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  • 1. Language and Language Disorders Chapter One
  • 2. Speech, Language and Communication
    • Speech : the neuromuscular act of producing sounds that are used in language.
    • Language : is a rule-governed symbol system for communicating meaning through a shared code of arbitrary symbols.
    • Communication : the process participants use to exchange information, ideas, needs and desires.
  • 3. Communication
    • Four elements:
      • Sender of the message
      • Receiver of the message
      • Shared intent to communicate
      • Shared means of communication
  • 4. Language Disorders
    • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) definition of language disorder:
    • A language disorder is impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems. This disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonology, morphology,syntax, (2) the content of language (semantics), and/or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatics) in any combination.
  • 5. Language Disorders
    • Disorders in comprehension of language and language production.
    • Receptive and expressive language problems.
    • Either spoken or written language
      • Problems in writing
      • Disorder not a difference
  • 6. Language Disorders
    • Language disorders may be mild (problems in using metaphors in writing) to severe (no spoken language)
    • Language disorders are often associated with other disabilities
      • Autism
      • Mental retardation
      • Learning disabilities
  • 7. Characteristics of Children with Language and Communication Disorders
    • Academic performance
      • Reluctance to contribute to discussions
      • Failure to follow directions
      • Difficulty producing sounds
    • Social interaction
      • Exclusion or rejection by other children
      • Difficulty carrying on a conversation
  • 8. Characteristics of Children with Language and Communication Disorders
    • Cognitive functioning
      • Slow responding
      • Inattentiveness
    • Behavior
      • High level of frustration
      • Fighting with peers
  • 9. Assessing Language and Communication Chapter 10
  • 10. Understanding Assessment
    • Assessment
      • Process of collecting data for the purpose of making decisions about students
    • Testing
      • Administering a particular set of questions to an individual or group of individuals to obtain a score
    • Diagnosis
      • In depth information about a specific skill area such as reading or spoken language
  • 11. Understanding Assessment
    • Purposes of assessment
      • Screening
      • Eligibility
      • IEP planning
      • Monitoring progress
      • Program evaluation
    • Types of assessment procedures
      • Formal
        • Standardized: norm-referenced or criterion-referenced
      • Informal
        • Assess current levels of functioning
  • 12. Assessment of Language
    • Phonology
      • Production of speech sounds
    • Morphology
      • Word endings and prefixes
    • Syntax
      • Nouns, verbs, adjectives and word order
    • Semantics
      • Vocabulary, figures of speech
    • Pragmatics
      • Use of speech acts and conversational rules
  • 13. Prerequisites of Language
    • Social
      • Turn-taking behavior, gazing
    • Cognitive
      • Symbolic play or object permanence
    • Physiological
      • Speech-processing abilities are intact
      • Physically capable of using and understanding language
  • 14. Preschool Language Development
    • Reliability
      • Consistency with which the instrument measures the target skills
    • Validity
      • Extent to which instrument measures what it purports to measure
    • Screening
      • Quick examination of child’s language skills
    • Diagnostic
      • More in-depth assessment should be used when a child is suspected of having significant difficulties
  • 15. Assessment Methods
    • Formal procedures
      • Comprehensive measures
      • Test of specific language skills
    • Informal measures
      • Language sampling
        • Context, materials, techniques
        • MLU- mean length of utterance
        • TTR-type token ratio- measure of semantic development
    • Language elicitation tasks
  • 16. Pragmatic Function in Child Language
    • Instrumental-satisfy needs and desires
    • Regulatory-control or regulate actions of others
    • Interactional-establish interactions
    • Personal-express personal feelings
    • Heuristic-organize environment
    • Imaginative- used to create an imaginary environments