Before the camera was invented and the history of Photography
began, the knowledge of colour and the context of a photograph had
to be understood. In the 5th-4th Century Chinese and Greek
philosophers reviewed the basics of optics and the camera, and the
secrets of light.
The word "Photography" is continued from the Greek words photos
("light") and graphein ("to draw"). The word was firstly used by a
scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. Photography is a way of
recording images by the action of light as the related radiation is
reflected on a sensitive material.
The first pinhole camera was invented by a man called Alhazen.
Alhazen was a middle ages man who lived around 1000A. He was
able to reveal why the image was upside down when the
photograph was taken. He described the optic law that made
pinhole cameras possible by observing Artistole around 330 BC,
who wondered how the sun made a circular image when a square
hole was shined on. This discovery opened doors into the world of
photography and cameras.
On a summer day in 1827, Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the
first photographic image with a camera obscura.
A Frenchman, Louis Daguerre was not the only man who was
experimenting to find a way to capture an image. But it would take him a
huge amount of time before Daguerre was able to reduce exposure time
to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing afterwards.
The Daguerreotype Camera was released by the French Academy of Sciences. This
camera was the most expensive invention at the time .
It was In 1839, after several years of experimentation and Niepce's death,
Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography,
naming it after himself - the daguerreotype.
Daguerre's process 'fixed' the photographs onto a sheet of silver-plated copper.
He then refined the silver and covered it in iodine, making a surface that was
sensitive to light. Then, he laid the plate in a camera and exposed it for a few
minutes. When the image was painted by light, Daguerre bathed the plate in a
solution of silver chloride. This process created a permanent image, one that
would not change if exposed to light.
In 1839, Daguerre and Niepce's son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the
French government published a booklet describing the procedure. The
daguerreotype gained popularity quickly; by 1850, there were over
seventy daguerreotype studios in New York City alone.
Wet Plate Negatives
Tintypes where discovered in 1856 by Hamilton Smith and they were
another source that heralded the birth of photography. A thin sheet
of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material while
yielding a positive image.
In 1851, Frederick Scoff Archer, an English sculptor, invented the wet
plate negative. Using a viscous solution of collusion, he covered
glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass and not
paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative.
Photography advanced considerably when sensitized materials
could be coated on plate glass. However, wet plates had to be
developed quickly before the emulsion dried. In the field this meant
carrying along a portable darkroom.
The Great Exhibition
Great Britain tought to provide the world with the hope of a
better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult
decades of political and social upheaval," and now Great Britain
hoped to show that technology, particularly its own, was the key
to a better future.
Dry Plate Negatives & Hand-held Cameras
In 1879, the dry plate was invented, a glass negative plate with a
dried gelatine emulsion. Dry plates could be stored for a longer
time. Photographers no longer needed portable darkrooms and
could now hire technicians to develop their photographs. Dry
processes absorbed light quickly so rapidly that the hand-held
camera was now possible.
The first flexible roll films, dating to 1889, were made of cellulose
nitrate, which is chemically similar to guncotton. A nitrate-based film
will deteriorate over time, releasing oxidants and acidic gasses. It is also
highly flammable. Special storage for this film is required.
Nitrate film is historically important because it allowed for the
development of roll films. The first flexible movie films measured 35-
mm wide and came in long rolls on a spool. In the mid-1920s, using this
technology, 35-mm roll film was developed for the camera. By the late
1920s, medium-format roll film was created. It measured six centimetres
wide and had a paper backing making it easy to handle in daylight.
The Raisecamera (also called the Travel Camera) was invented.
Extreme light weight and small dimensions when it is folded.
This made a photo camera the most desirable thing for landscape
As early as 1905, Oskar Barnack had the idea of reducing the
format of film negatives and then expanding the photographs
after they had been exposed. As development manager at Leica,
he was able to put his theory into practice. He took an
instrument for taking exposure samples for cinema film and
turned it into the world's first 35 mm camera: the 'Ur-Leica'.
The first 35mm still camera (also called candid camera ) developed by
Oskar Barnack of German Leica Camera. Later it became the standard
for all film cameras.
World War 1
More than 9 million combatants were killed: a scale of death
impacted by industrial advancements, geographic stalemate
and reliance on human wave attacks.
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that
originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of
the idea of autonomous art. The movement was in favor of art as
a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had a great effect
on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing
major trends such as Bauhaus and De Still movement. Its
influence was pervasive, with major impacts upon architecture,
graphic and industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and
to some extent music.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and
is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to
"resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality.
The movement primarily involved visual
arts, literature, poetry, artt manifestoes, art theory, theatre,
and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics
through a rejection of the prevailing standards
in art through anti-art cultural works
Pure photography or straight photography refers to photography that
attempts to depict a scene as realistically and objectively as permitted
by the medium, renouncing the use of manipulation.
Group f/64 was a group of seven 20th-century San
Francisco photographers who shared a common photographic
style characterized by sharp-focused and carefully framed
images seen through a particularly Western (U.S.) viewpointt.
Emphasis was placed on "pure" photography, sharp images,
maximum depth-of-field, smooth glossy printing paper,
emphasizing the unique qualities of the photographic process.
The Farm Security Administration
Photography has made a change in the documentry of history as
the stuggles of farm life was captured in a still photograph. It
New Deal programs designed to assist poor farmers during the
Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Roy Emerson Stryker was
the head of a special photographic section in the RA and FSA
World War II
It was the most widespread war in history, with more
than 100 million people, from over 30 different countries,
serving in military units.
Stephen G. Fritz.
The Family of Man
The photographs included in the exhibition focus on the
commonalities that bind people and cultures around the
world and the exhibition itself served as an expression of
humanism in the decade following World War II
Sony demonstrates the Sony Mavica – the world’s first digital
electronic still camera. Digital photography and television images are
related to the same technology, so this camera recorded images into a
mini disk and then put them into a video reader. Images could be
displayed to a television monitor or color printer.
It is a style in which the photographer has somehow manipulated
what would otherwise be a straightforward photograph as a means of
"creating" an image rather than simply recording it.
19th 20th century
Abstract art uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a
composition which may exist with a degree of independence from
visual references in the world
19th/ 20th century
Kodak released the first professional digital camera system (DCS)
which was of a great use for photojournalists. It was a modified Nikon
F-3 camera with a 1.3 megapixel sensor.
Fuji introduced the disposable camera in 1986. We call them
disposables but the people who make these cameras want you to know
that they're committed to recycling the parts, a message they've
attempted to convey by calling their products "single-use cameras."
The first digital cameras for the consumer-level market that worked
with a home computer via a serial cable were the Apple.
First camera in a Mobile phone
In Japanese Sharp’s J-SH04 introduced the world’s first camera phone.
The Canon EOS 5D is launched. This is first consumer-priced full-
frame digital SLR with a 24x36mm CMOS sensor.
The world of Photography had a long journey of becoming so
convenient and fast to produce. In 2013 new technology has been
developing every year and cameras and photographs can be taken on a
huge range of devices.
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