics </li></ul>
  48. 55. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Gel-like mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contains hereditary material </li></ul>
  49. 56. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Moves materials around in cell </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth type: lacks ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface </li></ul>
  50. 57. Ribosomes <ul><li>Each cell contains thousands </li></ul><ul><li>Make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell </li></ul>
  51. 58. Mitochondria <ul><li>Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Controls level of water and other materials in cell </li></ul><ul><li>Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates </li></ul>
  52. 59. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Protein 'packaging plant' </li></ul><ul><li>Move materials within the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Move materials out of the cell </li></ul>
  53. 60. Lysosome <ul><li>Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal </li></ul><ul><li>Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes </li></ul>
  54. 61. Vacuoles <ul><li>Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal </li></ul><ul><li>Contains water solution </li></ul><ul><li>Help plants maintain shape </li></ul>
  55. 62. CELL WALL <ul><li>Lies outside of the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Helps support and protect the plant cell </li></ul><ul><li>Contains long chains of cellulose – hardens the entire structure </li></ul><ul><li>Pores in the cell wall allow ions to enter or exit the cell </li></ul>VACUOLES <ul><li>Fluid filled organelles that store enzymes and metabolic wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Some vacuoles may make up 90% of the cell </li></ul>
  56. 63. Chloroplast <ul><li>Surrounded by 2 membranes and contain DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Some store starch or fats </li></ul><ul><li>Some contain pigments that absorb visible light – chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Chloroplasts – energy of sunlight is converted into chemical energy each chloroplast encloses a system of membranous sacs called thylakoids </li></ul>
  57. 64. INTERACTIVE ACTIVITY <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// (label) </li></ul><ul><li> (Quiz) </li></ul><ul><li> (note) </li></ul><ul><li> (Prok vs Euk.) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
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