Taditional jobs in asturias

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Taditional jobs in asturias

  1. 1. TRADITIONAL JOBS INTRADITIONAL JOBS IN ASTURIASASTURIAS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION The Principality ofThe Principality of Asturias is anAsturias is an autonomous provinceautonomous province belonging to Spain. It hasbelonging to Spain. It has 10604 km10604 km22 , in which more, in which more than one millionthan one million inhabitants live. Linked toinhabitants live. Linked to mining-metallurgicalmining-metallurgical sector until recent years,sector until recent years, at present the industryat present the industry occupies 16% of total jobsoccupies 16% of total jobs compared to 70% of jobscompared to 70% of jobs in the service sector,in the service sector, being tourism a majorbeing tourism a major source of income. Thesource of income. The mines and factories,mines and factories, whose economicwhose economic importance takes place inimportance takes place in the second half of the XIXthe second half of the XIX century, and lasted untilcentury, and lasted until the 90s of the XX century,the 90s of the XX century, are now trying to survive.are now trying to survive.
  3. 3. Iron and Steel Industry  The iron and steel industry is one of the most traditionalThe iron and steel industry is one of the most traditional in the region and has been, together with mining, one ofin the region and has been, together with mining, one of the main forces of industrial growth in Asturias since thethe main forces of industrial growth in Asturias since the early 19th century. This extended experience, combinedearly 19th century. This extended experience, combined with the high level of training of the industry workers andwith the high level of training of the industry workers and the technological development of the processes andthe technological development of the processes and products, have allowed the region to become anproducts, have allowed the region to become an undoubted leader for the sector in Europe.undoubted leader for the sector in Europe.
  4. 4.  Within the metal sector, casting is another of the mostWithin the metal sector, casting is another of the most representative subsectors of the region since Romanrepresentative subsectors of the region since Roman times. Asturias produces cast iron and steel and non-times. Asturias produces cast iron and steel and non- ferrous products such as aluminium, zinc, copper andferrous products such as aluminium, zinc, copper and their alloys, for all types of industrial sectors.their alloys, for all types of industrial sectors.  The main client sector for casting is the car sector,The main client sector for casting is the car sector, followed by machine tool manufacturers, valvefollowed by machine tool manufacturers, valve manufacturers and construction,manufacturers and construction,etcetc
  5. 5. Agriculture  In the XVIII century Asturias was mainly rural, so the agricultural sector occupied more than 75% of the professional activities. Corn, introduced in the previous century, was one of the main products, as well as millet and escanda. Corn was used to make bread, to breed animals, to make mattresses, to be burnt as fuel…  Farmers grew beans, essential in the elaboration of the traditional fabada, turnips, green beans,peas, potatoes, peppers, cauliflowers, etc..
  6. 6.  As regards fruit, apples were an essential element in theAs regards fruit, apples were an essential element in the elaboration of cider, which was made withelaboration of cider, which was made with autochthonous varieties. We must also mention cherries,autochthonous varieties. We must also mention cherries, strawberries, figs,nuts, etc..strawberries, figs,nuts, etc..  All these products were sold in the markets, thereforeAll these products were sold in the markets, therefore there was a strong connection between villages andthere was a strong connection between villages and cities.cities.
  7. 7. Cattle raising  Since the middle of the XIX century, livestock has played an important part in Asturias economy. Cows have a especial relevance for their milk, exported to the rest of Spain and Europe. Other farm animals are sheep, goats, pigs and hens. The seasonal exploitation of pasturelands gave rise to distributed settlements for cattle and specific structures for this,both for housing or shelter: they are the brañas.  Cattle raising has an important role today and it remains as one of the most productive sectors in Asturias
  8. 8. MiningMining  The mining industry of coal has marked the actual historyThe mining industry of coal has marked the actual history of the community of Asturias during more than 200 years.of the community of Asturias during more than 200 years.  At the end of the XVIII century, the first deposits of coalAt the end of the XVIII century, the first deposits of coal started to be exploited during the slow industrialstarted to be exploited during the slow industrial revolution in Spain. During the second part of the XIXrevolution in Spain. During the second part of the XIX century, the exploitation of coal was developed and itscentury, the exploitation of coal was developed and its distribution was favoured thanks to the railroad.distribution was favoured thanks to the railroad.
  9. 9.  At the beginning of the XX century and during the FirstAt the beginning of the XX century and during the First World War the coal production increased. However,World War the coal production increased. However, inhuman work conditions that involved long workingsinhuman work conditions that involved long workings days, low salaries and the use of workforce from womendays, low salaries and the use of workforce from women and children caused the summit of the union recoveries.and children caused the summit of the union recoveries.  In 1934, the Asturian miners started a revolution thatIn 1934, the Asturian miners started a revolution that was suffocated by the Spanish army.was suffocated by the Spanish army.  In the 60s and 70s the increase of the syndicalismIn the 60s and 70s the increase of the syndicalism continued and a lot of strikes took place. In the 80s, acontinued and a lot of strikes took place. In the 80s, a rationalization in the mining andrationalization in the mining and iron and steel industryiron and steel industry began with the massive closure of mines and longbegan with the massive closure of mines and long strikes.strikes.   
  10. 10.  In the 90s the first European Union subsidies were granted,In the 90s the first European Union subsidies were granted, which have allowed the constructions of big infrastructures.which have allowed the constructions of big infrastructures.  In the XXI century, there were still some mines in operation.In the XXI century, there were still some mines in operation.  The coal extraction at a global scale can’t be completedThe coal extraction at a global scale can’t be completed because of the problems with the nuclear energy. There’sbecause of the problems with the nuclear energy. There’s still a possibility of using this material in the future.still a possibility of using this material in the future.   
  11. 11. CraftsmanshipCraftsmanship  Asturias is a rich community in traditions, which atAsturias is a rich community in traditions, which at the same time bets firmly for the innovation as an enginethe same time bets firmly for the innovation as an engine of the future and its crafts are a reflection of this reality.of the future and its crafts are a reflection of this reality.  The crafts are being re-discovered nowadays becauseThe crafts are being re-discovered nowadays because they use technologies and autochthonous raw materials,they use technologies and autochthonous raw materials, they demand a low energetic consumption and they arethey demand a low energetic consumption and they are slightly aggressive with the environment. Besides, theyslightly aggressive with the environment. Besides, they complement other activities of agricultural, fishing orcomplement other activities of agricultural, fishing or tourist kind.tourist kind.
  12. 12. Ceramics  Asturias is a region with a deep-rooted ceramist tradition.Asturias is a region with a deep-rooted ceramist tradition. The first information found in the XVIII century is aboutThe first information found in the XVIII century is about the foundation of factories of crockery and thethe foundation of factories of crockery and the appearance of numerous workrooms where peopleappearance of numerous workrooms where people made handcrafted objects.made handcrafted objects.  Faro, in Limanes (Oviedo), and Llamas de MouroFaro, in Limanes (Oviedo), and Llamas de Mouro (Cangas de Narcea) are the main centres of potters in(Cangas de Narcea) are the main centres of potters in the region, standing out mainly for the manufacturing ofthe region, standing out mainly for the manufacturing of jars, pots and other utensils made from black ceramics.jars, pots and other utensils made from black ceramics.
  13. 13. WoodWood  Wood is the principal raw material of Asturian craftsmen,Wood is the principal raw material of Asturian craftsmen, due to the abundance of forests of chestnut-trees, oaks,due to the abundance of forests of chestnut-trees, oaks, beeches, etc and to the quality of the wood that isbeeches, etc and to the quality of the wood that is obtained from them. It has always been essential in theobtained from them. It has always been essential in the traditional society for the construction of houses andtraditional society for the construction of houses and barns and hórreos ( typical Asturian storehouse). It isbarns and hórreos ( typical Asturian storehouse). It is also used in the manufacturing of household objects,also used in the manufacturing of household objects, such as lunchboxes, bowls and madreñas ( typicalsuch as lunchboxes, bowls and madreñas ( typical Asturian shoes).Asturian shoes).
  14. 14.  These wood crafts include a large variety group ofThese wood crafts include a large variety group of workers, like basket-makers or cesteros, madreñaworkers, like basket-makers or cesteros, madreña makers or madreñeros,bowl makers or cunqueiros andmakers or madreñeros,bowl makers or cunqueiros and willow workers or mimbreros.willow workers or mimbreros.  In the XVIII century the Asturian population that sharedIn the XVIII century the Asturian population that shared their activities in the country with the crafts reached thetheir activities in the country with the crafts reached the 72,9% of the total occupations in the region.72,9% of the total occupations in the region.
  15. 15. Leather • Since the XVIII century, period of brilliance in the Asturian craftsmanship, we find different factories of tanning, like the ones that opened in Oviedo, Tineo and Gijón. The production of leather at that time was abundant, especially in the shoemaker factories that reach a big importance in places like Noreña and Pimiango.
  16. 16. Jet  Jet is a charcoal which was petrified 60 million years ago and turned into black lignite. Its curving requires patience and skill. It is the ideal raw material for craftwork. Jet has been sold to Galician farmers since the XIII century.  The unique jet mine in exploitation that exists nowadays in Spain is in Oles, Asturias
  17. 17. FishingFishing  Rivers have been a natural resource from the prehistory.Rivers have been a natural resource from the prehistory. People settled themselves near the fluvial basins, so thatPeople settled themselves near the fluvial basins, so that fishing became the basis of their subsistence.fishing became the basis of their subsistence.  There was a change from very rudimentary andThere was a change from very rudimentary and individual fishing equipment to colective and bigger shipsindividual fishing equipment to colective and bigger ships whose fishermen formed guilds. These guilds werewhose fishermen formed guilds. These guilds were especially powerful in the XVI and XVII century, whenespecially powerful in the XVI and XVII century, when fishermen had to fight for their rights in a very dangerousfishermen had to fight for their rights in a very dangerous and hard work.and hard work.
  18. 18.  The Asturian coast extends along 334 kmThe Asturian coast extends along 334 km22 , being its, being its rivers and sea very rich in a large variety of fish.rivers and sea very rich in a large variety of fish.  In the XVII century the most important harbour wasIn the XVII century the most important harbour was Cudillero, with 350 inhabitants and 40 ships. They fishedCudillero, with 350 inhabitants and 40 ships. They fished sea bream, hake,conger, salmon, tuna,trout,sardine,etc..sea bream, hake,conger, salmon, tuna,trout,sardine,etc..  Other important harbours were Candás, Luanco, Avilés,Other important harbours were Candás, Luanco, Avilés, Gijón, Ribadesella and Llanes.Gijón, Ribadesella and Llanes.  Nowadays fishing activity is important in the AsturianNowadays fishing activity is important in the Asturian coast, which has 18 harbours and 339 ships. Aroundcoast, which has 18 harbours and 339 ships. Around 21000 tonnes of fish are captured every year.21000 tonnes of fish are captured every year.
  19. 19. Present SituationPresent Situation  The economy of Asturias has a declining primary sectorThe economy of Asturias has a declining primary sector which occupies 6% of the active population with cattle,which occupies 6% of the active population with cattle, highlighting the daily production, agriculture ( corn,highlighting the daily production, agriculture ( corn, potatoes and apples) and fishing. Coal mining waspotatoes and apples) and fishing. Coal mining was significant, but it has reduced its number from 20,000significant, but it has reduced its number from 20,000 miners in 80 years to just 1,800 now.miners in 80 years to just 1,800 now.   
  20. 20.  The manufacturing sector gives jobs to 30% of the activeThe manufacturing sector gives jobs to 30% of the active population, being still important the steel industry, especiallypopulation, being still important the steel industry, especially located between Gijón and Avilés, food, shipyards,located between Gijón and Avilés, food, shipyards, weapons, chemical products, transport equipment, etc.weapons, chemical products, transport equipment, etc.  The service sector is made up of 65% of the activeThe service sector is made up of 65% of the active population. The capital Oviedo is increasing its number ofpopulation. The capital Oviedo is increasing its number of inhabitants, although the coast of Gijón is the mostinhabitants, although the coast of Gijón is the most populated one. This fact makes population concentrate inpopulated one. This fact makes population concentrate in urban centers.urban centers.  Tourism has acquired a great importance in the region inTourism has acquired a great importance in the region in recent years. Our slogan says: "Asturias, natural paradise.”recent years. Our slogan says: "Asturias, natural paradise.” What do you think?What do you think?

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