Political history of China


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This was my presentation during our comparative governments of Asia class last semester. This is my favorite subject and many of classmates were enlightened by this presentation of mine.

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Political history of China

  1. 1. Presented by : Marc Anthony L. Chua 我是中國人 political and social history of the middle kingdom
  2. 2. Conditions of the middle kingdom before the advent of the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 • China was mainly an agricultural economy • Considered the foreigners as barbarians and should not be allowed to enter China. • During the nineteenth century western expansionism was at its height and the only Asian country which is not subjugated by the westerners is China and Japan. • The Manchu boast that they had defeated the foreign barbarians, but the foreigners that they had defeated is not the western powers but only tribes such as the Jurchens, Muslims, Gurkhas in Turkestan and the Mongols. • The Manchus is not Chinese and we Hans never considered them as such .
  3. 3. First opium war ( 1839-1842 ) • The war started because the British wanted to protect their interest in the opium trade in China. • The Qing court aware of the addiction of the populace demanded immediate action to ban opium trade • Lin Zexu prevented the opium trade in his territory in Guang Zhuo and he demanded the British traders to turn in their opium for destruction. • The British subsequently sent an expeditionary forces to counter act the ban. The Qing imperial navy was defeated and the treaty of Nanking was signed which ceded the Hong Kong islands and Kowloon province to the British Empire
  4. 4. Second opium war ( 1856-1860) • The Qing authorities were very reluctant to keep the treaty of Nanking. • They tried to keep out as many foreign merchant as possible. • The British asked the Chinese not to stop the ship arrow laden with opium because there is a British flag hoisted • Resulted to the treaty of Tientsin wherein China allowed to open more treaty ports and to legalize opium trade
  5. 5. Lin Zexu, governor of Hunan Famous for his deeds in opposing the British trade of opium in China. Based his decisions in morality Due to his courage in opposing the British and advocating moral governance he was hailed as a hero in China Wrote a letter to the Queen of England. A symbol of China against western imperialism
  6. 6. Effects of the opium war : • China’s first defeat from a western nation. • China ceded hong kong to Great Britain. • The signing of unequal treaties.
  7. 7. The Taiping Rebellion ( Heavenly Kingdom ) • The largest internal conflict experienced by China in the nineteenth century. • The political conditions during the Taiping rebellion: • The court was inefficient. • Corrupt • The ministers refuse to report the situation to the Emperor. • The first and largest Chinese made rebellion during the Qin dynasty. • Christian inspired rebellion • First total war in modern China • Policies of the Taipings in Nanking. -Refused to wear the queu. - Refused to follow the foot binding policy of the Qing. - Abolishment of the old religion and established Christianity. - Military Strength - The strength of the Taiping regime relies in its strong military force which is composed of fanatics and disciplined soldiers.
  8. 8. The Taiping rebellion : Factor that affects the growth of nationalism of the Han • During the Siege of Canton the British troops with 2000 troops while the Manchus possess 2o,000 troops but they just accepted the terms of surrender issued by the British without a fight and also ask the populace to pay the ransom. • This contributes to the shifting of feeling from hating the foreigners to hating the Manchus. • Taiping were finally destroyed in 1864. Bad sides of the Taiping kingdom • A sarcastic kingdom • Contributes to the death of 20-30 million civilians and soldiers. • 15 years of rebellion.
  9. 9. The Taiping’s wealth and power
  10. 10. First Sino – Japanese war 1894 to 1895 • After two centuries of Isolation Japan is ready. • First war fought between the Meiji era Japan and Qing dynasty China A Fight to control the Korean peninsula • Easily defeated China because of arms superiority. • Korea is no longer in the hands of the Qing court and Taiwan as a result of the treaty of Shimonoseki
  11. 11. Japan Admiral Ito and the flagship of the Imperial navy created by the French The Imperial army and navy was patterned after the French
  12. 12. China Admiral Li hong and the Ting yuen the flagship of the Beiyang fleet
  13. 13. China’s Surrender
  14. 14. Beheading of captured enemies.
  15. 15. Period of imitating the west (1862- 1908) During the reign of Emperor Tung Chih and Kung Hsu • According to them, Chinese learning is for essence while western learning is for utility. Results: Small scale success. The Imperial navy of China was nearly destroyed during the war with Japan ( 1894) -It seems that the Japanese are more efficient in copying the west.
  16. 16. The Boxer Rebellion ( Semi Nationalistic revolt ) • Considered as the final blow to the ailing Qing dynasty and rebellion was supported by Empress Dowager Xici. • The boxers believes that they are fighting to save China from the foreign devils. • The boxers tried to eliminate all the foreigners in China and to eradicate Christianity in China. • The boxers believes that bullets will not harm them due to the cultivation of Chi. • Aggression towards foreign missionaries attracted the attention of European Government. • Motto : Take away your crosses and your opium and you will be welcome. • The siege of Peking lasted for fifty five days where thousands of foreigners were massacred
  17. 17. The result of the rebellion : • China is defeated by the combined might of eight nations. • China was forced to pay war reparations of 450,000,000 taels of fine silver for the loss that it caused. The reparation was to be paid within 39 years. • The defeat of China serves as a starting point for a more progressive reform.
  18. 18. Basic military comparison Chinese Forces Eight nation alliance
  19. 19. Division of China among western power
  20. 20. Solutions on how to save China : Peaceful method • To establish a constitutional monarchy. • To have elections. • To distribute land to the peasants. • To abolish the old concept of civil service Violent method • KILL KILL KILL !!!! Or revolution because this is the only option.
  21. 21. The development of Han nationalism • The Han population realized that they have been subjugated by the Manchus for over 250 years. • Social separation between the Manchus and the Han. • The Chinese is being discriminated in their own country and in other countries as well.
  22. 22. Dr.Sun Yat Sen ( Father of modern China) • Develop the three principles of the people. • First president of China • Created the secret society Tongmenhui • Famous revolutionary of the 19th Century. •
  23. 23. Revolutions that contributes to the downfall of the Qin Empire 1. First Guangzhou Uprising 2. Independence Army Uprising 3. Huizhou Uprising 4. Great Ming Uprising 5. Ping-liu-li Uprising 6. Huanggang Uprising 7. Huizhou seven women lake Uprising 8. Anqing Uprising 9. Qinzhou Uprising 10. Zhennanguan Uprising 11. Qin-lian Uprising 12. Hekou Uprising 13. Second Guangzhou Uprising 14. Wuchang Uprising
  24. 24. The last and the successful revolution that removed the Qin dynasty XINHAI REVOLUTION
  25. 25. • Consist of many uprising and the Wuchang uprising as the major turning point. • The revolution ended as the last Emperor abdicated the throne. • Started the era of republicanism in China • Ended the 2,000 years dynastic rule in China • The revolution was supported and financed by the Chinese overseas workers • Sun Yat Sen was elected as the first president. • The republic continued to survived until 1937…………….
  26. 26. a new dawn
  27. 27. Koumintang party ( Zhongguo Guomindang) • The party of Sun Yat Sen and Chiang Kai Shek • Anti Monarchist • Nationalist party of China • They followed the teachings of Sun Yat Sen especially the three principles of the people.
  28. 28. 1912 China was proclaimed as a republic • China was proclaimed as a republic. • Many Confucian teachings is discarded. • Sun Yat Sen was elected as the first president of the republic . • Building of railways was prioritized. • Many ancient customs was set aside. • The Manchu royalty was not persecuted. • Made Nanjing as the captial • Election must be used to choose the president of China • The presidency of Sun Yat Sen was short lived due to the threat by Yuan Shi Kai
  29. 29. Yuan Shi Kai • A Qing general and the second president of the republic • A realist • Wanted to become the Emperor • Ask the emperor to abdicate • Organized and train the first modern army of China • Father of warlords
  30. 30. General / President Chiang Kai Shek • Commandant of the Whampoa Military academy • Establish himself as a leader when China is facing crisis after the death of Sun Yat Sen in 1925 • Remove the Warlords in the Northern provinces • Although he was not an charismatic leader like Mao Ze Dong yet he was still able to build a new China patterned to the west • His reign last until his death in Taiwan • Helped the new found republic in Taiwan to secure its legitimacy
  31. 31. Northern Expedition of Chiang Kai Shek • To eliminate the remaining warlords in the north. • Disregard the treaty between the newly formed Soviet Union and attacked the members of the Chinese communist party in the military. • To reunify China • To purge the koumintang of communist • The second expedition was successful and reuniting China under one flag.
  32. 32. The Nanjing decade (1928-1937) • One of oldest capital of China. • Capital of Sun Quan during the three kingdoms • No more western imperialism due to the attack on the westerner in 1927 where some foreigners were killed in Nanjing. • The old feudal system was forgotten and the tomb of the Empress Dowager was desecrated by men wearing military uniform. • Considered to be China’s Renaissance • A new flag was adopted • China’s relationship with the west is limited and China is respected by its Arch nemesis Great Britain is friendly wherein the latter is giving support to the new found republic. • The study of western ideas was emphasized in universities. • A new fashion emerged wherein China’s past and western clothing is mixed. • Traditional values was re examined. • In Nanjing and Shanghai mafia gangs controlled the city. • The government was too nationalistic and was not friendly to other nations. • Failed to tackled the Japanese problem. • The new China wanted to show to the world that it is modern and
  33. 33. Nanjing significant landmarks Sun Yat Sen Tomb
  34. 34. Walls of Nanjing
  35. 35. Second Sino Japanese war ( 1937 – 1945 ) • Greeted with intense patriotism by the Chinese • Widespread violation of international treaties by the Japanese. • Invade China in the pretext of Greater Co prosperity. • The communist and Nationalist joined forces in order to combat the common enemy. • The alliance does not last long. • The war until now remains to be a wall between the Sino Japanese relations.
  36. 36. The rape of Nanjing…………………. • Mass murder • Raping of women and children and old women. • After the war Japanese leaders were convicted and executed and only Prince Asaka escaped conviction. • Some Japanese denied the incident. • Distorted their history books and stated that the Nanjing massacre was only a propaganda.
  37. 37. Beheading contest
  38. 38. Burying alive of prisoners Rape victim
  39. 39. United States pledged to help China
  40. 40. CIVIL WAR Nationalist side Communist rebel
  41. 41. Chinese civil war 1945 - 1949 • China again plunged into war. • The long awaited showdown between the nationalist and communist. • The communist used the captured guns from the Japanese • I1949 will be the last year of the nationalist government in mainland China • The communist success is due to their strategy created by their leader Mao.