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Capítulo 15 Clow y Baack
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Capítulo 15 Clow y Baack

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Del libro Publicidad, promoción y comunicación integral en marketing. de los autores Clow y Baack. Estas presentaciónes normalmente son de apoyo para el profesor, pero las comparto por si no las han …

Del libro Publicidad, promoción y comunicación integral en marketing. de los autores Clow y Baack. Estas presentaciónes normalmente son de apoyo para el profesor, pero las comparto por si no las han logrado obtener. El libro es genial.

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  • 1. 15 Chapter FifteenEvaluating an Integrated Marketing Program Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-1
  • 2. Pretesting for Effectiveness15 • Rocket analogy • Decision Analyst • http://www.decisionanalyst.com • CopyScreen • CopyCheck • What are the pros and cons of testing ads and marketing communication pieces at various stages of development? Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-2
  • 3. Evaluating an Integrated15 Marketing Program Chapter Overview • Matching methods with objectives • Message evaluations • Evaluation criteria • Behavioral evaluations • Evaluating public relations • Evaluating the IMC program Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-3
  • 4. Evaluation Categories• Message evaluation techniques • Physical design • Cognitive elements • Affective elements• Respondent behavior evaluations • Conative elements • Measurable with numbers • Customer actions Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-4
  • 5. Evaluation and IMC Objectives • Match objectives • Pre- and posttest analysis • Levels of analyses • Short-term • Long-term • Product-specific • Corporate level • Affective, cognitive, or conative Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-5
  • 6. FIGURE 15.1Message Evaluation Techniquesand When to Use Them Message Evaluation Method When the Test Is Normally Used• Concept testing Prior to ad development• Copytesting Final stages, or finished ad• Recall tests Primarily after ad has been launched• Recognition tests After ad has been launched• Attitude and opinion tests Anytime during or after ad development• Emotional reaction tests Anytime during or after ad development• Physiological tests Anytime during or after ad development• Persuasion analysis After ad has been launched Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-6
  • 7. Concept Testing• Prior to ad development• Average cost 30-second TV ad $350,000• Focus groups• Concept testing instruments • Comprehension tests • Reaction tests Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-7
  • 8. AFLAC Concept TestingBefore launching the AFLAC duck advertising campaign, the agencyconducted concept tests to determine which idea was the best. Click here to play clip from AFLAC Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-8
  • 9. Copytesting• Used when marketing piece is finished or in final stages• Methods used • Portfolio test • Theater test • Focus groups • Mall intercept Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-9
  • 10. CopytestingCopytesting can beused to determine ifviewers comprehendthis ad and what theirreaction to it is. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-10
  • 11. Copytesting• Criticisms of copytesting • Some agencies not using • Stifles creativity • Focus groups not good judge• Support of copytesting • Issue of accountability • Majority support because clients want support for ad decision Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-11
  • 12. Recall Tests• Day-after recall (DAR)• Unaided recall• Aided recall• Incorrect answers• Use primarily after ads launched Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-12
  • 13. FIGURE 15.3Items Tested for Recall • Product name or brand • Firm name • Company location • Theme music • Spokesperson • Tagline • Incentive being offered • Product attributes • Primary selling point of communication piece Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-13
  • 14. Recall Tests: Do Viewers Remember? Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-14
  • 15. Sample DAR Test 30-Second TV Advertisement for Pet Food25.0%20.0%15.0%10.0%5.0%0.0% Brand name Theme music Spokesperson Tagline Incentive Product Attribute Test Ad Competitor A Competitor B Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-15
  • 16. Sample DAR Test 30-Second TV Advertisement for Pet Food 24.6% 25.0% 21.4% 18.3% 20.0% 16.3% 14.6% 15.0%Overall Recall 12.9% 9.4% 8.5% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Males Females Pet Dog Ages 18- Ages 36- Ages 51+ Owners Owners 35 50 Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-16
  • 17. Recall Decay Magazine Ad vs. Television Ad 100% 100% 86%100% 75%80% 65%60% 43%40%20% 0% DAR Two days later Eight days later Magazine TelevisionSource: Magazines Canada’s Research Archive Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-17
  • 18. Recall Tests Factors That Influence Scores• Attitude towards advertising• Prominence of brand name • Brand used by respondent • Institutional ads• Respondent’s age Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-18
  • 19. Recognition Tests• Respondents shown marketing piece• Often used with recall tests• Good for measuring • Reaction • Comprehension • Likeability Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-19
  • 20. Recognition Tests• Expression of person’s interest • Ad liked  + 75% • Ad interesting  + 50% • Brand used  + 50%• Affected by ad size, color, length• Scores do not decline over time Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-20
  • 21. Recognition Tests Can be used to measure • Reaction • Comprehension • Likeability Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-21
  • 22. Attitude and Opinion Tests• Used in conjunction with other tests • Recall tests • Recognition tests• Closed-ended questions• Open-ended questions• Roper Start  ADD + IMPACT Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-22
  • 23. Emotional Reaction Tests• Affective advertisements• Used for material designed to solicit emotions• Difficult to measure emotions with questions• Warmth monitor• Emotional reaction tests are self-reported instruments Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-23
  • 24. Sample Graph from a Warmth Meter 30-Second TV Advertisement Sample Ad Rating Warmth Meter Ad section that elicited negative emotions Target Audience Total AudienceStart 10 seconds 20 seconds 30 seconds Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-24
  • 25. Physiological Arousal Tests• Measure fluctuations in a person’s body• Psychogalvanometer – sweat• Pupillometric test – pupils of eyes• Psychophysiology – brain waves and currents• Cannot be faked easily Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-25
  • 26. Persuasion Analysis• Appraise persuasiveness of marketing item• Requires pre- and posttests• ASI Market Research studies Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-26
  • 27. FIGURE 15.6Copytesting Principles of PACT • Testing procedure should be relevant to objectives. • Researchers should agree on how the results will be used in advance. • Multiple measures should be used. • The test should be based on some model or theory of human response to communication. • Testing procedure should allow for more than one exposure. • In selecting alternate ads to include in the test, they should be at the same stage in the process as the test ad. • The test should provide controls to avoid biases. • Sample used for the test should be representative of the target sample. • Testing procedure should demonstrate reliability and validity. Source: Based on PACT document published in the Journal of Marketing, (1982) ,Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 4-29. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-27
  • 28. FIGURE 15.7Behavioral Measures • Sales • Response rates • Redemption rates • Test markets • Purchase simulation tests Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-28
  • 29. Sales and Response Rates• Measuring sales with UPC codes• Scanner data • Retailers • Manufacturers• Sales changes can be caused by other factors Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-29
  • 30. Difficulties in Evaluating Advertising• Influence of other factors on behavior• Delayed impact of advertising• Consumers change their mind in the store• Whether brand is in evoked set• Goal of ad may be to build brand equity, not increase sales Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-30
  • 31. FIGURE 15.9Responses to Marketing Messages That Can Be Tracked • Changes in sales • Telephone inquiries • Response cards • Internet inquiries • Direct marketing responses • Redemption rate of sales promotion offers • Coupons, premiums, contests, sweepstakes Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-31
  • 32. FIGURE 1 5 . 10Methods of Measuring Interactive Marketing 60.0% 51.0% 50.0% 44.5% 41.1% 40.7% 40.0% 36.5% 34.2% 30.0% 26.6% 24.7% 20.0% 16.3% 12.2% 10.0% 4.6% 0.0% n t I s s n s e s ns s en RO t io te es le te dg gi gh sio m Sa ra ra ar ra en ou le ge M ne es ow n se ar hr io ga pr ge aw on kn kt pt Im en ic m sp ad d er Cl de an of Re om Le Re Br th st ng Cu Le Source: Adapted from Larry Jaffee, “Follow the Money,” Promo, Vol. 20, No. 11 (November 2007 Sourcebook), pp. 5-10. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-32
  • 33. Online Metrics• Adknowledge • MarketMatch Planner • Campaign Manager • Administrative Campaign Manager• Audience demographics • MediaMetrix – basic demographics • NetRatings – GRP and other rating instruments • SRI Consulting – Psychographic information • NetGuide – Web site ratings and descriptives • BPA Interactive – Web traffic audit data Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-33
  • 34. Test Markets• Used to assess: • Advertisements • Consumer and trade promotions • Pricing tactics • New products• Cost-effective method of evaluation prior to launch• Resembles actual situation• Design test market to model full marketing plan• Length of test market is a concern• Competitive actions must be considered Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-34
  • 35. Purchase Simulation Tests• Bias in purchase intention questions• Simulated purchase tests• Research Systems Corporation• Does not rely on opinions and attitudes Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-35
  • 36. F I G U R E 1 5 . 11Evaluating Public Relations • Number of clippings • Number of impressions • Advertising equivalence technique • Comparison to public relations objectives Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-36
  • 37. Evaluating the IMC Program• Greater demand for accountability• ROI of advertising and marketing• Difficult to measure ROI – 70%• Difficult to define ROI – 70% Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-37
  • 38. TAB LE 15.2Definitions of ROI for Marketing Definition of ROI Percent Using Incremental sales from marketing 66% Changes in brand awareness 57% Total sales revenue from marketing 55% Changes in purchase intentions 55% Changes in market share 49% Ratio of advertising costs to sales 34% Reach/frequency achieved 30% Gross rating points delivered 25% Post-buy analysis comparing the media plan to its delivery 21%Source: Paul J. Cough, “Study: Marketers Struggle to Measure Effectiveness,” Shoot, Vol. 45, No. 29(August 20, 2004), pp. 7-8. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-38
  • 39. FIGURE 1 5 . 12Measures of Overall Health of a Company • Market share • Level of innovation • Productivity • Physical and financial resources • Profitability • Manager performance and development • Employee performance and attitudes • Social responsibility Source: Pete Drucker, Management: Tools, Responsibilities, Practices, New York: Harper and Row, 1974. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-39
  • 40. International Implications• Assessment of IMC Programs • Domestic results • Results in other countries • Overall organization• Individual ads and promotional programs • Local culture • Across national boundaries • Multinational – regional offices Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15-40