The New UGC: University-Generated Content

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Sloan Consortium International Conference on Online Learning Presentation from November 2013. Are we at the level of cat videos for university video content? This discussion looks at blended and online learning video content versus other UGC trends in other media. It shares 5 brief case studies with use cases of video in F2F and blended environment. It then suggests issues and trends to consider in thinking about incorporating video into future university class environments

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  • Video screenshots:Upper Right: The Daily, Best Cat VideosBottom Right: Lizzie Bennett Diaries, online seriesBottom Left: FutureLearn, 2013 classWhat are ongoing trends that could be pushing up both your costs and expectations?What should be in your own Buy/Build/Share decisions on course creation, iteration, and planning?
  • Established roles of time, place, connection to users – pushback while new content is created
  • Our costs of creating are now “free” or perceived to be freeLower costs of creationLower barriers to entry, sharing, and distributionNew social norms from mass production has affected expectations and is shifting social norms.
  • New technology – committee for sound, forbid actors on TV
  • Investments in small ventures with minimal fundingDeal with external party with iTunesSpotify as alternative vs. piracyMusic – to YouTube and iTunes – reaggregators, people creating for freeOnramping parties to deal with integration across systems
  • NDN – News Distribution Network – Professional ecosystemHulu – insiders with big investment and only two parties’ content (mostly); after 30,000 downloads/show, offering podcast talent showsNetflix – outsiders, sneaking in distribution window of Pay Cable TVVideo – YouTube – heading to MCNs
  •  NYU Online, Fathom, Virtual Temple, and University of Maryland University College OnlineAll Learn (Alliance for Lifelong Learning) – Oxford, Stanford, Yale – 110 online courses to more than 10,000 students from 70 countries selective big investment without market there yetFathom (2000-2003): Columbia University  London School of Economics and Political Science, the British Library, the New York Public Library, Cambridge University Press, and the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Separate question – expanded creation of videoKaltura – video media serviceiTunes U – Giving away content to someone else to gain audience
  • 3 of them -- Stanford inside – spun out – externalMIT/Harvardx – external-ish – combined venture outside of the universities w/UCBerkeleyCoursera dominant – online – OpenSAP – 18,033 learners were enrolled on day 1 of the course.When the final exam ended, this number had increased to 40,386.15,748 learners actively participated in the course.10,795 learners took the final exam.9,383 graded records of achievement were issuedFor most, less individualized – Mass = Identical
  • Case 1: In-House Videos at a Major University, Masters ProgramFaculty slides with bullet points – no development assistanceBuying equipment from AmazonPost for students to use for contentNo iterationNo feedbackNo IP recognition or questions
  • Case 2: Faculty Training, Graduate UniversityFocus on storage Now-abundant faculty video within Moodle environmentletting faculty create all of their own content – faculty setting their own content out YouTube and Vimeo for student use, boycotting use of Kaltura. BYOD technology by faculty creating some great and awful content. 1 educational technology support person for 150 faculty. No measurement of his results and no goals to where things are going, but WITH faculty buyoff on creating content. Diverse location across many time zonesAsynchronous training hub – encouraged abundance of creation without tethers – boosted desire for training among top 10%Dead and released faculty content still in system
  • Case 3: Cross-University Study, Major University5 separate studios and 5 different programs
  • Case 4: Independent Faculty, Thin/Variable Support, Major University DepartmentCreate their own blended content, or varies by departmentCounting on Moodle 2.3 to ask about if they own the IPNo support, iteration, measurement, storage. Just getting Kaltura in as a storage system vs. content being put anywhere. YouTube largest playback of video source.
  • Case 5: Masters Program, Online Sessions,Major Universitysame problems with implementation, hiring for $25K per class, customized for your own content, financed by a publishing company for their use, problems on implementation on getting faculty buy-off. Hiring animators from industry and film school without consideration of cognitive load and accessibility.
  • Using webcam or simple studiosVarying applications of Lectures in different modesPlugging in YouTube videosMinimal thinking about cognitive load and accessibility. Organization focus on “online” and “MOOCs,” with fewer resources toward blended. Focus on Lecture as the ideal learning mode – or are their other trends?
  • MarketplaceCommunity ManagementUpsellingAllows JIT learning and binge viewing and packages for LMS and LT data useData plus audience systemsUdemy and curious and Lynda – JIT learningMobile as use of “found time” – contrasts with MOOC assumptionsCES – onboardingFB – content resultsAmazon style discovery and recommendation tools
  • 50% “traditional” online5-10% involvement in other web media (e.g., blogs, comments, actions) for free engagementWhy should MOOCs be better? 7.5% March 2013 Chronicle of Higher Ed StudyAudience management – variable messaging, reminding, behavior monitoringAdaptive learning – touted trend in education – why are MOOCs the opposite?
  • CurationIntegrationSyndicationOpen APIs – grow ecosystems from other’s time and investment, imagination, and time
  • Individualization tools that can be brought back to individual university use Mass not equal identicalAudience management systems – freemium model in subscription Data – who/what/where – feedback into other learnings as recommendation engineIn other sectors, onramping – ecosystems to help social and creative content find community and commerce. Loss leaders – for what? Economics – if average lecturer paid <$5K, adding 3,000/hour for video production makes sense?
  • The New UGC: University-Generated Content

    1. 1. Dr. Gigi Johnson, Maremel Institute Nov. 22, 2013 Sloan Consortium International Conference on Online Learning
    2. 2. Is University Video the New UGC? Instructional video can be more than capturing blended courses with "just a webcam." Sources: The Daily, Lizzie Bennett Diaries, FutureLearn
    3. 3. UGC: Technology Changes Shift Core Assumptions Friction Mixing roles • Time • Place • Connection New creative uses with cheaper tools • New reaggregators • New economics • Pushback from existing players
    4. 4. Long-Term Driver: We Hold Smart Devices in our Hands as Consumers Cartoon, Gordon Moore article Electronics, Volume 38, Number 8, April 19, 1965.
    5. 5. We Have Arrived as Producers . . . . . . With computers and cameras in all of our hands . ..
    6. 6. Decreased Costs Bring Shifts to Profitable Core Business Innovator’s Dilemma: Clay Christensen
    7. 7. This Shift Story is Old: Film Pushed Back to TV Source: Library of Congress. FCC 1939.
    8. 8. Music: Post-Shift, We Have Built Onramps to a “Singles” Model Post-UGC Shift: New Ventures re-aggregating and creating On-Boarding Tools/Systems Source: RIAA figures; Digital Music News
    9. 9. Books: We’re Mid-Shift, Building New Models and Processes
    10. 10. TV, Mid-UGC Shift, is Building 3 New Patterns US Unique Videos (000) Viewers (000) Minutes per Viewer/ Mo. YouTube/ Google Facebook AOL Microsoft/ MSN 165,422 16,166,830 462 67,169 61,784 49,175 975,048 976,316 644,416 25 61 33 NDN VEVO Yahoo! Viacom Amazon CBS Interactive 49,090 48,985 44,803 38,214 32,909 31,144 532,589 617,360 322,827 404,014 143,206 213,629 79 42 64 45 24 45 188,690 45,963,898 Totals Netflix Subs 31,100 Hulu Viewers 24,100 2,400 Source: ComScore
    11. 11. Universities Have Long Explored Shifting Models KUHT . "Dr. Richard I. Evans." June 8, 1953. University of Houston Digital Library. <http://digital.lib.uh.edu/u?/p15195coll38,195>
    12. 12. By 2011, Online Had Connected with 32% of US Higher Ed Students 6.7 million students in the U.S. took at least one online course in 2011 Sources: 2012 Survey of Online Learning, Babson
    13. 13. “Traditional” Online Has Reached Scale in Degree Packages 235,000 enrollments in 1,200 courses 27,000 students Oblinger (2012) 50,000 enrollments to 10,300 students in 70 degree and certificate programs Online courses to 7,000 of its 31,000 students 30,000 students for $6,000/year each Rio Salado College (AZ), with 40,000 students with its online programs
    14. 14. Universities Have Built Experiments and Expansions "After five years the cost of providing high-quality courses and services at affordable prices was unfortunately not sustainable over time in the All Learn model." All Learn, 2006 "The problems that Fathom was trying to address -- how to connect with lifelong learners, how to provide authenticated information -- are an important challenge. ... I wish that the national economics could have supported a longer experiment.“ James Hilton, 2003, U. of Michigan
    15. 15. MOOCs: Shifting to Reaggregated Singles Distributor (Founding) Alexa % US Global # Visitors Rank Courses Sept 2013 Ownership Coursera (2012) 1,878 517 23% VC/Private, US OpenSAP (2013) 2,652 13(?) edX (2012) 6,960 74 24% Non-Profit, US Udacity (2012) 7,019 28 26% VC/Private, US NovoED (2013) 16,846 23 31% VC/Private, US iVersity (2013 pivot) 22,151 24 Canvas Network (2012) 65,519 97 39% Instructure/Private, US FutureLearn (2013) 70,033 25 9% Open Univ./Private, UK Open2Study (2013) 82,301 32 6% Open Univ, Australia CourseSites (2011) 111,411 42 45% Blackboard/Private, US OpenLearning (2012) 139,912 14 10% Private, Australia 16% Private, Germany 5% Germany Sources: Alexa, Class-Central, Crunchbase
    16. 16. What are the Impacts of These Trends as a “New” UGC? >800 MOOC classes produced to date >30% of US university students taking online classes How is this effort affecting F2F teaching, as well as production of blended and online courses?  How are we are learning as multimedia creators in education?  5 Short Cases as Examples
    17. 17. Case 1: Creating In-House Videos In-House Videos at a Major University, Masters Program • Faculty slides with bullet points – no development assistance • Buying equipment from Amazon • Post for students to use for content with quizzes as proof • No iteration • No feedback • No IP recognition or questions
    18. 18. Case 2: BYOD Faculty Media Creation Faculty Training, Graduate University • Focus on storage • Now-abundant faculty video within Moodle environment • No measurement of his results and no goals to where things are going, but WITH faculty buyoff on creating content. • Dead and released faculty content still in system
    19. 19. Case 3: Five Online Programs Cross-University Study, Major University  Self-Trained Fiefdoms  5 separate studios and 5 different programs  No IP recordkeeping system  Diverse contracts and pay systems
    20. 20. Case 4: Roll Your Own Content Independent Faculty, Thin/Variable Support, Major University Department • • • • • Create their own blended content, or varies by department Counting on Moodle 2.3 to ask about if they own the IP No support, iteration, measurement, storage Just getting Kaltura in as a storage system vs. content being put anywhere YouTube largest playback of video source
    21. 21. Case 5: Recording Classes with an Outside Entity and Funding IP issues  Pedagogical “say so” from experienced faculty -- Friction  Confusion in implementation – getting faculty to deliver on their side; communication; understanding culture  Funded by other parties – no financial stake in costs 
    22. 22. 5-10% of Higher Ed Chasing Lecture Capture       Focus on webcam or simple studios Capturing Lectures in different modes Integrating YouTube or other videos Minimal thinking about cognitive load, IP tracking, adaptive learning, and accessibility Storage and discovery challenges Organizational focus on “online” and “MOOCs,” with fewer resources toward blended
    23. 23. Are We Adopting the Best of Other Industries’ UGC Trends…Yet?      Just-In-Time video watching -- mobile “found time” Binge viewing (a la Netflix) Amazon-style discovery and recommendation tools New aggregators to maneuver data – shared audiences, flow of audiences Fansites and Fanfiction as new, engaged multimedia experiences     Heat-mapping – data visualization of geography patterns for planning Use of Super Fans (Whales, Dolphins, Minnows) to treat different users differently Syndication Metadata, metadata, metadata
    24. 24. What Are the Issues We are Wrestling With? Who owns the compiled rights?  Who measures and rewards the faculty time involved in flipping and blending?  What is the real cost to product these with hourly and non-exempt staff?  Who validates the quality of the content and effectiveness of the production choices? 
    25. 25. How are We Wrestling with the Money Issues?  Should Universities be financing video and multimedia just for their own blended use?  Economics – if average lecturer paid <$5K, adding $3,000/hour or $10,000+++ for video production makes sense?    What are the Buy-Build-Share decisions? Are MOOCs -- a "freemium" business model -just the starting point of intriguing syndication models between universities? What is the lifecycle of blended course production content?  How will these libraries be measured, refreshed and monitored?
    26. 26. Why Not Best Practices from Traditional Online and UGC? Example: Retention rates  50% “traditional” online without nurturing/design  5-10% involvement in other web media (e.g., blogs, comments, actions) for free engagement  Why should MOOCs at 5-15% be better? Tools:  Audience management – variable messaging, reminding, behavior monitoring  Adaptive learning – touted trend in education – why are Blended classes and MOOCs often the opposite?
    27. 27. We Can Embrace Growth Opportunities from UGC     Curation: Discovery, improvement, and reuse Integration: Systemic integration, review, and planning Syndication: Buy/Build/Share Between Organizations Open APIs – grow ecosystems from other’s time and investment, imagination, and time
    28. 28. One Option: We Can Build “a Netflix for University-Generated Content”  Subscription-based licensing of “second run”      classes – after blended university use for individual classes, repackaged for other courses, or for JIT, Binge, or Burst learning Tools for personalization, recommendation, and adaptive learning Data-rich – who/what/where – feedback into other learnings as recommendation engine Searchable with “expanded surface area” like Inkling Connected with enhanced content and other related media Connectable into various LMS systems
    29. 29. Who Will Re-Aggregate Our Futures? Gigi Johnson, EdD Maremel Institute @maremel

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