Chapter 1 - Supervisions for successful school

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  • 1. SUMMARY FROM Chapter 1 Supervision For Successful Schools SUPERVISON OF INSTRUCTION A Developmental Approach Author: Carl D. Glickman Stephen P. Gordon1 Jovita M. Ross-Gordon
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Three types of school • Conventional School • Congenial School • Collegial School Successful schools create a “SuperVision” or instructional leadership that gives purpose and direction to the common world of adults. 2
  • 3. CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL Characterized by dependence, hierarchy, and professional isolation Example: Germando Elementary “I think you will find that I run a tight ship” Teachers not only use the same textbook, but are on the exact same page everyday. 3
  • 4. CONGENIAL SCHOOL Characterized by friendly social interactions and professional isolation Example: Finnie Tyler High School “The kids are fine, not as academic as they should be, but this school is a nice place for them. I wouldn’t want to teach anyplace else.” Teachers have the same textbook, but can teach anyway they please. 4
  • 5. COLLEGIAL SCHOOL Characterized by purposeful adult interactions about improving school-wide teaching and learning Establish learning goals for all students consistent with the responsibility of education in a democratic society. Example: Progress Middle School Collegial schools are driven by: • A covenant of learning – mission, vision, and goals • A charter for school-wide, democratic decision making • A critical study process for informing decisions and conducting action research 5
  • 6. TIMELINE OF SUPERVISION Began as a conventional paradigm (attempted to control teachers’ instructional behaviors) 17th – 19th Century: lay persons inspected schools, teachers, and student learning 20th Century (early): Age of scientific management – lay committees were replaced by professional supervisors who demonstrated how subjects should be taught and visited classrooms to suggest or recommend ways that teachers could improve instruction. 1930s – 1950s: Human relations supervision – by improving interpersonal relationships and meeting personal needs, the supervisor and teachers could improve instruction. 1960s: Behavioral science approach (conventional supervision) – direct supervisory control through inspection; curriculum and materials were developed by school districts. Late 20th Century: “Legislated learning” – external control from state legislators and state department of education 6
  • 7. PARADIGM SHIFT FROM CONVENTIONAL ANDCONGENIAL SCHOOLS TOWARD COLLEGIALSchools must include a view of supervision as follows:1. A collegial rather than a hierarchical relationship between teachers and formally designated supervisors2. Supervision as the province of teachers, as well as formally designated supervisors3. A focus on teacher growth rather than teacher compliance4. Facilitation of teachers collaborating with each other in instructional improvement efforts5. Teacher involvement in ongoing reflective inquiry 7
  • 8. SUPERVISORY GLUE AS A METHAPHOR FORSUCCESS SuperVision – a common vision of what teaching and learning can and should be, developed collaboratively by formally designated supervisors, teachers, and other members of the school community. These people will make the vision a reality. Supervision is identical to leadership for the improvement of instruction. 8
  • 9. WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPERVISION? All staff members who actively work to improve instruction 9
  • 10. ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK 10 Figure 1.1 – Supervision and successful schools
  • 11. SUPERVISION FOR SUCCESSFUL SCHOOL Supervisor must have certain prerequisites: i. Knowledge Supervisors need to understand the exception, what teachers and school can be- in contrast to the norm- what teachers and schools typically are. They also need to understand how knowledge of adults and teacher development and alternative supervisory practices can help break the norm of mediocrity found in typical school. 11
  • 12. ii. Interpersonal skills Supervisors must know how their own interpersonal behaviors affect individuals as well as groups of teachers and the study ranges of interpersonal behaviors that might be used to promote more positive and change oriented relationships. iii. Technical skills This skills needed in observing, planning, assessing, and evaluating instructional improvement. Knowledge, interpersonal skills and technical skills are three complementary aspects of supervision as a 12 developmental function.
  • 13. EDUCATIONAL TASKS Supervisors have certain educational tasks at their disposal that enable teachers to evaluate and modify their instruction. In planning each task, the supervisor needs to plan specific ways of giving teachers a greater sense of professional power to teach students successfully. Technical supervisory tasks that have such potential to affect teacher development are direct assistance, group development, professional development, curriculum development, and action research. Cultural tasks that can assist both school and teacher development include facilitating change, addressing diversity, and building community. 13
  • 14. SUPERVISION AND MORAL PURPOSE Supervision based on moral purpose begins with the school community asking two broad questions: 1. What type of society do we desire? Democratic society in which all members are considered equal. 2. What type of educational environment should supervision promote in order to move toward the society we desire? Involves creating an educational environment that prepares students to be members of that democratic society. 14
  • 15. CONCLUSION Collegial schools are effective in obtaining student achievement. The five steps to schools meeting their objectives are: 1. Professional development 2. Direct assistance to teachers 3. Curriculum development 4. Group development 5. Action research Supervision is identical to leadership for the improvement of instruction Supervision is based on the job/actions of a person, not their title For the purpose of instructional improvement, supervisors should have: o Knowledge of professional development o Interpersonal skills o Technical skills (teaching skills) 15
  • 16. CONCLUSIONImportant quotations from the first chapter • In successful schools, individual needs are fulfilled through organizational goals. Students are engaged in learning. • The history of instructional supervision is viewed most often as an instrument for controlling teachers. • Supervision is the glue of successful schools. • Instructional leadership is to be viewed as a function and process rather than a role or position. • Those responsible for supervision must possess knowledge, interpersonal skills, and technical skills • Those supervisory tasks that have potential to affect teacher development are direct assistance, group development, professional development, curriculum development, and action research. 16
  • 17. THANK YOU17