Transcript of "History of romanian turkish relations"
A Brief Historyof Romania–Turkey Relations
1. INTRODUCTION:Romania occupies, roughly, ancient Dacia, which became aRoman province in the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.After the Romans left the region in the 3rd century, migratingpeoples, including the Goths, Huns, Avars, Slavs, Bulgars andHungarians swept across this country from the 4th to the 10thcenturies, each leaving their mark on the local culture, languageand gene pool.Romanians survived in village communities and graduallyassimilated the Slavs and other peoples who settled there. Bythe 10th century a fragmented feudal system ruled by a militaryclass appeared.
2. ROMANIA AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIREThe relations between Romania and the Ottoman Empire hadtheir origins in the common history of the two peoples, who livedtogether over the centuries in the same geographical area.After the long and terrible period of invasions of all sorts ofmigrating peoples, the history of Romania became in essencethat of the two Romanian principalities—Moldavia and Walachia—and of Transylvania, which for most of the time was aHungarian dependency.The princes of Walachia (in 1417) and of Moldavia (mid-16thcentury) became vassals of the Ottoman Empire, but theyretained considerable independence.
The 18th Century An alliance (1711) of the princes of Moldavia and Walachia with Peter I of Russia led to Turkish domination of Romania. Until 1821 the Turkish sultans appointed governors, usually chosen from among the Phanariots - Greek residents of Constantinople. The governors and their subordinates reduced the Romanian people (except for a few great landlords, the boyars) to a group of nomadic shepherds enserfed peasants.
The 19th Century When, in 1821, Alexander Ypsilanti raised the Greek banner of revolt in Moldavia, the Romanians (who had more grievances against the Greek Phanariots than against the Turks) helped the Turks to expel the Greeks. In 1822 the Turks agreed to appoint Romanians as governors of the principalities; after the Russo- Turkish War of 1828–29, during which Russian forces occupied Moldavia and Walachia, the governors were given life tenure. Although the two principalities technically remained within the Ottoman Empire, they actually became Russian protectorates.
The Congress of Paris (1856) Russian troops did not evacuate Romania until 1854, during the Crimean War, when they were replaced by a neutral Austrian force. The Congress of Paris (1856) established Moldavia and Walachia as principalities under Turkish suzerainty and under the guarantee of the European powers, and it awarded S Bessarabia to Moldavia.
Alexander John Cuza The election (1859) of Alexander John Cuza as prince of both Moldavia and Walachia prepared the way for the official union (1861– 62) of the two principalities as Romania. Cuza freed (1864) the peasants from certain servile obligations and distributed some land (confiscated from religious orders) to them.
The Kingdom of Romania In 1866 Carol I of the house of Hohenzollern- Sigmaringen was chosen as a king of Romania. A moderately liberal constitution was adopted in 1866. In 1877, Romania joined Russia in its war on Turkey. At the Congress of Berlin (1878), Romania gained full independence but was obliged to restore S Bessarabia to Russia and to accept N Dobruja in its place. In 1881, Romania was proclaimed a kingdom.
3. MODERN PERSPECTIVES On 4/16 November1878, independent Romania and the Ottoman Empire established diplomatic relations. D. Bratianu, Plenipotentiary Minister and Extraordinary Representative of Romania in Istanbul, presented his letters of accreditation to Sultan Abdul-Hamid the Second. On 3/15 December 1878, Süleyman Sabit Bey was appointed in the same position in Bucharest.
Romanian –Turkish Diplomatic Relations After 1878, Romania and Turkey turned from adversaries to be example of friendly ties Since then both countries have built a strong Partnership centered upon their common experience able to facilitate understanding issues the whole region being confronted with.
The 20th Century In 1934, when Turkey was led by the great state-man Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Romania together with Turkey, Yugoslavia and Greece set up the Balkan Entente, one year after the signature by the Romanian Foreign Minister Nicolae Titulescu and the Turkish Foreign Minister Tevfik Rustu Aras of the "Treaty of Friendship, Non-aggression, Arbitration and Conciliation between Romania and the Republic of Turkey".
The Relaunch of the Romanian-Turkish Relations After 1989 The diplomatic legations of the two countries in Bucharest and Istanbul were brought in 1938 to the level of Embassies. This tradition was reflected in and influenced after 1989, when both countries witnessed an ever ascending trend. Romania has an embassy in Ankara and two consulates-general in Istanbul and İzmir. Turkey has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Constanţa. Both countries are full members of the BLACKSEAFOR and BSEC.
The 21st Century President Ahmet Necdet Sezer visited Romania between July 8–9, 2004. President Traian Băsescu visited Turkey between September 28–29, 2005. Romania joined the European Union (EU) on January 1, 2007. Romania also declared its public support for Turkey and shares a privileged economic relation with Turkey.
Turkey - A Very Important Economic Investor in Romania Turkey ranks third among investors in Romania by number of registered companies and 15th based on foreign direct investment. Romania and Turkey have been developing excellent bilateral relations, and there is great potential to advance them even further. Trade is one of the key fields of cooperation.
Romania Supports Turkey’s Accession to the European Union The political dialogue is very dynamic, interested in maintaining the path in all fields of cooperation. As NATO partners, Romania and Turkey (a member of NATO since 1952) cooperate both in the field of security and at the international level.
Top 10 Turkish Companies in Romania Companies Shareholder KASTAMONU ENTEGRE AGAC SANAYIPROLEMN SA Reghin (Wood industry) VE TICARET ANONIM SIRKETI AS KOMBASSAN INSAAT TARIM VERULMENTI SA Barlad (roller bearings) SANAYII ISLETMELERI TICARET ASROMPAK SRL Pascani (Food Industry) PINAT GIDA SANAYI VE TICARET ASUNVER SRL Harghita (central heating systems, water UNVER MUHARREMsupplies, drain pipes) S.C. EREGLI DEMIR VE CELIKERDEMIR Targoviste– ROMANIA SRL ( Ferous products) FABRICALARI TASROMDIL COM SRL Baia Mare ( Food Industry) ANDIC AHMETMAJESTIC TOURISM SA Bucuresti (Hotels; Tourism) SELIM SUAT ORSANAKROM AKAL TEXTILE ROMANIA SRL Suceava (Light AK-AL TEKSTIL SANAYII ASIndustry) GARANTY GAYRIMENKUL YATIRIMGKY REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT SA Bucuresti ORTAKLIGI ASPROVUS SERVICE PROVIDER SA Bucuresti SC SERVUS BILGISAYAR AS Source: National Trade Register Office – Ministry of Justice
Turkey’s Accession to the European Union - A Win-Win Process Turkey stands at the cusp of both Christendom and Islam; as a a modernising democracy, it can only benefit from interaction with Europe. Conversely, it can benefit Europe by acting as a bridgehead between Europe and the Middle-East. It can also prove to the world at large, that an Islamic country, is capable of embracing democratic ideals, without losing its identity.
Review of Major Reasons to Invest RomaniaHealthy and Predictable Investment ClimateEU member state from January 2007Supportive Operational ConditionsFavorable Economic ConditionsEuropean Structural Funds availableSpecialized authority in the field of direct investment
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