Present perfect  simple & continuous INSIDE OUT IV (Unit 6)
<ul><li>The present perfect shows a connection between the  PAST  and the  PRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>We will use the  SIMP...
DYNAMIC MEANING <ul><li>Verbs with DYNAMIC meaning can appear with PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s trie...
DYNAMIC MEANING + PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS <ul><li>This can express  ACTIONS ,  ACTIVITIES  or  PROCESSES  which are  in...
<ul><li>NOTE : Although generally the present perfect CONTINUOUS is preferred for  incomplete  actions, activities or proc...
DYNAMIC MEANING + PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE <ul><li>This can express ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES or PROCESSES which are  completed . ...
STATIVE MEANING + PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE <ul><li>This can express a  SITUATION  which is  incomplete  or  ongoing . It sta...
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: MEANINGS <ul><li>A state which lasts up to the present moment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been...
Present perfect  simple & continuous: Contrasts <ul><li>There may be little contrast when some STATIVE VERBS are used: </l...
Present perfect  simple & continuous: Contrasts <ul><li>Some verbs  (sit, lie, wait, stay)  prefer the CONTINUOUS form </l...
Present perfect  simple & continuous: Contrasts <ul><li>There may be a contrast between  completion  and  incompletion , e...
Present perfect  simple or continuous? <ul><li>I can’t believe it, Inspector. You mean that Smith  has stolen / has been s...
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Present Perfect Simple Cont

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Present Perfect Simple Cont

  1. 1. Present perfect simple & continuous INSIDE OUT IV (Unit 6)
  2. 2. <ul><li>The present perfect shows a connection between the PAST and the PRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>We will use the SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS forms depending on whether the verb has a DYNAMIC meaning or a STATIVE meaning. </li></ul>
  3. 3. DYNAMIC MEANING <ul><li>Verbs with DYNAMIC meaning can appear with PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s tried to climb Everest three times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or with PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been doing this job since I was 21 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. DYNAMIC MEANING + PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS <ul><li>This can express ACTIONS , ACTIVITIES or PROCESSES which are incomplete or ongoing . They started in the PAST and continue NOW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been writing letters all morning. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>NOTE : Although generally the present perfect CONTINUOUS is preferred for incomplete actions, activities or processes, occasionally you may want to emphasize the permanence of the action, activity or process. In these cases we can use the present perfect SIMPLE. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve worked in the same town all my life. (PERMANENT, STATE-LIKE SITUATION) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been working in Paris for the last few months. (TEMPORARY, DYNAMIC) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. DYNAMIC MEANING + PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE <ul><li>This can express ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES or PROCESSES which are completed . They have ‘happened’ in a period of time up to and including the present . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s tried to climb Everest three times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve only missed a plane once in my life. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. STATIVE MEANING + PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE <ul><li>This can express a SITUATION which is incomplete or ongoing . It started in the PAST and continues NOW. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve had my trusty old Land Rover for years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long have you known your English teacher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: We don’t normally use verbs with stative meanings in the present perfect CONTINUOUS. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: MEANINGS <ul><li>A state which lasts up to the present moment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been waiting for you for three hours! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An incomplete activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been cleaning the house but I still haven’t finished. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To emphasise duration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been writing letters all morning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A recently finished activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been running. That’s why I look hot. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A repeated activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been taking French lessons this year. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Present perfect simple & continuous: Contrasts <ul><li>There may be little contrast when some STATIVE VERBS are used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long have you lived here? (PERMANENT, STATE-LIKE SITUATION) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long have you been living here? (TEMPORARY, DYNAMIC) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Present perfect simple & continuous: Contrasts <ul><li>Some verbs (sit, lie, wait, stay) prefer the CONTINUOUS form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been waiting for you all morning! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been lying for three hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been sitting on that chair until now. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Present perfect simple & continuous: Contrasts <ul><li>There may be a contrast between completion and incompletion , especially if the number of items completed is mentioned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPLETED: emphasis on achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve ironed five shirts this morning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve written three letters this week. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCOMPLETE, OR RECENTLY COMPLETED: emphasis on duration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve been ironing my shirts this morning. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Present perfect simple or continuous? <ul><li>I can’t believe it, Inspector. You mean that Smith has stolen / has been stealing money from the till all this time? </li></ul><ul><li>The price of petrol has risen / has been rising by 15% over the past year. </li></ul><ul><li>No wonder you are overweight! You have eaten / have been eating chocolates all day long! </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve read / I’ve been reading a really good book this morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t this room look better? I’ve put / I’ve been putting some posters up on the walls. </li></ul>

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