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  • 1. Jainism’s Founder
    • Mahavira
    • Lived between 599 and 527 BCE
    • Born into Kshatriya caste
    • Wealthy, but joined ascetics at age of 29
    • Extreme ascetic
    • Achieved moksha
  • 2. Mahavira’s Heroic Journey
    • Divine Birth: Dreams of mother
    • Call to Adventure: death of parents
    • Tests and Trials: Samgamaka
    • Boon: teachings of Jainism, dualist worldview
  • 3. Worldview of Jainism
    • Dualist: world is comprised of two substances soul (jiva) and matter (ajiva)
    • Persons are souls encased in matter: The “I” is the soul
    • Goal of Jainism: liberation of the soul from matter
    • Flesh (matter) is evil: torment it – become an extreme ascetic
  • 4. KARMA
    • Physical matter that builds up on the jiva (soul) as a result of activity
    • Therefore, do as little as possible to escape karma and be freed from rebirth
  • 5. JINA
    • A person who has conquered rebirth
    • MAHAVIRA (“great hero”) was a JINA
    • A spiritual leader who has found the crossing to the farther shore
    • Forged a bridge between this world and Nirvana (cessation of consciousness)
    • Mahavira was the 24 th Tirthankara
  • 7. Development of Sects (app. 80 BCE)
    • Svetambaras
    • “ White-clad”
    • Northern India
    • Nudity unnecessary
    • Allow women
    • Digambaras
    • “ Sky-clad”
    • Southern India
    • Nearly nude monks
    • Women are prohibited
  • 8. Svetambaras and Digambaras
    • Two sects disagree about the number of dreams
    • SVETAMBARAS tell of an embryo transfer
    • DIGAMBARAS deny that Mahavira became a householder
    • MAHAVIRA continued to teach, according to SVETAMBARA account.
    • The DIGAMBARAS claim that a Brahmin came to him seeking an interpretation of Jain teachings and in the presence of Mahavira, the teaching became clear.
  • 9. Trishala’s Dreams
    • Mahavira’s mother, Trishala has prophetic dreams.
    • These dreams indicate that mahavira would be either a monarch or a saint.
  • 10. Subjects of Trishala’s Dreams
    • A white elephant
    • A white bull
    • A lion
    • Sri, the goddess of beauty
    • Garlands of mandara flowers
    • The full moon
    • The rising sun
    • A beautiful flag
    • A vase of precious metal
    • A lake of lotuses
    • An ocean of milk
    • A beautiful house in the heavens
    • A pile of jewels
    • A fire
    • A throne
    • Two fish in a lake
  • 11. AGAMAS
    • The collection of JAIN scriptures
    • The Agama are subdivided into three categories:
  • 12. AGAMAS
    • PURVA (no longer exist)
    • ANGA (11 of 12 survive) contain the basic teachings of Mahavira; Rules of conduct for monks and nuns, explanation of the law of karma
    • ACARANGA states that anyone who does not refrain from injuring animals and who does not teach others not to harm animals continues to sin. A sage is one who knows that injuring animals is a sin