What is Food Poisoning?• “Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or toxins made by these germs. Most cases of food poisoning are from common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli.”• Food poisoning is caused when your body receives contaminated food, bacterias, viruses’, and parasites’ toxins.
Causes• Bacteria infect the intestines, • Some examples of bacteria are: causing inflammation and – Campylobacter problems with normal absorption – Staphylococcus aureus of food and water.• They produce toxins that are – Eschericia coli (E. coli) poisonous to the human body – Shigella system. – Clostridium botulinum• “When ingested, these chemicals – Clostridium perfringens can lead to nausea and vomiting, – Giardia lamblia kidney failure, and even death.” – Hepatitis A – Listeria – Noroviruses – Rotavirus – Salmonella – Vibrio vulnificus
Transmission• “Campylobacter is the worlds • “Eschericia coli (E. coli) causes most commonly identified food– large amounts of watery diarrhea borne bacterial infection. It is and then turns into bloody diarrhea. transmitted by water There are many different types of this bacterium but the worst strain contaminated by animal feces can cause kidney failure and death. raw poultry, and raw milk.” It is transmitted by eating raw or• “Staphylococcus aureus is undercooked transmitted in foods such as hamburger, unpasteurized cream–filled cakes and milk/juices, contaminated well pies, salads water/produce.” (potato, macaroni, egg, and tuna • “Shigella which is know as salads, for example) and dairy traveler’s diarrhea, can cause products. Contaminated potato diarrhea containing blood or mucus salad at a picnic is a classic and or both, and the constant urge to occurs when the food is not have bowel movements. It is chilled properly.” transmitted in water polluted with• “Hepatitis A can be spread from human wastes” an infected food handeler working with raw/ready-to-eat
Bacteria Start of Disease Means of TransmissionCampylobacter 2-5 days Meat, poultry, contaminated water, unpasteurized milk, etc.Clostridium botulinum 12-72 hours Canned food and food kept at warm temperatures for too long.Clostridium perfringens 8-16 hours Meats, stews, gravies, or when food is chilled too slowly.Escherichia coli (E. Coli) 1-8 days Undercooked beef, unpasteurized liquids, etc.Giardia lamblia 1-2 weeks Raw food, or contaminated water.Hepatitis A 28 days Raw food and shellfish from contaminated water.Listeria 9-48 hours Luncheon meats, unpasteurized liquids.Norovirus 12-48 hours See Giardia lambliaRotavirus 1-3 days See above
Bacteria Start of Disease Means of TransmissionShigella 24-48 hours See Giardia lambliaStaphylococcus aureus 1-6 hours Cream sauces and cream filled pastries. Spread by contactVibro Vulnoficus 1-7 days Raw/undercooked sea food/water.
Symptoms• Symptoms usually start • Consult your doctor is you within a few hours of eating experience the following: the food or drinking the – Often vomiting (blood fluid. The time duration sometimes) varies, depending on the – Diarrhea for a few days type of food poisoning. – Blood in your bowel movements• Some symptoms include – Abdominal cramps/pain having abdominal cramps, – Dehydration (little diarrhea (sometimes may urination/dizziness/weakness be bloody), fever, chills, /etc.) headache, nausea, – Double vision vomiting, weakness (may be – Muscle weakness that gets very serious) worse.
Treatment• Make sure you replace your • Resort to hospitalization should body’s fluids and minerals, such occur if there is vomiting blood, as sodium, potassium, and yellow eyes or skin, problems calcium that maintain your body’s breathing, a swollen abdomen, fluid balance. swollen joints, or a sharp• You doctor may prescribe you abdominal pain that lasts for medicine. Make sure you take more than 15 minutes. these, even if you feel well after a couple of days.• Stop eating and drinking for a few hours to let your stomach settle down.• Take small sips of water. Infected adults should try to drink up to 16 glasses of water per day.• Avoid certain foods/drinks until you’re well enough.
Preventing Food Poisoning• Make sure that food from animal • Be careful to keep juices or drippings sources (meat, dairy, eggs) is cooked from raw meat, poultry, shellfish, or thoroughly or pasteurized. Using a eggs from contaminating other foods. thermometer is recommended. • Do not leave• Avoid eating raw or undercooked eggs, meats, poultry, seafood, or milk meats and eggs. Check expiration for extended periods of time at room dates on meats before purchasing temperature. Promptly refrigerate and again before preparing. leftovers and food prepared in• Don’t defrost food in room advance. temperature! Instead, use the • Wash your hands, cutting boards, and ‘defrost’ option on your microwave. knives with antibacterial soap and• Make sure that your food is cooked at warm to hot water after handling raw a safe temperature. When cooking to meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs. the right temperature, you kill most Wooden cutting boards are not of the harmful organisms living on recommended since they can be the substance. harder to clean completely.
Examples Most Common Food Poisoning SymptomsCampylobacter Bacteria
The Bacteria’s Cycle• Most prokaryotes reproduce asexually through a process called binary fission. During binary fission, the single DNA molecule replicates and the original cell is divided into two identical cells. Binary fission begins with the single DNA molecule replicating and both copies attaching to the cell membrane.• Next, the cell membrane begins to grow between the two DNA molecules. Once the bacterium just about doubles its original size, the cell membrane begins to pinch inward.• A cell wall then forms between the two DNA molecules dividing the original cell into two identical daughter cells.