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  • 2. Cultural Trips in Romania, 10 - 12 October, 2013 • Sighi oara -ș built on a Dacian site, called SANDAVA, one of the very few in habited medieval burgs in Europe, is the foremost tourist attraction in Transylvania, and the birthplace of Vlad III the Impaler (Dracula). It is a UNESCO World Heritage site. • Brasov also established on an ancient Dacian site, became a Saxon town, in 1235 with small manufacturing businesses and workshops set up here by the early settlers. By the 15th century, it was protected by a three tier wall punctuated by 30 towers and bastions. One of the first public oppositions to the Ceausescu government flared here in 1987. Brasov is one of Romania's most visited cities and one of its most important rail junctions. • Bran - served as a defense point to protect the border between Transylvania and Wallachia. The imposing castle is perched on a rocky bluff high above the town of Bran. • Poiana Brasov - features great hotels, very modern winter sports facilities, 12 ski slopes with different degrees of difficulty, sports fields, a lake, discos, bars and restaurants. • Rasnov - the fortress and the cave are on the Bran Pass, a trade route connecting Wallachia with Transylvania. • Sibiu – an old, Daco-Romanian spot, became an important urban landmark of the Middle Ages and a European Capital of Culture in 2007. The city has numerous educational institutions, notably Lucian Blaga University, and is home to more than 34,000 students. • Transfagarasan - one of the most spectacular roads in the world. It is 90 km and runs trough the Fagaras mountains (trans + Fagaras), a part of the Transsylvanian Alps. The road connects Transsylvania with Muntenia. The Transfagarasan starts at Bascov, near Piteçti. It follows the valley of the river Argea and after mounting to the highest point, it descends to Cartisoara in the Olt valley, where the road ends.
  • 3. Sighisoara most beautiful in the golden month of October .
  • 4. A World Great Attraction The brightly colored houses, lining narrow, medieval, stone streets, mark the town of Sighisoara which has a population of 26,370 according to the 2011 census. Sighisoara is a UNESCO World Heritage site, an epicenter of ancient and medieval houses, churches, and towers.
  • 5. Small Streets in the Old Town of Sighisoara
  • 6. History of Sighisoara • Archaeological findings show that the territory of the present town was inhabited as early as the 6th cent. B.C. • The Dacian fortress that was raised in the 3rd century B.C. was called Sandava. • Roman castri (whose ruins have been preserved to the day), built after 106 A.D. (when the process of colonization of the Dacians by the Romans actually started), were meant to defend the roads coming from Alba Iulia and going towards the Oituz strait. • In the 10th century A.D., the area of Sighisoara was part of the voievodate Terra Blachorum ruled by prince Gelu who was defeated by the Hungarians, a migratory people coming from remote Asia. Led by Tuhutum, the Hungarians conquered his country and his residence town is, presumably, a still existing village, resembling the prince’s name, i.e. Gilau (near Cluj). • Towards the end of the 10th century A.D., the Hungarians, settled down in the Pannonian plain and reached Transylvania, too. Starting from the 12th century, the Hungarians would populate Transylvania with German colonists from Flanders, Saxony, the Rhine and the Moselle rivers; the role of the so-called "Saxons" was to strengthen the borders of the Hungarian Kingdom. In return, they were stimulated by privileges granted to them directly by Hungarian kings. The Saxon new-comers, i.e. craftsmen, farmers, tradesmen would set up their own settlements among, which Sighisoara soon became a flourishing medieval town. • The citadel was first attested in a written document in 1280, under the name of Castrum Sex (Fort Six). The name must have existed long before, as the Saxons built their walled town on the ruins of a former Roman fortress whose shape was an irregular hexagon. In 1298, the town was mentioned as Schespurch, while in 1367 it was called Civitas de Seguswar.
  • 7. The Clock Tower • a 64m high tower built in the 13th century, situated near the town’s central plaza • the roof was redone in the Baroque style after it was damaged in a fire, and in the late 19th century vibrant tiles were added. • the tower's clock features a mechanical display of several different miniature wooden people. • A worthy sight on its own, the Sighisoara Clock Tower is also home to a history museum.
  • 8. The House where Prince Vlad III, nicknamed the Impaler, who inspired the character of Dracula, was born. Dracula's Birthplace
  • 9. Covered Staircase (1642) A very old stone staircase (today 175 steps but in the past it had 300 steps) with a wooden roof along the whole span leads up to the Church on the Hill (1345-1525) and the cemetery.
  • 10. Other Interesting Sights The Dominican Monastery Church Sighisoara's Towers • Around the citadel walls are the towers that the guilds erected during the 14th to 16th centuries to protect the town from Turkish raids. • Each tower was built by one of the guilds and bears the name of the guild. 14 towers were erected but only 9 are still standing. • The Rope Makers' Tower • The Taylors' Tower • The Showmakers' Tower • The Butchers' Tower • The Furriers' Tower • The Tinkers' Tower • The Tanners' Tower • The Blacksmiths' Tower • The Clock Tower
  • 11. More Info about Sighisoara • from-the-Hill_vt31 • cnew/vlad/dractour/rotravel2.htm • nia/sighisoara
  • 12. BRASOV the Capital of Brasov County ,
  • 13. Brasov- General Information • Location: Central Romania (Brasov County) Size: 74 sq. km • Elevation: 650 meters • Population: 320,000 Inhabited since: 100 BC First documented: 1234 AD (Corona) .
  • 14. Vlad the Impaler and the Town of Brasov • A German story about Brasov says that Vlad the Impaler was sitting at a table filled with food and drink. In front of him, on a hill, some of his soldiers began to impale a number of the Saxon traders simply because of his dislike for them, and because of their attempts to remove him from the throne of Valachia. ,
  • 15. The Council Square • The place where in the past the town councilors would meet, now houses the Historical Museum.
  • 16. BRASOV: THE ROMANIAN ORTHODOX CATHEDRAL • Built between 1895-1896 by a Romanian Orthodox priest, Bartolomeu Baiulescu.
  • 17. The Black Church (1385-1477) • the largest Gothic church between Vienna and Istambul and still used by Lutherans today. Its name came from its appearance after a fire caused by the Habsburgs' invasion in 1689 that left its walls blackened by smoke. • the organ with over 4000 pipes, built by Buchholz in 1839, is said to be the largest in southeast Europe. .
  • 18. The Roman-Catholic Church • Built in pure Baroque style between 1776- 1882.
  • 19. BRASOV: THE SCHEI DISTRICT • The oldest part of the city of Brasov • Between 13C-17C, the privileged Saxons forbade anyone else from owning property in the city and the Romanians were forced to withdraw here, outside the fortress walls to the southwest.
  • 20. The Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas (1495) • built of wood in 1392 and replaced by the stone church in 1495 by the Wallachian prince Neagoe Basarab, who supported the Romanian community in Brasov. • beside the church is the First Romanian language School (1495) now a museum exhibiting the first Romanian textbooks, printed in Brasov in 1581, and the history of Schei. .
  • 21. The Junii (young men) Feast in Brasov . When the harsh Brasovian winters are gone and spring sun shines again, it is the time for people from Schei to start celebrating the renewal.
  • 22. The First Sunday after Easter . It is the time to celebrate the new year of the Dacians, the ancestors of the Romanians. It is also the celebration of spring, the renewing of nature and the beginning of new life. The oldest document recorded in which this procession is mentioned is from 26 March 1728 but it is assumed that the celebration already existed in antiquity. http://www.brasovtravelguide.r o/en/brasov/events/junii- feast.php
  • 23. More Info About Brasov • atii/detail_cultura_en/59 • limba=2&id_revista=3&id_articol=69
  • 24. Poiana Brasov • It has several luxurious hotels and villas which offer saunas, swimming pools, tennis courts, mountain biking, massage and the like. • The resort's restaurants go in for "folk" architecture and local cusine. The most famed are Coliba Haiducilor (Outlaws' Hut), Sura Dacilor (Dacians' Grange) and Stana, a rustic restaurant housed on a sheep farm. • In summer one can take the cable car to the top of Mount Postavaru for a panoramic view of Brasov and the surrounding Carpathians. . Bran Castle
  • 25. History and Myth • Commonly known as "Dracula's Castle" (although it is one among several locations linked to the Dracula legend, including Poenari Castle and Hunyad Castle), it is marketed as the home of the titular character in Bram Stoker's Dracula. • There is, however, no evidence that Stoker knew anything about this castle, which has only tangential associations with Vlad III, voivode of Wallachia, the putative inspiration for Dracula. • As discovered by the Dutch author Hans Corneel de Roos, the location Bram Stoker actually had in mind for Castle Dracula while writing his novel was an empty mountain top, Mount Izvorul Călimanului, 2,033 m high, located in the Transylvanian Kelemen Alps near the former border with Moldavia. Remember the Dacian symbol Dacian Draco as depicted on the Trajan's Column… a Dacian military standard composed of a wolf head and snake tail. Maybe that is why he was called Dracula.
  • 26. "I don't like wars, we have never opressed or conquered anyone but if we must defend ourselves we will.” Vlad III “Dracul” • v=lYjaMj2Lymw&list=TL9umbtATzYZY,0.00,23.9
  • 27. Rasnov Fortress (14th century) . • Half an hour from Brasov is Rasnov, where a ruined castle crowns the hill that overlooks the town. • Founded in the early 13th century by the Teutonic Knights and taken over by villagers in the 14th century when they needed a place of refuge from the Tartar and later Turkish invaders. • The fortress remained functional until 1850 when it was abandoned and fell into ruin. Since its foundation, it was rebuilt several times and remains impressive.
  • 28. Poiana Braşov • the most popular Romanian ski resort and an important tourist centre preferred by many tourists not only from Romania, but also from Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland and other European states.
  • 29. Poiana Brasov Resort • at an altitude of 1030m, on the foot of the spectacular Mount Postavaru in the southern Carpathians. • This resort is popular with snow-boarders and it's considered a great place to learn to ski. • ch?v=8l9-k0TaUqs • http://www.mountainguide.r o/powder-snow-forest- skiing-in-poiana-brasov-ski- resort-romania/ .
  • 30. SIBIU • Bruckenthal Museum • The Central Square • The Museum of History • The Museum of Natural History • The Museum of Arms and Hunting Trophies • The Orthodox Cathedral • The Huet Square • The Citadel’s Street • The City Wall • The Promenade • The Museum of Folk and Technology • Museum of Transylvanian Civilisation
  • 32. "Europe's 8th most idyllic place to live" (Forbes) • One of the most important cultural centres of Romania and, in tandem with Luxembourg, it was designated a European Capital of Culture in 2007. ,
  • 33. The Airport of Sibiu . • Sibiu has one of the most modern international airports in Romania, with direct connections to Germany, Austria, England and Spain as well as to other Romanian cities.
  • 34. Sibiu’s History • Indeed, the ‘Saxons’ came in Transylvania in the 12th–13th centuries from Flanders, Luxembourg and the Mosel valleys which were in great famine in those times but the territories they found here were inhabited by Proto-Romanians. • Hungarian rulers who served the Holy Roman Empire promised these very underprivileged people, ready to leave their country for another one, lands and advantages over the local population – the Dacians and Getae mentioned in the medieval documents and Chronicles, the Proto-Romanians who spoke a Latin language, of Christian faith, inherited from Andrew the Apostle (the 1st century A.D.) the patron saint of Romania. • Hungarians had come a little earlier from Asia in the 10th century in search of food and territories in a Europe already weakened by all sorts of invasions. When they came, the Proto-Romanians were organised in small states, called “voievodate”, led by local kings like Gelu and Menumorut and most of them lived in mountain villages, far from the hordes of the Asian new-comers. • The Saxons became colonisers as they had to defend their eastern marches against the Cumans and other invaders from the steppes. For this service, the Hungarian Crown rewarded them with a high level of autonomy and tax privileges. • The Saxons established some 200 villages and 7 principal fortified towns, all of them on previous Roman sites, including the city of Sibiu (Hermannstadt), hence the German name Siebenbürgen for Transylvania. The first mention of Sibiu was in 1191, by which time a Saxon community had been established on the River Cibin. • All through the Middle Ages, Sibiu was an important regional centre of trade and housed the main Saxon Assembly. In the 18th century, Sibiu was the seat of government in Transylvania. • The city has a population of 155,000.
  • 35. Brukenthal Museum (1817) • The 1st museum in Romania, the oldest museum in Central and Eastern Europe, with over 15000 exhibits of great value. • .
  • 36. THE CENTRAL SQUARE or THE LARGE SQUARE OF SIBIU • existing since 1366 when the 3rd fortification belt of the city was finalized. • Staring with the 16th century, the large square became the center of the old city. • For hundreds of years the square was named Der Grosse Ring or Grosser Platz, between the two world wars it was called King Ferdinand Square, the communists named it the Republic Square and starting with 1990 it returned to its original name.
  • 37. Sibiu, Natural History Museum guide in English . • .
  • 38. Museum of Arms and Hunting Trophies . • reflects the evolution in time of weapons and hunting tools. • traditional hunting procedures are exhibited, including contemporary engravings. • a collection of trophies belonging to the collections Witting and A. Spiess, the last one comprising 1,058 items acquired in 1963. • aspects of the animal life and suitable times for hunting them are also presented here.
  • 39. Museum of Transylvanian Civilisation • Situated in the city centre in the Small Square • Magnificent, colourful collection showcasing the best of the traditions of the various ethnic groups who have lived in Transylvania over the centuries. • A modern museum, the exhibits (religious objects, decorated eggs and masks; folk costumes and textiles; the wood, iron and bones collection; the ceramics collection) are displayed in an imaginative manner more reminiscent of a contemporary art gallery. Superb.
  • 40. The Holy Trinity Cathedral, Sibiu • The idea of building an Orthodox Cathedral in Sibiu began with Metropolitan Andrei Şaguna, who in the autumn of 1857 asked Emperor Franz Joseph I for permission to send a circular to his diocese requesting that priests and laymen give donations. • It was completed in 1904 in the style of a Byzantine basilica, inspired by Hagia Sophia with the main spires influenced by Transylvanian church architecture and Baroque elements. .
  • 41. ALBERT HUET SQUARE . • . developed on the surface of the first premises strongholds of the city dominated by the massive building of the Evangelical Cathedral, with tall tower of 73.34 meters, the highest in Transylvania.
  • 42. The Citadel Street .
  • 43. The Promenade • The first park in Sibiu, arranged in 1791 instead of the moats and lakes outside the southern wall of the city. • Current arrangement of the park, including the space between the walls, dates from 1928.
  • 44. ASTRA National Museum Complex Museum of Traditional Folk Civilization . The main entrance of the ASTRA National Museum Complex open air museum.
  • 45. More Info about Sibiu • v=aTQ46A9_oek • v=S68t_MBvG20 • v=64K5lczFGFU
  • 46. Transfagarasan Road • constructed between 1970 and 1974, during the rule of Nicolae Ceau escu. It came as aș response to the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union. Ceau escu wanted toș ensure quick military access across the mountains in the event the Soviets attempted a similar move into Romania. • it has more tunnels (a total of 5) and viaducts than any other road in Romania. Near the highest point, at Bâlea Lake, the road passes through Bâlea Tunnel, the longest road tunnel in Romania (884 m).
  • 47. Bâlea Lake • a glacier lake situated at 2,034 m of altitude in the Făgăraş Mountains. It is accessible by car on the Transfăgărăşan road during the summer, and the rest of the year by a cable car from the "Bâlea Waterfall" chalet. • In 1904 a hostel was built on a peninsula in the middle of the lake. Later it burned down. A bigger building was erected on its place which became the most popular tourist lodge in the Făgărăşan Alps.
  • 48. THINK ABOUT IT! “Romanian is not a Latin language, but Latin is a Romanian language."