Making the Most of Technology in an ABA Program for Individuals with Autism Sharon A. Reeve, PhD, BCBA-D, Casi M. Healey, MA, BCBA, Marcus Lozano, MA Mark Mautone Caldwell College Autism NJ 2010 Professional Workshops March 16, 2010 9:00-3:00PM
Video Modeling <ul><li>Defined as the demonstration of behavior that is not live, but is presented via video in an effort to change existing behaviors or teach new ones (Dowrick, 1991). </li></ul><ul><li>The learner views the model on the screen and is given the opportunity to imitate the observed responses (Reagon, Higbee, & Endicott, 2006). </li></ul>
Video Modeling <ul><li>A variety of communication, social and life skills commonly exhibited by children with autism </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale: </li></ul><ul><li>-Observational learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic mechanism with broad applicability to teach new skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling, observation, imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Visual support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong visual perception </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
Video Modeling <ul><li>Video modeling is a relatively inexpensive and simple method of teaching learners who attend and respond well to video. </li></ul><ul><li>Target behaviors can clearly be demonstrated which may reduce the stimulus overselectivity that individuals with autism often exhibit (Charlop-Christy & Daneshvar, 2003). </li></ul>
Four Main Types of Video Modeling Techniques <ul><li>Priming </li></ul><ul><li>Error Correction Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Video Prompting </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Video Modeling </li></ul>
Video Priming <ul><li>The learner watches a video model (i.e., training session) and is later provided with an opportunity to engage in the response with similar materials, people, and/or settings (i.e., probe session). </li></ul><ul><li>During training sessions, learners are often prompted to attend to the video (e.g., Charlop & Milstein, 1989; Schreibman, Whalen, & Stahmer, 2000); however, not all studies have incorporated prompts for attending (e.g., Hine & Wolery, 2006; Lasater & Brady, 1995; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>A few studies have included reinforcement contingent upon attending (e.g., Charlop-Christy, Le, & Freeman, 2000; Schreibman et al.). To our knowledge, no studies have collected data on attending to the video. During probe sessions, prompts and reinforcers may or may not be used for engaging in the target responses </li></ul>
Error Correction Procedure <ul><li>Presentation of the video model of the target behavior is in response to either an incorrect response or failure to engage in a response. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) used a multi-component teaching package to assist children with autism in learning a generalized repertoire of helping responses. One component of this teaching package consisted of showing a video model of a correct helping response when the children did not display the correct helping response. The children were prompted to imitate the video, if necessary. Results showed that the use of the multi-component teaching package set the occasion for helping responses among all 4 participants. </li></ul></ul>
Video Prompting <ul><li>involves showing the participant a video model of one step of the task and then giving the person the opportunity to complete that step before the next step is shown. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malone et al. (2006) compared acquisition rates for two daily living tasks when instruction occurred with video priming versus video prompting. video prompting was shown to be effective in promoting rapid skill acquisition across both tasks in all but one case. Video priming was shown to be ineffective. </li></ul></ul>
Simultaneous Video Modeling <ul><li>The learner imitates the video model as he or she watches it. Although used clinically with children with autism, only two published studies were found that utilized this technique. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinney, Vedora, and Stromer (2003) used simultaneous video modeling embedded in Microsoft PowerPoint ® slides to teach spelling to a school-age girl diagnosed with autism. While a video of a model correctly writing a word was played, the participant imitated writing it on a worksheet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taber-Doughty, Patton, and Brennan (2008) compared the effectiveness of simultaneous video modeling with video priming to teach library research skills to three children with moderate intellectual disabilities. During the video priming condition, access to materials was provided over one hour after watching the video. Results indicated that both types of video modeling resulted in acquisition of target skills, but more substantial gains were made using each learner’s most preferred method. </li></ul></ul>
Used to Teach a Variety of Skills Daily Living Skills • Setting a table, preparing orange juice, preparing a letter to be mailed (Shipley-Benamou, Lutzker, & Taubman, 2002). • Meal preparation (Rehfeidt, Dahman, Young, Cherry, & Davis, 2003). • Shaving, making a bed, hanging pants/shirts (Lasater & Brady, 1995). • Purchasing (Alcantara, 1994; Haring, Kennedy, Adams, & Pitts-Conway, 1987). • Brushing teeth (Charlop-Christy, & Freeman, 2000). • Microwave oven use (Sigafoos, O'Reilly, Cannella, Upadhyaya, & Edirisinha, 2005).
Used to Teach a Variety of Skills Academics • Generative spelling (Kinney, Vedora, & Stromer, 2003). Inappropriate Behaviors • Aggressive pushing and tantrums (Buggey, 2005)
Used to Teach a Variety of Skills Communication Skills • Spontaneous requesting (Wert & Neisworth, 2003) • Recognizing emotions in speech and facial expressions (Corbett, 2003) • Compliment-giving initiations and responses (Apple, Billingsley, & Schwartz, 2005) • Language production (Buggey, 2005; Charlop-Christy et al., 2000) • Verbal responses to questions (Buggey et al., 1999) • Conversational speech (Charlop & Milstein, 1989; Charlop-Christy et al., 2000; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2003, 2004; Ogeltree & Fischer, 1995; Sherer, Pierce, Parades, Kisacky, & Ingersoll, 2001).
Used to Teach a Variety of Skills Social Skills • Play behaviors including reciprocal play (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004); motor and verbal play sequences (D'Ateno, Mangiapanello, & Taylor, 2003); independent play (Charlop-Christy et al., 2000); play-related comments (Taylor, Levin, & Jasper, 1999); and socio-dramatic play (Dauphin, Kinney, & Stromer, 2004; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2003) • Complying, greeting, and sharing (Simpson, Langone, & Ayres, 2004) • Spontaneous greeting (Charlop-Christy et al., 2000) • Social initiations (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004; Buggey, 2005) • Generalized helping repertoire (Reeve, Reeve, Buffington Townsend, & Poulson, 2007)
Types of Models Self-modeling -Positive Self Review -Feed-forward -Point of View -Video feedback Peer Model Sibling Model Adult Model
Target Skills for Video Instruction Factors as to which skills are amenable for video instruction -behaviors that can be efficiently and effectively depicted on video -quality of video -expertise of videographer -functioning level of children -intervention effects