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Jainism

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    • 1. Jainism’s Founder
      • Mahavira
      • Lived between 599 and 527 BCE
      • Born into Kshatriya caste
      • Wealthy, but joined ascetics at age of 29
      • Extreme ascetic
      • Achieved moksha
    • 2. Mahavira’s Heroic Journey
      • Divine Birth: Dreams of mother
      • Call to Adventure: death of parents
      • Tests and Trials: Samgamaka
      • Boon: teachings of Jainism, dualist worldview
    • 3. Worldview of Jainism
      • Dualist: world is comprised of two substances soul (jiva) and matter (ajiva)
      • Persons are souls encased in matter: The “I” is the soul
      • Goal of Jainism: liberation of the soul from matter
      • Flesh (matter) is evil: torment it – become an extreme ascetic
    • 4. KARMA
      • Physical matter that builds up on the jiva (soul) as a result of activity
      • Therefore, do as little as possible to escape karma and be freed from rebirth
    • 5. JINA
      • A person who has conquered rebirth
      • MAHAVIRA (“great hero”) was a JINA
    • 6. TIRTHANKARA
      • A spiritual leader who has found the crossing to the farther shore
      • Forged a bridge between this world and Nirvana (cessation of consciousness)
      • Mahavira was the 24 th Tirthankara
    • 7. Development of Sects (app. 80 BCE)
      • Svetambaras
      • “ White-clad”
      • Northern India
      • Nudity unnecessary
      • Allow women
      • Digambaras
      • “ Sky-clad”
      • Southern India
      • Nearly nude monks
      • Women are prohibited
    • 8. Svetambaras and Digambaras
      • Two sects disagree about the number of dreams
      • SVETAMBARAS tell of an embryo transfer
      • DIGAMBARAS deny that Mahavira became a householder
      • MAHAVIRA continued to teach, according to SVETAMBARA account.
      • The DIGAMBARAS claim that a Brahmin came to him seeking an interpretation of Jain teachings and in the presence of Mahavira, the teaching became clear.
    • 9. Trishala’s Dreams
      •   
      • Mahavira’s mother, Trishala has prophetic dreams.
      • These dreams indicate that mahavira would be either a monarch or a saint.
    • 10. Subjects of Trishala’s Dreams
      • ACCORDING TO THE SVETAMBARAS:
      • A white elephant
      • A white bull
      • A lion
      • Sri, the goddess of beauty
      • Garlands of mandara flowers
      • The full moon
      • The rising sun
      • A beautiful flag
      • A vase of precious metal
      • A lake of lotuses
      • An ocean of milk
      • A beautiful house in the heavens
      • A pile of jewels
      • A fire
      • DIGAMBARAS ADD:
      •  
      • A throne
      • Two fish in a lake
    • 11. AGAMAS
      • The collection of JAIN scriptures
      • The Agama are subdivided into three categories:
    • 12. AGAMAS
      • PURVA (no longer exist)
      •  
      • ANGA (11 of 12 survive) contain the basic teachings of Mahavira; Rules of conduct for monks and nuns, explanation of the law of karma
      •  
      • ACARANGA states that anyone who does not refrain from injuring animals and who does not teach others not to harm animals continues to sin. A sage is one who knows that injuring animals is a sin