Chapter 2 Giving Shape to Your Writing
Elements of the Paragraph <ul><li>Topic sentence  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States the main idea of the paragraph </li></ul></...
The Topic Sentence <ul><li>Usually comes at the beginning of your paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a general statement th...
Common Topic Sentence Problems <ul><li>Two common topic sentence problems are that they are either too  narrow  or too  br...
Writing a Topic Sentence for a Specific Assignment <ul><li>A good topic sentence makes a direct connection to the writing ...
Writing a Topic Sentence for a General Assignment <ul><li>First, narrow the assignment to a manageable topic </li></ul><ul...
Major and Minor Supporting Details <ul><li>BE SPECIFIC!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Your supporting details provide the real conte...
Major Details: Thinking in Three’s <ul><li>It’s a good idea to think of three major supporting details that can be used to...
Minor Details <ul><li>Details almost always need explanation  </li></ul><ul><li>In the drafting stage of writing, you pres...
Unity: Eliminating Irrelevant Details <ul><li>All the details you think of do not necessarily belong in your paragraph </l...
Detail Double-Check <ul><li>Relevant details clarify or explain the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: </li></ul><ul><...
Coherence: Order and Transitions <ul><li>Coherence  means the ideas and details work together to support your main idea. <...
Time Order <ul><li>Use  time  to organize your details if you are telling a story, explaining a process, or explaining how...
Spatial Order <ul><li>Use  space and distance  to organize your details in descriptive writing to indicate the relationshi...
Order of Importance or Impact <ul><li>Use transitions to express  importance or impact  when the impression you want to cr...
The Concluding Sentence <ul><li>The Last Sentence Counts! </li></ul><ul><li>A concluding sentence restates the main idea o...
Assignment: <ul><li>Draft a paragraph based on the topic you chose on Tuesday.  </li></ul><ul><li>Use the prewriting we di...
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Chapter 2 notes

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Giving Shape to Your Writing
  2. 2. Elements of the Paragraph <ul><li>Topic sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States the main idea of the paragraph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t tell me what you are going to be writing about…just do it! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting Details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the main idea, making it clear and specific for the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Order and Transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Details are arranged in a logical order that is made visible by the use of transition words and phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concluding Sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally restates the main idea, but it can also make a comment that emphasizes it. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Topic Sentence <ul><li>Usually comes at the beginning of your paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a general statement that tells the reader what your paragraph is about </li></ul><ul><li>Can sometimes come at the end of a paragraph, summing up the facts and ideas in order to make the point of a paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>It is good practice, when you draft, to underline your topic sentence, just to make sure it is there! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Common Topic Sentence Problems <ul><li>Two common topic sentence problems are that they are either too narrow or too broad . </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow Topic Sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States a fact or detail. It does not give the reader the bigger picture of what your paragraph is about. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broad Topic Sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes a general statement. It promises way too much. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Writing a Topic Sentence for a Specific Assignment <ul><li>A good topic sentence makes a direct connection to the writing assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>You should incorporate key terms from the assignment into your topic sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: ( pg 29) </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment : Discuss the most important personal characteristic a person brings to the workplace . </li></ul><ul><li>Topic Sentence : The most important personal characteristic a person brings to the workplace is the desire to learn. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Writing a Topic Sentence for a General Assignment <ul><li>First, narrow the assignment to a manageable topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To narrow the topic, ask yourself these questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What specific ideas, examples, or details do I know about this assignment or topic? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What point do I want to make about this assignment or topic? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use prewriting techniques to help you narrow the topic to something you can discuss in detail. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Major and Minor Supporting Details <ul><li>BE SPECIFIC!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Your supporting details provide the real content of your paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Major supporting details provide the main points writers use to support their topic sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Minor supporting details take the explanation a few steps further. They elaborate on or explain major details. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Major Details: Thinking in Three’s <ul><li>It’s a good idea to think of three major supporting details that can be used to explain and illustrate the main idea of the paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>You may eventually use more or fewer than three; however, to get started, it is helpful to think in three’s. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Minor Details <ul><li>Details almost always need explanation </li></ul><ul><li>In the drafting stage of writing, you present major details and elaborate on them with minor details. </li></ul><ul><li>You also make decisions about the order of details in your paragraph. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Unity: Eliminating Irrelevant Details <ul><li>All the details you think of do not necessarily belong in your paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Unity means all the details, major and minor, relate directly to the main idea stated in the topic sentence. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Detail Double-Check <ul><li>Relevant details clarify or explain the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it interesting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it important? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If it is both, keep it . </li></ul><ul><li>If it is just interesting, cut it . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Coherence: Order and Transitions <ul><li>Coherence means the ideas and details work together to support your main idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Use transition words and phrases to establish the coherence of your paragraph and make connections between details. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Time Order <ul><li>Use time to organize your details if you are telling a story, explaining a process, or explaining how something has changed over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Time Transition Words: </li></ul><ul><li>After As soon as at first at last </li></ul><ul><li>Before finally in the first place </li></ul><ul><li>In the meantime later next </li></ul><ul><li>Soon then </li></ul>
  14. 14. Spatial Order <ul><li>Use space and distance to organize your details in descriptive writing to indicate the relationships between the things your are describing. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Transition Words: </li></ul><ul><li>Above Below Close by In front </li></ul><ul><li>In back in the center to the right </li></ul><ul><li>To the left </li></ul>
  15. 15. Order of Importance or Impact <ul><li>Use transitions to express importance or impact when the impression you want to create is cumulative. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance and Impact Transition Words: </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally again also and </li></ul><ul><li>As well besides equally important </li></ul><ul><li>Further furthermore in addition </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover then </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Concluding Sentence <ul><li>The Last Sentence Counts! </li></ul><ul><li>A concluding sentence restates the main idea of the paragraph and emphasizes the importance of the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Your paragraph should not simply come to an end. </li></ul><ul><li>Your concluding sentence allows you to make an impression on your reader in closing. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Assignment: <ul><li>Draft a paragraph based on the topic you chose on Tuesday. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the prewriting we did in class as a starting point. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you have a strong topic sentence, at least three solid supporting details, and a concluding sentence that clearly and concisely restates your main idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraphs may be handwritten or typed; just remember that this is only a first draft. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring your paragraph with you to class on Tuesday, 10/13. We will practice editing and revising with your paragraphs. </li></ul>

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