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Brave new world of (nano)-sensing:
the next technological revolution
Quantum-Pi’s sensors

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  1. 1. Brave new world of (nano)-sensing: the next technological revolution and Quantum-Pi’s sensorsMarek T. Michalewicz, PhDFounder and Chief Scientific Advisor Quantum Precision InstrumentsCairo, 5 December 2009 Asia Private Limited, Singapore
  2. 2. Déjà vu ....“Each civilisation leaves behind the pyramid fit to its greatness. Examplesabound: Egypt, Aztec and Maya civilisations the Pompidou Centre Paristhe Parliment House in Canberra, Australia. Huge and monumental thingswere done and do not pose the original challenge. XXI century has to becelebrated with Very Small Pyramids. It is chemically and aesteticallyconvincing that the best building block for tiny pyramids would be C60molecule commonly known as Buckyball. ..........”“.......... The race of nations to dominate the World so beneficial in bringingabout Space exploration, landing of humans on the Moon, or collapse ofCommunism and the end of The Cold War, is still on. The nation that winsin microscopic world might very well be the nation to win the Globe.”(mtm 1998) Quantum-π – sensing the future
  3. 3. Motivation:1. Sharing the vision of sensors revolution2. Presentation of quantum tunneling sensing devices from Quantum-Pi3. Sharing experiences of running nanotech early stage company for 10 years4. Invitation to engage in joint research or development5. Seeking investments Quantum-π – sensing the future
  4. 4. VisionFuture: In few years from now sensor networks will be as ubiquitous and pervasive as cellular phones are today.Vision: Prepare, position and grow Quantum-π to become global company, “the powerhouse” in this market.10 years rule: So-called “overnight success” takes ~10 years. Quantum-π – sensing the future
  5. 5. From idea to reality to common useElectromagnetic induction: Michael Faraday - 1831 street lights using this principle ~75 years laterMASER/LASER Basov, Prokhorov - 1952/54 Townes, Gordon, Zeigler - 1953 LASER demonstrated by Maiman - 1960Airplanes: Wright brothers 1905 Quantum-π – sensing the future
  6. 6. Sensors - some applicationsSonobuoys and sonars: Displacement and tremor sensors in securityNavy, environment and biology perimeter systems, border protection, cargo monitoring, seismology, mining, geology, tectonics and nuclear test monitoringHigh precision mask alignment systems, waferflatness profilers and stepper accelerometers inmicroelectronic industry Accelerometers: manufacturing, aviation, defense, aeronautics and automotive Quantum-π – sensing the future
  7. 7. More examples of the trend:University of California, Berkeley: “Smart Dust project”HP’s CeNSE project:“Create the mathematical and physical foundations for the technologiesthat will form a new information ecosystem, the Central Nervous Systemfor the Earth (CeNSE), consisting of a trillion nanoscale sensors andactuators embedded in the environment and connected via an array ofnetworks with computing systems, software and services to exchangetheir information among analysis engines, storage systems and end users.”Foresight Institute: Open Source Sensing InitiativeThe University of WashingtonPacific Ocean floor remote sensing using optical fibre cables and swarms ofautonomous vessels laced with sensors and observation devices. Quantum-π – sensing the future
  8. 8. Brave new world of (nano)-sensing• Sensing methods to effectively help de-mine unexploded land-mines and shells in Egypt• “ultra-sound” scans of Pyramids and other structures• 24/7 real-time monitoring of health of water dams, bridges, roads, railway tracks• Continuos sensing and control of environmental conditions “at very small granularity” - localised scale• Point-of-delivery (plant) moisture sensing and watering systems• Bio-medical diagnostics applications• Environmental sensors embedded in mobile phones• Oil & Gas: seismic, reservoir, well, “Smart” Oil Fields (Shell, Schlumberger, Baker Hughes) Quantum-π – sensing the future
  9. 9. Quantum Precision Instruments Asia Private LimitedA high-tech company founded in 1999 and developing Nano Electro-Mechanical (NEMS) sensors, wireless sensor networks and atomic precisionmetrology nanoTrek® devices especially useful in: oil and gas industry, security, defense and military, medicine and biotechnology, aviation, maritime and navigation, precision manufacturing and microelectronics fabrication equipment, nanotechnology and scientific industries, and in consumer products.Quantum-Pi received the 2009 Frost & Sullivan Award for TechnologyInnovation in Integrated Nano-Sensing Quantum-π – sensing the future
  10. 10. Devices, Patents and Concepts:1. nanoTrek® - a quantum tunneling based linear encoder of position, motion and alignment2. dynamic nanoTrek® – Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) sensors for measurements of vibration, acceleration, pressure, flow, etc.3. new designs for the AFM cantilevers that do not require optical metrology to measure bending and torsions but utilize quantum tunnelling4. 2-D tuneable diffraction gratings for atom beams, or a new type of an atom optics chip5. quantum tunneling photo-detector cross-grid arrays Quantum-π – sensing the future
  11. 11. Collaborators:Piotr Glowacki1 1: Quantum-πPiotr Slodowy1 2: Australian National University, Canberra, AustraliaDr Miroslaw Walkiewicz1Dr Ewa Radlinska1,2 3: Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UKDr Nancy Lumpkin1,3 4: University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaDr Steven Bremner1,3 5: Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics, Warsaw UniversityDr Frederic Green4 of Technology, WarsawProf Zygmunt Rymuza5N. Singh6 6: Institute of Microelectronics, SingaporeDr S. Balakumar6 7: Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore andN. N. Gosvami7 Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University ofProf Dr. Herbert O. Moser8Dr Ao Chen8 SingaporeDr Linke Jian8 8: Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University ofDr Shahrain bin Mahmood8 SingaporeDr Jong Ren Kong8 9: Data Storage Institute, SingaporeDr A. B. T. Saw8Dr Zhang Jun9 10: Institute of Manufacturing Technology, SingaporeDr Chen Wenjie10 11: Birck Nanotechnology Laboratory, Purdue University, USATsung-Chi Chen11Prof. Arvind Raman11Prof. Ron Reifenberger11 Quantum-π – sensing the future
  12. 12. Scientific Advisers:Prof. James Gimzewski Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, USAProf. Harold G. Craighead Charles W. Lake Professor of Engineering, Professor of Applied and Engineering Physics, Director, Nanobiotechnology Center, Cornell University, NY, USAProf. Boleslaw K. Szymanski Professor of Computer Science, Director, Center for Pervasive Computing and Networking, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USAProf. Zygmunt Rymuza Professor at the Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics, Warsaw University of Technology, PolandProf. Derek Y C Chan Personal Chair in Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Melbourne, AustraliaDr Anthony Sasse M.B.B.S. (Uni of Melb), F.R.A.C.P.Dr Halit Eren Senior Lecturer, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, AustraliaDr Nancy Lumpkin ex-Research Fellow, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK Quantum-π – sensing the future
  13. 13. Quantum-π facilities in Singapore Collaborations: SSLS: Singapore Synchrotron Light SourceA*STAR Agency for Science Technology & ResearchIMRE Institute of Materials Research & EngineeringIME Institute of MicroelectronicsDSI Data Storage InstituteSIMTech Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology Quantum-π – sensing the future
  14. 14. Quantum tunnelingTunneling of particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles) is an exclusively quantumphenomena arising out of the particle-wave duality. It can only be explained by laws ofquantum physics. In the quantum realm particles like an electron can penetrate energybarriers higher then the energy of a particle, and appear on the “other side” in a “ghost-like”manner.Quantum tunneling is a very well established natural phenomenon observed for example inenergy production in the Sun and stars, alpha decay of heavy nucleus and used in manymodern day devices such an Esaki tunnel diode, SQUID and the Scanning TunnelingMicroscope.Several Nobel Prizes in Physics were awarded for discoveries and contributions related toquantum tunneling effect:  L.-V. de Broglie (1927, particle-wave duality)  H.A. Bethe (1967, energy production in the Sun and stars)  B. D. Josephson (1973, theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through tunnel barrier, Josephson effects)  L. Esaki and I. Giaever (1973, experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively)  G. Binnig and H. Rohrer (1986, design of the scanning tunneling microscope). Quantum-π – sensing the future
  15. 15. Quantum tunneling: examples Magnetoencephalography Energy production in stars Scanning Tunneling Microscope06 November 2003: NOAAs Space Environment Center (SEC) has classified this flare as an X28, making it in fact the strongest ever recorded. Title : Carbon Monoxide Man ...The Sun’s core temp is ~13.6 MK. For hydrogen Media : Carbon Monoxide on nuclei the Coulomb barrier is roughly 0.1 MeV. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an Platinum (111) This corresponds to a temperature in excess of 1 imaging technique used to measure the Zeppenfeld & Eigler (IBM) GK! Luckily, tunneling and the distribution of magnetic fields produced by electricalspeeds among nuclei lower the actual temperature activity in the brain via extremelyrequired. So without tunneling even the Sun’s core sensitive devices such as isn’t hot enough for fusion. superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)
  16. 16. Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, IBM Zurich LabScanning Tunneling Microscope, Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Quantum-π – sensing the future
  17. 17. Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, IBM Zurich LabScanning Tunneling Microscope, Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Quantum-π – sensing the future
  18. 18. Chingwen Yeh A Low-VoltageTunneling-Based Silicon MicroaccelerometerThe general structure of the low-voltagetunneling-based accelerometerThe SEM photograph of a tunneling microaccelerometer fabricated usingsilicon-wafer-dissolved process and glass bonding. The picture shows the topelectrode, and the perforated proof mass partially visible under this electrode Quantum-π – sensing the future
  19. 19. Tom Kenny, Stanford UniversityTunneling Infrared Sensor Quantum-π – sensing the future
  20. 20. nanoTrek ®: Principle of operation Demo 1 Quantum-π – sensing the future
  21. 21. Market – product matrix Oil & Gas Buildings, Microelectr Manufactu Automotiv Medicine Defence & Roads, onics ring & e& Security Utilities, Mining Aviation DamsVibrationsensors       Seismometers    Accelerometers      Microphones    Flow,pressuremeters       Positionalmetrology  Quantum-π – sensing the future
  22. 22. Technology differentiators Quantum-π – sensing the future
  23. 23. 8’ wafer fabricated at IME Singapore Quantum-π – sensing the future
  24. 24. nanoTrek ® one plate set in a holder Quantum-π – sensing the future
  25. 25. Prototype nanoTrek® devices fabricated at IME 90 nanometers Cross section of nanowires ~80-100 micrometers Electron Microscope Image of human hair res wi a no n ct ing n ne Each nanowire is ~1/1000th width of o pc stri of human hair! e tal M Quantum-π – sensing the future
  26. 26. nanoTrek® devices - scale analogy 43 kmImagine a straight path 1meter wide running theentire length of 50 km,and another one,separated by 2 meters, 12,000 Xand another one…Imagine 12,000 such 1m 50 kmwide and 50 km longpaths!Now, shrink this pictureten million times and youget an image of one ofthe hundreds ofnanoTrek® devices Quantum-π – sensing the future
  27. 27. Product 1:Quantum Tunneling Linear Encoder of Position Unique metrology: Target range: 20 cm Target resolution: 0.1 pm (with interpolation) Current vs. X-axis translation 0.4 0.3 0.3current [uA] 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 effective translation [nm]
  28. 28. Quantum-π experimental set-up at SIMTech
  29. 29. Quantum-π experimental set-up at Purdue U.
  30. 30. Moire interference patterns
  31. 31. Dynamic nanoTrek® devices Quantum-π – sensing the future
  32. 32. Proven Fabrication ProcessesCleland & Roukes, UCSB & CalTech Quantum-π – sensing the future
  33. 33. Proven Fabrication ProcessesGreatest challenges:Cutting the quantum tunneling gap. But it’s been done!Transfer of knowledge to Singapore from Cornell U. USA,Prof. H. Craighead Focussed Ion Beam milling: example from University of WalesH. Craighead et. al. Cornell UniversityInstitute of Microelectronics have confirmed all process steps.The detailed process has been documented in IME-Quantum-Pi project plan.Quantum-Pi POC is to build functional devices using these established processes. Quantum-π – sensing the future
  34. 34. nanoTrek® sensors technical issues:• Sensing mechanism: quantum tunneling• Fabrication• Signal processing• Communication: wired or wireless• Power: ✴ power harvesting ✴ super-capacitors ✴ nano-batteries ✴ piezoelectric ✴ micro-mechanical power harvestin• Packaging• Integration Quantum-π – sensing the future
  35. 35. Post Script: Nanocaror “Where fantasy stops and reality begins?”It started as a sheer scientific joke:"Nano-cars: Enabling Technology for building Buckyball Pyramids",M.T. Michalewicz, Annals of Improbable Research,Vol. IV, No. 3 March/April 1998Table of Contents for Volume 4, Issue 2, Mar/Apr 1998Annual Swimsuit issueResearch:The History of the Universe in 200 Words or Less Translated Ten Times or MoreNano-Cars and Buckyball PyramidsPenises in the Plant KingdomCat TunnelingDoes It Rain More Often on the Weekends?earlier also presented at:"Nano-cars: Feynmans dream fulfilled or the ultimate challenge to Automotive Industry" Publicationabstract: M T Michalewicz, The Fifth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology, Palo Alto(1997) Nov 5-8 Quantum-π – sensing the future
  36. 36. Post Script: Nanocaror “Where fantasy stops and reality begins?”BUT..... 8 years later !!!10/20/2005CONTACT: Jade BoydPHONE: (713) 348-6778E-MAIL: jadeboyd@rice.edu“Rice scientists build worlds first single-molecule carNanocar with buckyball wheels paves way for other molecular machines.Rice University scientists have constructed the worlds smallest car -- a single molecule"nanocar" that contains a chassis, axles and four buckyball wheels.The "nanocar" is described in a research paper that is available online and due to appear inan upcoming issue of the journal Nano Letters. ......” Quantum-π – sensing the future
  37. 37. Company location and contact informationDr Marek T. Michalewicz, FounderBusiness conducted at:36A Hong Kong Street, Singapore 059675Telephone: +65 6236 2160 +65 9777 9599 (cell)URL: http://www.quantum-pi.come-mail: marek@quantum-pi.comBusiness Registered:Quantum Precision Instruments Asia, Pte. Ltd.Company Registration No. 200415706Z10 Anson Road, #09-24, International Plaza,Singapore 079903 Quantum-π – sensing the future
  38. 38. Dr Marek T. Michalewicz Physics, Computation and Nanotechnology research record1984-1987 - studies of the tunnelling potential in the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM)1986 April - visit to H. Rohrer’s group at the IBM Laboratory in ZurichStudies of surface plasmons on metallic quantum dots of 20-600 nm radius on buckyball C60.Theoretical identification of four molecular surface plasmons on C60Extensive experience with Cray–2, Cray Y–MP, Cray C90, Cray J90, NEC SX-4 and SX-5 vector-parallel supercomputers and Cray T3D, MasPar and Compaq alpha massively parallel supercomputers.Massively parallel algorithm in the study of disordered condensed matter: O(1) parallel scaling, electronicstructure solved for a sample of ~500,000 atoms (TiO2) on SIMD computer (MasPar 16,000 Processors)1995 - defined the Grand Challenge problem in Computational Nanoelectronics at the 1st Asian Supercomputer Conference in Taipei, Taiwan1996 - honorable mention - the Bell prize for supercomputing research1998 - the fastest application on SX-4 with 32 CPU in the World: created program that scaled linearly, O(N), run with a speed of 43 GFLOPS/s on NEC SX-4 vector -parallel supercomputer with 32 processors (~67% theoretical peak speed) and computed electronic densities of states for multi-million atom samples in minutes. The largest test computation performed was for the electronic density of states (DOS) for the TiO2 sample consisting of 7,623,000 atoms.Mathematically, this was equivalent to obtaining a spectrum of an n x n Hermitian operator(Hamiltonian) where n = 38,115,0001990 –2000 investigated morphology and size dependent electronic propertiesof nanoparticles of rutile (TiO2). The largest sample studied had dimensionsof 48nm x 50nm x 32nm. Quantum-π – sensing the future
  39. 39. Dr Marek T. Michalewicz, FounderPhD (Physics), Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, CanberraMSc (Physics), LaTrobe University, MelbourneUniversity of Wroclaw, Poland (4 years, Physics)University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA (Research Associate, 2 years)22 years research experience following a PhD degree27 years experience of scientific and commercial computingScientific consultant in the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial ResearchOrganisation (CSIRO) Supercomputing and High Performance Computing (10 y)1997-2000 Principal Research Scientist at the CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences HighPerformance Computing2009 - present Director, A*STAR Computational Resource Centre, SingaporeEdited two books on Computational Life Sciences & Medicine and authored over 35 scientificpapers and book chapters and some 60 conference presentations in more than 12 countriesFellow of The Australian Institute of PhysicsMember of The American Physical SocietySenior Associate Foresight Institute (for Nanotechnology) Quantum-π – sensing the future