1520190671830Participatory development plan of the Valle del Toachi community91440274320“The community possesses their vis...
Identify the problems that the community faces in all areas of life.
Identify the areas of intervention and alliances with other organizations to promote health and self-empowerment in Valle ...
 </li></ul>2.0        Methodology<br />MAP chose to work with Valle del Toachi because of the participation of two volunte...
4.1Objective population</li></ul>Table 2: Distribution of the populationThe demographic data of Valle del Toachi, accordin...
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
Toachi Valley document
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  1. 1. 1520190671830Participatory development plan of the Valle del Toachi community91440274320“The community possesses their vision and plan of action to solve their own problems.”MAP – ECUADOR 2011<br />Contents<br />Contents..................................................................................................................................2<br />1.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................................3<br />2.0 Methodology……………….………………….….…………………………………......3<br /> 2.1 Limitations…...............................................................................................................4<br />3.0 Background and History…................................................................................................5<br /> 3.1 Map of the community.................................................................................................5<br /> 3.2 Time line………..........................................................................................................5<br />4.0 Results…......................................................................................................................... 6<br /> 4.1 Objective population…………………………………………………………............6<br /> 4.2 Economic Activities…….............................................................................................7<br /> 4.3 Gender……… .............................................................................................................7<br /> 4.4 Health............................................................................................................................7<br /> 4.4.1 Child and adolescent health….………..………………………………………..…......8<br /> 4.4.2 Adult health…….…….……………………………….………………...................9<br /> 4.4.3 Health risks…………..…………………………………………………...……….9<br /> 4.5 Environment……..........................................................................................................9<br /> 4.6 Sanitation….………………..…………………………..…….………………...……10<br /> 4.7 Poverty.………………………………………………………………………………10<br /> 4.8 Education…………………………………………………………………………….11 5.0 Holistic Global Analysis….……………………..……...…………………….................11<br /> 5.1 Analysis of means of living…..………………………………….…………………12<br /> 5.2 Problems…….……..…………………………………………………..………….13<br /> 5.3 Uncertainties………………...….…………………………………………………………13<br /> 5.4 Conclusions and results……....................................................................................14<br />6.0 Logical Frame……...........................................................................................................15<br /> 6.1 Means de Support and Food Security..........................................................................15<br /> 6.2 Family, education, health and sanitation….................................................................16<br />7.0 Conclusions......................................................................................................................17<br />8.0 Bibliography.…................................................................................................................18<br />9.0 Attachments……..……………………… ………………………………………….…..19<br />1.0 Introduction<br />This report presents the results of a participatory program that occurred between July and September 2010 with families from the Valle del Toachi community, as well as the recommendations supported by various revision meetings held by the leaders of the community in the preceding months. The goal of the study was to identify the areas of risk and allow the community to create a development plan of their own, from the reality of their context, with the interaction of all community members as well as outside agencies. <br />MAP International, founded in 1954 as a Medical Assistance Program, promotes Integral health and the physical, economic, social, emotional and spiritual wellbeing of impoverished people in about 115 countries. This has been attained through the PROVISION of essential medicines, PROMOTION of community health and PREVENTION and treatment of disease.<br />The ministry of MAP aligns a wide vision and understanding of health. The guiding principles of MAP focus on meeting human needs and developing the capability for Integral health. Integral health does not describe someone´s state of health, but is about the way individuals, families, and communities can take responsible action in order to better their condition of living. Therefore, the self-empowering and holistic approaches are essential for a healthy community.<br />With the objective of implementing this model (THV), MAP facilitated a discussion with the Rio Toachi church in the Valle del Toachi community, located in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsa’chilas, Ecuador. <br />This study aims to explore the support of the Valle del Toachi community, identify the problems within the community, and point out possible areas of intervention.<br />1888473632<br />Photo 1: Air view of the community.<br />The principle objectives are to:<br /><ul><li>Explore the means of support of the Valle del Toachi community in terms of socio-cultural, environmental and economic aspects.
  2. 2. Identify the problems that the community faces in all areas of life.
  3. 3. Identify the areas of intervention and alliances with other organizations to promote health and self-empowerment in Valle del Toachi.
  4. 4. </li></ul>2.0 Methodology<br />MAP chose to work with Valle del Toachi because of the participation of two volunteers from the community in the health promoter program. This allowed a closer understanding of the realities the people face. The leaders of the Valle del Toachi community and the members of the leadership council decided to work on a development plan that included the most important necessities linked to the integral focus, thus they expressed interest in joining MAP in the preparation and execution of the plan. The MAP International team began to work under this proposal in a preparatory phase and the execution of a community diagnostic in July 2010, this process was approved by the leaders and youth representatives and the access to safe water committee. <br />In the beginning diagnostic phase 60 families were included, as well as the members of different groups, committees and directors of the community. The methodology that they used was called Ten Seed Technique (TST). This technique, developed by Dr. Ravi Jayakaran, is a tool that involves the participation of the community to collect and compile information. <br />Under the model of the 10 Seed Technique, they began to collect information from the perspective of the each group within the community: women, men, youth and children. Issues were raised by different groups and identified areas of concern included: health, education, income sources, and rights. The 80 participants discussed, analyzed and came to an agreement on the reality of these aspects from their daily experience of life in the community. Their responses are defined in terms of ratios and percentages.<br />One of the key questions used to analyze their problems was, “How do you feel living in Valle del Toachi?” A member of the community moved the seeds to indicate his opinion. Later the group was asked if they agreed or disagreed about where the seeds were located, and with the analysis and input from all, a consensus was reached.<br />Other participation techniques were utilized such as the holistic analysis tool (HWVA), which got the community involved in determining the problems and opportunities in Valle del Toachi. The HWVA is a diagnostic tool that collects information and practical coping strategies from the families in measurable terms as shown in the diagram below:<br />Figure 1: HWVA tool.<br />The Evaluation workshop of the diagnostic phase was held on October 20, 2010, with the participation of representatives from all the groups within the community whose support made the identification and prioritization of development needs possible.<br />2.1Limitations<br />While the 10 seed technique is an effective tool, there are a number of important limitations to consider when analyzing the data. The information collected is dependent upon the questions asked by MAP personnel, who were careful to start with open questions before asking deeper questions about the areas highlighted by the community. Also, the recorded percentages are a reflection of the opinion of those involved in the discussion. <br />To provide additional perspective regarding the health, economic, social, and physical aspects of the region, the graphs and data are backed by statistics from the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Statistics and Census, and an appendix is included at the end of this document. These facts are secondary sources to support and compare with the data collected in the community. <br />Therefore, although useful in assessing the problem in the community, these are not necessarily exact statistics. Any discussion between an organization and a community is limited by the possibility that a disagreement may arise in the process of a diagnostic survey. <br />Also, given MAP´s background, the staff tends to concentrate on questions regarding health. Furthermore, if the community is aware of a particular need it can embellish or focus on this problem and thus ignore others.<br />2584450111125-75565288925<br /><ul><li> Background and History</li></ul>The Valle del Toachi settlement is found in the parish Libertad del Toachi, located 3 km. Northeast of the capital Santo Domingo in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas. The population of the community is multiethnic and the families are immigrants from different parts of the country: Chachis, Afros, Quichuas, Montubios, y Mestizos. Spanish is the predominate language. The humid tropical climate of Santo Domingo is a major factor in the health of the inhabitants.<br />Photo 2: Spatial and geographic location of Valle del Toachi Map of the Community<br /><ul><li>Time Line</li></ul>The members of the community developed a time line that represents and tells their history, highlighting important events in the settlement process from 1992 to the present.<br />YearEvent1992Start of community with 2 families, no water, electricity, roads199716 families inhabit Valle 2003Conflicts arose due to a lack of legalization of the lands 2005They hired two health promoters Celia Montaño and Eufemia Arroyo2006The Puruha education center was legally established2007Installation of electricity and meters in each house 2008Initial steps to build a nursery and central sewage system2009The nursery and sewage system are completed <br />Table 1: Time Line<br />Number%Population1050100Male29028Female34032Children37035Senior Citizens353.3Disabled70.6Pregnant80.7Families150-<br />Since the impoverished immigrant families faced the need of homeownership, in 1992 the lands near the Brisas del Toachi parish, were acquired by the Quiñones and Arroyo families, initiating the process of settlement. In the following weeks, months and years more families came. The housing was simple (constructed of rod and zinc) and they did not have water, electricity, or roads. The education centers were far from the community, and the children had to go to Santo Domingo to study. <br />The distance and the insecurity that the children faced traveling daily from the community to the city exposed them to different circumstances which infringed upon their integrity. Thus in 1998 a girl was raped when she was returning from school. This event spurred the community to organize and press the authorities to have an extension of a bilingual school in Valle del Toachi, a process which required time. Thus in 2006 they established the Puruhá education center. <br />The time line demonstrates other important results achieved from the organization process of the Valle del Toachi families. In 2005 MAP signed an agreement with the local health management, and Celia Montaño and Eufemia Arroyo were invited to participate in the program to hire health promoters, train the faculty so that they can support their neighbors in promoting and preventing health, and strengthen the management organization of the families in the community. <br />In 2007 the community legally installed an electrical grid and finally in 2009 they completed the nursery and a central canal for draining rain which affected the sanitary conditions of the housing, especially during the winter. <br /><ul><li> Results/Findings
  5. 5. 4.1Objective population</li></ul>Table 2: Distribution of the populationThe demographic data of Valle del Toachi, according to its residents, is summarized in the following table:<br />Despite being registered members of the community, many families are absent for short periods of time because they earn their living through temporary jobs. In some cases, more than one family lives in a home which creates a difficult situation.<br />4.2Economic Activities<br />Approximately 90% of the men of the community and 70% of the women, that is the fathers and mothers of the community, have to go to the city for employment to financially support their families. One of the primary economic activities is trade. The people benefit from holidays and festivals, creating a variety of products and crafts to be sold for Christmas, New Year´s, Mother´s day, and more. The mothers especially make crafts, gifts, flowers, and dolls and sell them on the main streets and in the markets of the city.<br />The men work in construction to provide a source of income for their families. These jobs are not permanent and depend on the type of construction and how far the site is from the community. In addition to temporary jobs, many families sell vegetables and fruits, or work as artisans, mechanics, etc.<br />Temporary jobsCommerceConstruction workTable 3: livelihoods <br />4.3Gender<br />This issue was carefully analyzed in different groups. The appearance of sexual and reproductive health was understood from the standpoint of rights, violence, socio-economic conditions and opportunities that the families provide later on for the children. Further, they discussed the realities related to the model of interfamily relations that involve all the members of the families with serious implications for women and children. <br />With respect to the concept and perception of genders and the rolls they play in relation to work and home life, the community has distinguished rolls for men and those for women; the woman’s roll is in the home, cleaning, cooking, washing clothes, and taking care of the children. On the other hand, the man’s roll is outside the home, working or collecting water for example. They described the men as more influential in work activities and decisions with respect to family planning methods. <br />Photo 3: responsibilities in the home<br />The women have more responsibilities caring for the children and home in addition to working in certain cases. The community agreed that men and women are equally influential in health care applications. <br />4.4Health <br />Depending on the type of illness and its necessary treatment, the families of Valle del Toachi use the health center located 20 minutes from the community in the parish “Libertad del Toachi”, and when necessary they go to the government hospital in the city.<br />The community also has a small medicine kit used by the health promoters trained by MAP. Celia and Eufemia received training in promotion, prevention, and treatment of health as well as the use of essential medicines. Their principle roll is to support creating healthy environments through educational processes with a focus on Integral Health. <br />Photo 4: Eufemia Arroyo – health promoter.<br />There are also families that choose to wait and recover from their illnesses using natural remedies or self-medication in place of adequate treatment and the promoters visit these families frequently. <br />The health promoters made a map of the community, which identified the risk factors of the families. The most recurrent illnesses are malnutrition and parasites in children under 5 years old. Other problems identified include: crowding of families, people with disabilities, and multiple pregnancies. Findings regarding level of education showed an entire family in which no member has ever attended school and are none are currently enrolled. <br />The main barriers to accessing health care for the Valle del Toachi community are the high costs, the distance, and the lack of transport and mobilization. <br />4.4.1Health of children and adolescents <br />In addition to malnutrition and parasites, there are other problems that affect the children in Valle del Toachi such as: cough, fever, diarrhea, dengue fever, and malaria. <br />For adolescents and youth the main problems include: teen pregnancy (30%), alcohol and drug consumption (45%), followed by street fights and premature marital intentions (20%). <br />The youth indicated that the model of their parents or older siblings, peer pressure and social pressure are all possible causes for the use of drugs and alcohol. The causes of pregnancy include: lack of information, the consumption of drugs and alcohol, and the difficult economic conditions of their families.<br />When asked about their “feelings toward living in Valle del Toachi”, the perception is that the majority (60%) feel positively because of the amount of friends they have in the community; the next group (30%) feels ok because of abuse; and the smallest group (10%) said that they felt negatively toward living in Valle del Toachi because of the familial conflicts and racism.<br />POSITIVEOKNEGATIVETable 4: “¨Feelings toward living in the community”<br />When the children were consulted about the risks and problems they perceived in the community they mentioned; rape, lack of water, the state of the latrines in their school, and the consumption of drugs related to interfamily abuse.<br />Photo 5: Problems according to the children.<br />4.4.2Health of adults<br />Common health concerns of adults include: urinary tract infections, fungal infections of the skin, kidney pain, and back and body pain. The primary causes are related to the water they use and drink, hygiene, and infidelity.<br />-100965193675Photo 6: Main diseases of adults. <br /> 4.4.3Health Risks<br />Violence and abuse<br />Photo 7: The families must come down a hill to get to their houses.Violence and abuse is a recurrent problem, and there are health risks between spouses, parents and children, and between adolescents. Between spouses, the most common form of violence is verbal followed by physical and sexual abuse. <br />VerbalPhysicalPsychologicalSexualTable 5: Types of violence and abuse in adults. <br />Child abuse often takes the form of punishment; the children mention that it is very common to receive punishment with the hand or belt. Adolescents indicate that abuse and violence in some families is related to the consumption of alcohol and drugs by the adults. <br />The adolescents also mentioned that violence results when one is humiliated or discredited because of his color. The community attributed the cause of this violence between adolescents to a lack of communication within the family.<br />4.5 Environment<br />-190501563370The Valle del Toachi community is located at the foot of a hill. The members of the community mention that unscrupulous people come from the city and throw garbage in the creek, and this affects the environment of Valle del Toachi. Also, the rains affect the families’ ability to travel to the city, since they must go up and down the dangerous hill. <br />The community does not have forests or land upon which to grow crops. The Toachi River is very close to the community and the water is used by the community to bathe and wash clothes.<br />The oil pipeline passes close to the community. This proximity in the past served as motivation to evict the entire community, but this has been overcome by defining a distance between the pipeline and the community. <br />4.6 Sanitation<br />In Valle del Toachi, 100% of the available latrines are septic wells, but because of their dimensions (8m x 12m) the latrines have been constructed too close to the homes. This contaminates their water sources and during the rainy season the latrines fill with water and the contamination overflows from them. <br />Photo 8: type of latrine constructed by the families. <br />A weekly trash collection began in the community, however many families burn their garbage. The community does not have a water system and they rely on a reservoir used by the municipal slaughterhouse, constructed by the local government one block away, for their daily needs. <br />A verbal authorization from the local government allows the families of Valle del Toachi to use water from the reservoir; a vital element they obtain through the use of a hose. The wells in the houses are another resource used to collect rain water and is available to the majority of families, but the water quality is unsafe because of the contamination from the latrines. <br />4.7Poverty<br />The community described their perception of poverty based on the type of house they own and their occupation. The group identified four categories of economic status in the community:<br />a) families in the best situation; <br />b) families in the regular situation; <br />c) semi-poor families and; <br />d) the poorest families. <br />The following table demonstrates the distribution of the categories in Valle del Toachi.<br />Best situationRegular situationSemi-poorPoorest Table 6: Economic categories. <br />The families considered in the best situation have a cement and steel house, receive money from a relative that is working outside the community, have 2 – 3 children, and one of the family members has a profession. <br />The families that are in the regular situation are those whose house is made of a mix of block walls with steel columns and a zinc roof, have a business in which the whole family works and have 3 – 4 children. <br />The families designated semi-poor have a house with block walls without columns and a zinc roof, are primarily laborers, work in construction and have 6 – 7 children. <br />The families that are considered the poorest are those whose house is made of wood and reeds with a zinc or sometimes plastic roof, they are laborers and help with construction, and have 8 – 12 children.<br />Photo 9: Type of house considered semi- poor. <br />4.8Education<br />3023870657225Valle del Toachi has a primary education center called Puruhá, where around 230 children of different grades attend. The center has two teachers and the children have classes in two classrooms. <br />Since 2009, through efforts of the directors and parents’ committee they have managed to start a baccalaureate up to the eighth year. There are actually 15 students enrolled in the ninth level. <br />Color CodeAnalysis of livelihoods Analysis of problems Analysis of uncertainties <br />Photo 10: HWVA Categories The community also has a center that cares for children from 6 months to 5 years and attends to 65 children. This child care center was created in 2008 when the local government supplied the space for its operation. A foundation called “Train” helped with the management for the operation of the center and the INNFA supports the state institution. <br />5.0Holistic Global Analysis (HWVA)<br />The holistic global analysis is a technique that allows us to identify and study the identification of the people’s livelihoods, problems, and their uncertainties, and define a plan of action with the community at the same time. <br />Following the guidelines of the HWVA method, one works with the community on the analysis of their: livelihoods, problems and uncertainties. After identifying these issues, the community identified areas of intervention through which they could start to execute the Development Plan:<br />1. Of the same community.<br />2. Of others (e.g. neighbors, government, NGOs)<br />3. Of gods, spirits (areas seen as outside human control). <br />After compiling the indicated information, the members of the community prioritized each area considering their abilities and vulnerabilities. For example, when the most seeds were in the outer circle, the community expressed their lack of control (vulnerability). Likewise, when the majority of seeds were in the inner circle, the community expressed more control (ability).<br />In this way, the HWVA graphic of Valle del Toachi identified the legalization of land as first priority and environmental contamination as eighth.<br />The complete results of the HWVA exercise of Valle del Toachi is shown in the chart and the action plan for the future is explained in the tables and the following:<br />CommunityOthersGodLivelihoods6. Masonry 10%60%30%7a. Commerce20%50%30%7b. Temporary jobs20%50%30%Problems1. Legalization of land20%30%50%7c. Educational infrastructure 20%50%30%7d. Basic services; water, roads, etc.20%50%30%5. Interfamily violence40%20%40%3. Consumption of alcohol and drugs 10%50%40%Uncertainties4. Eviction20%40%40%8. Environmental contamination60%40%0%2. Delinquency 40%10%50%<br />Table 7: Analysis of means of support. <br /> <br />5.1Livelihoods <br />302831538100The main source of income is trade, within which they consider small business developed by the families such as: selling fruits and vegetables, crafts, mechanic work, etc.<br />Graph 1: Livelihoods.The temporary work allows the families to earn their incomes during celebrations and festivals such as: making puppets to be burned during the end of the year festival, Christmas hats for the Christmas celebration, flower arrangements, stuffed animals or other small gifts for the day of love and friendship and Mother´s Day.<br />Temporary workSmall businessesConstruction workTable 8: Analysis of livelihoods. <br /> Another important source of income is masonry, done by the men. The level of income from construction depends on their level of experience and the skills necessary to build.<br />Graph 1 shows the control the families have over their livelihoods and greater control or influence others have – NGOs, public and private sector – especially in masonry, because the laborers have not had construction training and many work as assistants and therefore receive lower wages. <br />The same occurs with business and temporary jobs because they don’t have their own place to sell or deliver their products, and their crafts lack aggregate value which makes the prices and sales volume very low.<br />5.2Problems<br />Legaliz-ation of landInfrast-ructureBasic ServicesFamily violenceConsum-ption of drugs and alcoholTable 9: Analysis of problems.<br /> Table 9 shows the problems of Valle del Toachi where they prioritized land legalization and basic services followed by infrastructure and the consumption of alcohol and drugs, and family violence.<br />Graph 2 of HWVA shows that the families assign the most control or influence to outside organizations and the government in the areas of infrastructure, basic services, and the consumption of drugs and alcohol. They assigned land legalization to the spiritual part. However, they reaffirmed the community´s control over other areas, especially family violence.<br />Graph 2: Problems<br />5.3Uncertainties <br />The uncertainties about the effects and potential dangers that could occur worry the families of Valle del Toachi. <br />Table 10 presents the 3 uncertainties that the community of Valle del Toachi could encounter at any moment. One of their main concerns is eviction because the families don’t have legal rights to their lands. Environmental contamination is another constant threat in the community.<br />EvictionEnvironmental contaminationDelinquencyTable 10: Analysis of Uncertainty.<br />Graph 3: The HWVA exercise in relation to uncertainties shows that the community has the most control or influence over the environmental contamination (inner circle), while delinquency is perceived to be most influenced by God (outer circle). The threat of eviction makes the community very vulnerable and they perceive that others have the control and influence – outside organizations – and God (middle and outer circles). <br />Graph 3: Uncertainties<br />5.4Conclusions and results <br />As a result of the HWVA exercise, the Valle del Toachi community created their plan of action and strategies for each part. <br />The following presents the activities proposed to achieve the outcomes and impacts that will build capacity and reduce vulnerability in the community. <br />6.0Logical Framework<br />6.1Livelihoods and food security <br />Goal: The people build and better their quality of life, and can preserve their resources.Impact ResultsActivitiesBetter livelihoods and increased food securityEnhanced capacity and skills for trade and construction 6. Support development programs to better the production and trade of crafts and products. 6. Develop programs to professionalize technical areas such as masonry. 7a. Develop proposals to look for spaces or markets in which to sell products and crafts. 7b. Study the feasibility of forming an organization or association of artisans in the community or join another. Legalize the lands of Valle del Toachi1. Reach and agreement with authorities about the legalization of the land. 1. Host special events where authorities pledge their support to the legalization of the land. 1. Raise awareness with public and private institutions and the media about the lack of legalization of land so that the community has no fear of eviction.<br />6.2Family, education, health and sanitation.<br />Impact Results ActivitiesWomen’s and children’s rights, included in interfamily relations and increased family securityReduce the level of mistreatment, violence and abuse between family members and develop a security network in the community 5. Perform a diagnostic of gender inequality, domestic violence, and develop a program to raise awareness about gender equality and prevention. 2. Perform a diagnostic of the realities of abuse, violence, and child abuse, and develop a program to raise awareness about rights, good treatment, and prevention of violence, abuse, and sexual abuse. 2.b. Develop a program about healthy sexuality, gender equality, and reduction of teen pregnancy. 4. Develop partnerships with institutions to rehabilitate those addicted to alcohol and drugs, and raise awareness about the risks of alcohol and drug use. 2. Organize the community to protect itself against delinquency in conjunction with the police department, and evaluate the feasibility to build a police checkpoint in the area. Families receive services and enjoy a healthy environment Better access to basic services and improved environment7d. Involvement of government authorities in implementing basic services: Safe water, residential water, and better roads.8. Identify the causes of contamination and start a program to improve the environment.Improve education facilities and primary health careBetter access to medicine and improved quality of education7c. Outline the educational needs and create a plan for secure and quality education.5. Create a holistic health center to provide medical care and develop a space for education for “Good Living.”<br />7.0Conclusions<br />MAP international conducted a study to determine the needs and opportunities in the Valle del Toachi community in the Santo Domingo de los Tsa’chilas province. This report highlights the results of this study and some recommendations that will enable the community to have better health and holistic development.<br />The information in this report was collected from multiple discussions with community members and during meetings with community leaders during various months in 2010 and 2011.<br />Valle del Toachi depends above all on trade, construction and temporary jobs for sources of income. The lack of land legalization continues to impoverish the community; the lack of products with aggregate value and a location in which to sell them, as well as the lack of professionalization threaten their livelihood. The lack of basic services and insecurity make the families vulnerable and perpetuate serious health problems in the community such as the consumption of alcohol and drugs, family violence, and the mistreatment and abuse of the rights of children and adolescents. <br />Valle del Toachi presents typical characteristics of a rich ethnic community in Ecuador, with many needs including education, basic services and environmental concerns. Through this holistic evaluation of Valle del Toachi, it is possible to see the community’s needs as well as understand the hope and possibilities for development.<br />Finally, the results of this diagnostic seek to contribute to a development plan of the country and the Millennium Development Goals. Furthermore, it permits the community to be part of the process and create their own way of development, in conjunction with public and private institutions that are part of the process of community empowerment. <br />8.0Bibliography<br />Consejo de Desarrollo de las Nacionalidades y Pueblos del Ecuador. (2002). Pueblo tsachila. <br />Retrieved from http://www.codenpe.gov.ec/index.php?option=com_content&view=<br />article&id=74&Itemid=120.<br />Galapagos & Ecuador Guide. (2008). Map of Ecuador. Retrieved from http://www.galapagos-<br />islands-tourguide.com/images/map-of-ecuador.jpg.<br />Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos de Ecuador. (2010). [ Graphs illustrating socio-economic data from the Tungurahua province]. Dirrecion Regional Centro. Retrieved from <br />http://www.inec.gov.ec/web/guest/institucion/regionales/dir_reg_cen.<br />MAP International. (2010). THV Generic Overview and Profile – Version 13.3 (Draft). Brunswick, GA: MAP Staff.<br />MAP International Uganda. (2009). Community needs assessment report: THV Abala village.Oyam, Uganda: MAP staff.<br />

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