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  1. 1. 96 Waysto Teach and Learn Suggestions using Multiple Intelligences Alice Macpherson Allen Stevens
  2. 2. 96 Ways of Learning (or Teaching) Anything Using Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences “The process is often as important as the content.” – anon.These suggestions will fit in more than one category and they are by no meanscomprehensive. The lists are arranged alphabetically.Verbal/LinguisticAnalyzing Life Experience – Learning from the analysis of a significant life experience with others.Formal Debate – Learning by putting forward arguments from both sides of an issue, concern or question.Group Discussion – Learning by verbal interaction with other learners.Humour – Learning from looking at situations from new or surprising points of view.Impromptu Presentation – Learning by giving or listening to impromptu presentations on a variety of topics.Lecture – Learning by listening to experts. Most common method of learning in education and one of the least effective as measured by enduring effect.Metaphor – Learning from pictures or stories that symbolically depict new ideas and concepts. The most used method of Jesus Christ in biblical teachings is through parable.Poetry – Learning by reading or creating a variety of poem and prose forms.Question/Answer – Learning from question-answer sessions with instructors or other learners.Reading – Learning by reading books, pamphlets, magazines and other printed material.Storytelling – Learning by listening to, telling or talking about stories or narratives.Writing – Learning by writing down experiences of self and others including creative writing, journalism, documenting historical facts, etc.Logical/MathematicalAbstract Symbols and Formulas – Learning through deciphering and extrapolation of symbolic representations of phenomena. Includes codes, calculations, number sequences, etc.Behaviour Modification – Learning by using a planned stimulus-response effort of reward and consequences. This method works better in training animals than educating human beings, but is often found in many classrooms.Case Study and Problem Based Learning – Learning by solving problems or discussing life dilemmas based on real situations.
  3. 3. Classroom Seatwork – Learning from supervised study like doing the “questions at the end of the chapter.” Second most common method used in education. This method is often used for expediency rather than efficacy of the method.Deductive Method – Learning from planned presentations that reduce information to concrete conclusions and logical categories useful in high-level thinking. The deductive method uses an if-then approach to problem solving and learning.Demonstration – Learning by observing and analyzing an expert performance.Inductive Teaching/Learning Method-A method of learning that expands new information into categories and concepts and promotes intellectual reasoning and theory building.Laboratory Method – learning from experimentation using social or science research models as well as action research and experience,Logic – Learning through logical analysis of arguments, relationship and associations.Operant Conditioning – Learning from scientific teaching methods which connect new learning with immediate reward and consequences.Project Method – Learning from designing and executing individual or group projects as both development and demonstration of learning.Research – Learning from individual inquiry through social interviews, library research, or laboratory pursuits as in the experimental method of science.Visual/SpatialAudio-Visual – Learning from listening to radio, audio tape, or through instructional film or slide tape.Colour – Learning through the use of colour.Exhibitions – Learning by observing exemplary products or performance (like a museum, bulletin board, or display).Graphic Organizers – Learning through organizing information visually, including mind maps, graphs, tables, flow charts, etc.Models of Excellence – Learning from observing and emulating exemplary performance. What you do speaks so loudly I cant hear what you say. Learners can subtly model incompetence and mediocrity as well as excellence. “Example is not the best way to influence people, it is the only way.” – Albert SchweitzerPatterns / Designs – Learning from creating or recognizing patterns or designs within a product or situation.Pictures – Learning through visual representation including, photographs, video, drawing, painting, etc.Purposeful Redundancy – Learning from planned and repeated activity using multiple modes or sensory activities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic).Sculpture – Learning through the skills of creating or appreciating three dimensional 3
  4. 4. models and objects representing a variety of knowledge, concepts and attitudes.Super-Learning – Learning by using a series of new-brain research techniques that rely on subliminal sounds, sights, and pacing.Television – Learning from watching television. Like instructors or books, some television programs are more educating than others.Visualization – Learning from an individual mental process of visualizing new levels of performance or new ways of being ... may be similar to mental rehearsal or neuro linguistic programming.Body/KinestheticActive Practice – Learning from experiential activity in a safe, controlled situation such as a lab environment.Brain Based Learning – Learning by planned efforts based on new brain research by identifying the unique processing style of each learner (includes Neuro Linguistic Programming).Dance – Learning through the interpretive movement of dance in a variety of styles.Games – Learning in which players contend with each other according to a set of rules. May include popular games such as: Jeopardy and various card and board games that have been adapted for specific learning environment.Learning by Doing, Apprenticeship – Learning by physical practise of actual tasks with an expert. Includes: mechanics, surgery, martial arts, architecture, etc.Mastery Method – Learning through formal, planned process of accommodating learner uniqueness and adjusting time and method appropriately.Paradigm and Mind-Set-Shifts – Learning through organizing ideas or activities in a new context or a new model of reality or a shift in the perception of the learner.Performance – Learning from performance of a final product.Practice – Learning from performance. Practice makes better: providing the learner doesnt repeatedly practice incompetence and mediocrity.Simulations – Learning from simulations including socio-drama and role-play.Sports – Learning by engaging in competitive individual or group activities that emphasize body movement such as gymnastics, basketball, hockey, etc.Trance States and Hypnosis – Learning from self-hypnosis or externally induced trance states.Musical/RhythmicDrill and Repetition – Learning from repeated musical or rhythmic performance.Music Composition – Learning by creating music.Musical Appreciation – Learning by valuing the nuances of music.Rhythmic Patterns – Learning by hearing and identifying a variety of rhythmic patterns
  5. 5. under various circumstances, such as: mechanical patterns of sound and vibration, body rhythmic vital signs, etc.Setting Words to Music – Learning by associating concepts with music or rhythms as a memory aid, including songs, dub poetry, rap, etc.Sounds of Group Dynamics – Learning to identify sounds that characterize of stages of interactions, including: leadership, followership, teamwork, etc.Singing – Learning about cultural norms through singing.Playing Music – Learning about various cultures through their music such as ethnomusicology and other disciplines.Background sounds – Learning through using sounds to create a specific environment.Movement or Variation – Learning through the regular recurrence or alternation of different quantities or conditions such as the rhythm of the tides.Speech – Learning through the patterned, recurring alternations of contrasting elements of sound or speech.Communication Patterns – Learning through specific kinds of metrical patterns or flow of communication such as: iambic rhythm (written or spoken).InterpersonalSocratic – Learning from give-and-take interaction with a instructor or scholar.Coaching – Learning from an expert through feedback on performance and assistance to “correct-in-flight”.Mentoring – Learning from admired and competent models through observation and analysis. Mentoring is more effective if the learner respects the mentor.Testing as Teaching – Learning from assessment and performance feedback. Not all testing results in new learning.Teaching Others – Learning by teaching others or tutoring. One of the most effective and enduring methods. Research promises 90% retention of learning which the learner is required to teach to others.Cooperative Groups – Learning by participating in groups who assist each other and compete with other groups rather than individually. Cooperative groups use the concept of an athletic team as applied to new learning.Classroom Meeting Method – Learning by including a group of learners in making decisions about the (What?) and (How?) of learning.Peer Tutoring – Learning from planned efforts of tutoring and being tutored by peers. Similar to the cooperative group method and one of the most effective ways of learning if participants have prerequisite tutoring skills.Interviewing Experts – Learning by questioning experts about how they became expert.One-To-One Tutorial – Learning through individualized instruction is highly desirable but is often not practical or efficient as a method in education. 5
  6. 6. Giving and Receiving Feedback – Learning by the empathic and respectful exchange of information about a specific situation.Group Dynamics – Learning from the interaction of a group process like brainstorming, creative problem solving, and synergy.IntrapersonalAdvanced Organizer Model – Learning from planned instruction which recognizes the need for prior learning being linked and integrated with new learning. Most students understand clearly whats expected of them only after theyve failed to meet the expectations.Challenge Activity – Learning from a first-time or demanding life activity. One of the most enduring of all learning activities for reorganizing a learners perception of self and extending capacity for new action.Distributed Learning – Learning from specially constructed print, audiovisual, computer, Internet, etc. materials for self-instruction.Dream Learning – Learning during sleep or through the analysis of dream activities.Failure – Learning from analyzing your own life experience and correcting past mistakes. Learning from failure is easier in environments that value risk taking and failure at demanding tasks.Guided Imagery / Mental Rehearsal – Learning from planned activities that stimulate creativity and invention through free association and cluster thinking. This may also use mental practise as a rehearsal for life performance, applying a new skill or knowledge.Independent Study – Learning from an individual effort at mastery. Preferred by learners who consider themselves unique and distinctive or prefer working alone.Inquiry – Learning by initiating one’s own questions.Intuitive Insights and Psychic Experience – Learning from any combination of extra sensory perception or sudden intuitive insight. Occurs most often with right brain learners.Reflection – Learning from quiet thought and reflection and contemplation, which includes analysis of past experience or fantasy about the future. May also include meditation or spiritual practices.Self-Directed Learning – Learning by designing and directing ones own learning. 80% or 4/5 of all we learn is a result of self-initiated efforts rather than formal schooling.Self-Education – Learning from independently planned efforts using informal sources. Self-instruction is more engaging and enduring than other-directed learning.NaturalisticDiscovery Learning – Learning from informal experience and exploratory activities through trial and error in a variety of natural environments. The ah-hah reaction so essential in new learning often results from groping and exploring as an integral act
  7. 7. of learning.Field Trips – Learning by visiting the natural environment to learn in that context.Geomancy – Learning through analyzing the interactions of natural elements in a specific environment.Intuition – Learning from following non-systematic organization of information and feelings about natural situations.Nature Appreciation – Learning through awareness of natural surroundings.Observation – Learning by observing and describing patterns in the natural environment.Predicting – Learning by examining and then predicting futures trends or events from the natural world.Process Application – Learning by choosing and applying natural processes to various situations.Relationship Analysis – Learning by connecting the relationship between and among elements of the environment.Serendipity – Learning from life experiences through analyzing “the happy accidents of life”, including identifying the interconnections of various natural phenomena.Sorting and Classifying – Learning by exploring natural taxonomies.Travel – Learning from observing and experiencing natural environments. This is not the end. Invent and add your own favourite methods of learning. 7
  8. 8. Lesson Planning Checklist Using Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesBuilding MI strategies into each lessonVerbal/Linguistic Analyzing Life Experience. Formal Debate. Group Discussion Humour Impromptu Presentation Lecture Metaphor Poetry Question/Answer Reading Storytelling WritingLogical/Mathematical Abstract Symbols and Formulas Behaviour Modification Case Study and Problem Based Learning Classroom Seatwork Deductive Method Demonstration Inductive Teaching/Learning Method Laboratory Method Logic Operant Conditioning Project Method Research
  9. 9. Visual/Spatial Audio-Visual Colour Exhibitions Graphic Organizers Models of Excellence Patterns / Designs Pictures Purposeful Redundancy Sculpture Super-Learning Television VisualizationBody/Kinesthetic Active Practise Brain Based Learning Dance Experience Games Learning by Doing, Apprenticeship Mastery Method Paradigm and Mind-Set-Shifts Practice Simulations Sports Trance States and Hypnosis 9
  10. 10. Musical/Rhythmic Drill and Repetition Music Composition Musical Appreciation Rhythmic Patterns Setting Words to Music Sounds of Group Dynamics Singing Playing Music Background Sounds Movement or Variation Speech Communication PatternsInterpersonal Socratic Coaching Mentoring Testing as Teaching Teaching Others Cooperative Groups Classroom Meeting Method Peer Tutoring Interviewing Experts One-To-One Tutorial Giving and Receiving Feedback Group Dynamics
  11. 11. Intrapersonal Advanced Organizer Model Challenge Activity Distributed Learning Dream Learning Failure Guided Imagery / Mental Independent Study Inquiry Intuitive Insights and Psychic Experience Reflection Self-Directed Learning Self-EducationNaturalistic Discovery Learning Field Trips Geomancy Intuition Nature Appreciation Observation Predicting Process Application Relationship Analysis Serendipity Sorting and Classifying Travel 11
  12. 12. Lesson Plan: Date: Bridge-in: Learning Objective: Pre-Assessment: Materials: Participatory Learning for Multiple Intelligences: time Learner Activities Instructor Activities Lesson Aid Post-Assessment: Summary/Conclusion:Suggestion: plan the lesson in this order – Learning Objective, Post-test, Learner Activities, Instructor Activities, Bridge-In,Pre-test, Conclusion 12
  13. 13. LESSON PLAN TEMPLATELesson Plan: ABC101 Date: this timeBridge-in: Explains the value of the lesson to the learner. Provides motivation.Learning Objective: What the learner must do. The conditions under which it must be done. How well it must be done.Pre-Assessment: Identifies any prior knowledge and Materials: The equipment necessary to conduct thewhether or not the learner can already accomplish the lesson.objective.Participatory Learning for Multiple Intelligences:time Learner Activities Instructor Activities Lesson Aidmin What the learner does to actively learn What the Instructor does to materials or facilitate learning equipment usedPost-Assessment: To determine if the learner can demonstrate the skill described in the learning objective.Summary/Conclusion: Process and evaluate the lesson information and interaction. 13
  14. 14. Multiple Intelligences and Adult EducationTrends and Issues Alert No. 17 by Sandra Kerka(Websites updated June 2005)ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, 2000Howard Gardner and others have continued to expand on Gardners theory of multipleintelligences (MI), a broad range of abilities people use to learn, solve problems, andcreate. However, as Ferro (1999) discovered, most of the research, writing, and practicalapplications focus on K-12. Recent projects are extending MI to adult education. Shearer(1998), who developed an instrument for measuring MI, has published a version for adultsthat adds to the scales for the eight intelligences three assessments of intellectual style. In1996, the Adult Multiple Intelligences Project began the first systematic investigation of MIin adult literacy education. Action research projects by literacy teachers (chronicled inFocus on Basics 1999) formed the basis of a sourcebook of articles, lessons, andresearch reports to be published in 2001. Much of the work on MI for adults addressesthree areas:Adult literacy learners and adults with learning disabilities, who may have experiencedearly schooling failure by being labelled by earlier, more limited conceptions of intelligence(Christison and Kennedy 1999; Cohen 1997; Merson 1995; Shelton 2000). As Hogan (inMerson 1995) notes, the identification of "learning disabilities" typically emphasizes verbaland logical-mathematical intelligences.The use of MI in the workplace to increase creativity and productivity by enabling workersto use their strengths (Gardner 1999; Gaston 2000; Weber 2000; Williams 1995).Golemans (1998) "emotional intelligence" and Lessem and Baruchs (1999) "spectralmanagement theory" focus particularly on interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligencesneeded in the contemporary workplace.The connection between MI and multimodal learning using technologies such as theWorld Wide Web (Coil 1998; Nelson 1998; University of Rio Grande 2000; Weiss 2000).MI theory is not prescriptive, and adult educators must use their own experience to decidehow to apply it (Viens in Focus on Basics 1999). MI techniques are not intended to replacebut enhance existing activities and strategies (Coustan and Rocka in Focus on Basics1999). The following print and Web resources can help educators use multipleintelligences in working with adults.Adult Multiple Intelligences Project. 2000.http://pzweb.harvard.edu/Research/AMI.htm; http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~ncsall/ .A collaboration between Harvard Project Zero and World Education/National Center forthe Study of Adult Literacy and Learning in which teachers are conducting action researchprojects to examine how MI theory can support and enhance learner-centered instructionand assessment in adult basic education, English for speakers of other languages, andadult secondary education programs.
  15. 15. Brougher, J. Z. "Creating a Nourishing Learning Environment for Adults using MultipleIntelligence Theory." Adult Learning 8, no. 4 (1997): 28-29.Gives examples of the application of MI theory in the adult classroom by describingactivities for each intelligence.Christison, M. A., and Kennedy, D. Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Practice in AdultESL. NCLE Digest. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Literacy Education,Center for Applied Linguistics, 1999. http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/MI.htmOutlines the basic tenets of MI theory and describes how it has been applied in teachingEnglish as a second language (ESL) to adults. Concludes that teachers who use MItheory to inform their curriculum development gain a deeper understanding of studentslearning preferences and strengths.Cohen, L. R. "I Aint So Smart and You Aint So Dumb: Personal Reassessment inTransformative Learning." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education no. 74(Summer 1997): 61-68. (EJ 554 985)Adults who have internalized negative messages about their intelligence and ability mustre-examine their personal meaning perspectives before they can engage in criticalreflection. A multiple intelligences framework provides a structure for this reassessment.Coil, R. A. "Multiple Intelligences and Computer Assisted Learning with Adult Learners."Ph.D. diss., Union Institute, 1998. (Dissertation Abstracts International 58, no. 12, 4523A,UMI No. AAT 98-17952)Combining adult learning theory (andragogy), MI, and computer-assisted learningtheories, an alternative approach to teaching adults was developed. Achievement gainsand positive attitudes resulted from the use of computer tutorials and hypermediainstructional materials as well as the MI-based activities.Diaz-Lefebvre, R. Coloring Outside the Lines: Applying Multiple Intelligences andCreativity in Learning. New York: Wiley, 1999.Applies the Multiple Intelligences and Learning for Understanding model to teach forretention and understanding in a community college setting.Ferro, T. R. "Multiple Intelligences and Adult Learning: A Review of the Literature." InProceedings of the 18th Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult,Continuing, and Community Education, edited by A. Austin, G. E. Hynes, and R. T. Miller,pp. 109-114. St. Louis: University of Missouri, 1999.Explores the extent to which MI theory has been applied in the field of adult education,finding primarily action research but few analytical studies.Florida Community College. From Theory to Practice: Adult Instructional Methodologies[and] Train-the-Trainer for Adult Education. Quality Professional Development Project.Jacksonville: FCC, 1998. (ED 430 100 and ED 430 104)Part of a set of professional development manuals for adult educators, these two modulesinclude information on using MI in adult education.Focus on Basics 3, issue A. Cambridge, MA: National Center for the Study of Adult 15
  16. 16. Literacy and Learning, March 1999. (ED 436 680)http://gseweb.harvard.edu/~ncsall/fob/1999/fobv3ia.htmSpecial issue articles include "MI, the GED, and Me" (Martha Jean); "UnderstandingMultiple Intelligences: The Theory behind the Practice" (Julie Viens); "I Cant Learn This!:An MI Route around Resistance" (Wendy Quiones, Betsy Cornwell); "Adding a Dimensionto Career Counseling" (Jean Mantzaris); "Emerging Themes in Adult MultipleIntelligences" (Silja Kallenbach); "Putting Theory into Practice" (Terri Coustan, LezlieRocka); and "Multiple Assignments for Multiple Intelligences" (Meg Costanzo, DianePaxton).Gardner, Howard (1999) Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century,New York: Basic Books. 292 + x pages. Useful review of Gardners theory and discussionof issues and additions.Gardner, Howard (1999) The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts And Standardized Tests,The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves, New York: Simon and Schuster (andNew York: Penguin Putnam).A section on "MI Theory and the Workplace" explains how the application of MI couldchange recruitment, hiring, promotion, and training practices and college admissioncriteria.Gaston, N. A. "Different Kinds of Smart: Multiple Intelligences and the Training of Adults."Journal of Volunteer Administration 18, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 28-37.Outlines a train-the-trainer workshop to prepare trainers of volunteers to incorporateunderstanding of multiple ways of knowing into their training activities.Goleman, D. P. Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam, 1998.Extends Golemans concept of emotional intelligence into the workplace. Suggests thatbusiness leaders and outstanding performers are not defined by their IQs or even their jobskills, but by a set of competencies that distinguishes how people manage feelings,interact, and communicate. Lessem, R., and Baruch, Y. "Colour Your Managerial Type,Colour Your Organization." Career Development International 4, no. 1 (1999): 11-18. (EJ578 932)Spectral Management Theory describes eight management styles in terms of cognitive,affective, and behavioral characteristics: innovator, developer, analyzer, enterprising,manager of change, people manager, action manager, and adoptive manager. Itincorporates multiple intelligences theory and can be applied to managing across cultures.Merson, M., ed. "The Learning Disabilities/Lack of Progress Issue." Connections: AJournal of Adult Literacy vol. 5. Boston, MA: Adult Literacy Resource Institute, Winter1995. (ED 407 493)Articles include "Reaching ESL Students: The Multiple Intelligences Instrument"(Katherine Dullea Hogan); and "Finding the Key: The Educational Autobiography andTheory of Multiple Intelligences" (Cara Streck).The MIDAS (Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales)http://www.angelfire.com/oh/themidas/index.html
  17. 17. Includes the MIDAS newsletter, reviews, research, and links.Morris, C. "Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences (MI) May Enhance CareerDevelopment." Original paper presented at the 25th National Consultation on CareerDevelopment, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, January 25-27, 1999.http://www.igs.net/~cmorris/ocetf.htmlDescribes versions of the MIDAS, including one for adults, and the application of theinformation to career exploration. This commentary was initially written following aworkshop of the 1999 National Consultation on Career Development (NATCON), thelargest international bilingual conference addressing career development andemployment-related issues. Since 1987, NATCON has been sponsored by TheCounseling Foundation of Canada, Human Resources Development Canada, and theCareer Centre, University of TorontoNelson, G. "Internet/Web-Based Instruction and Multiple Intelligences." Educational MediaInternational 35, no. 2 (June 1998): 90-94. (EJ 572 108)Examines Gardners theory of individual differences and its application to the challengesof Internet-based instruction. Various tools and activities offered by the Internet and theWeb are discussed.Nuzzi, R. Gifts of the Spirit: Multiple Intelligences in Religious Education. Washington, DC:National Catholic Educational Association, 1996. (ED 411 198)Explains the value of a multiple intelligences approach in religious education for diversegroups of learners. Provides sample lessons involving application of different types ofintelligences at educational levels from early childhood through adulthood.Shearer, C. B. The MIDAS for Adults. Columbus, OH: Greydon Press, 1998.Provides a quantitative and descriptive account of an adults multiple intelligencesdisposition. Includes the eight main scales of intelligences along with three scalesdescribing intellectual style (leadership, innovation, and general logic).Shelton, L. Multiple Intelligences for Adult Literacy and Adult Education. San Mateo, CA:Project Read, 2000. http://literacyworks.org/mi/Addresses the application of MI to basic skills, learning styles, and adult literacyeducation. Includes sections on MI theory, assessment, and teaching tips.Project SUMIT (2003) SUMIT (Schools Using MI Theory), Compass Points Practices ©http://pzweb.harvard.edu/Research/SUMIT.htmUniversity of Rio Grande. Teaching to the Multiple Intelligences. Masters of Education inClassroom Teaching. 2000. http://mi.rio.edu/This experiential degree program with a number of Internet-based courses is based onGardners MI theory and designed to prepare teachers to use an interdisciplinary, MIapproach.Weber, E. "Anatomy of Creative Leaders in Successful Business." MITA Center,Houghton College, 2000. http://www.houghton.edu/personnel/eweber/center/Business.htmDescribes the application of the Multiple Intelligence Teaching Approach model to the 17
  18. 18. development of individual abilities at work.Weiss, R. P. "Howard Gardner Talks about Technology." Training and Development 54,no. 9 (September 2000): 52-56.Technologies readily address the multiple ways of knowing that humans demonstrate.However, the person-centered intelligences still require human interaction.Williams, M. "Playing Is the Thing: Three Activities for School Leaders." Paper presentedat the Annual Meeting of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration,Williamsburg, VA, August 8-12, 1995. (ED 387 911)Presents a leadership development game based on multiple intelligences.This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Departmentof Education under Contract No. ED-99- CO-0013. The content of this publication doesnot necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education nor doesmention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by theU.S. Government. Trends and Issues Alerts may be freely reproduced and are available athttp://ericacve.org/fulltext.asp.