Deming's 14 points applied to services

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Deming's 14 points applied to services

  1. 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasd fghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx Restaurant Quality Management cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq What about Deming’s 14points? wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc We have learnt to live in a world of mistakes and vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq defective products as if they were necessary to life. It’s wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui time to adopt a new philosophy in America. opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwert 0 yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas Misino Edoardo Negri Erika Sborgia Marco Zucchi Paolo 1 818354 816288 810620 814308
  2. 2. INDEX  Foreword ...................................................................... 2  Project presentation...................................................... 2  General description ...................................................... 3 o o  Kitchen ................................................................. 4 Saloon ................................................................... 4 PLAN ........................................................................... 5 o Intelligence ........................................................... 5  o Analysis AS-IS and problems identification ... 5 Design ................................................................. 17    Problems Map ............................................. 17 Alternative ................................................... 18 Conclusion.................................................................. 19 Page 1
  3. 3. Foreword This report starts from the idea to implement the Quality Management within the catering services. The aim is to find out, through the description of a real restaurant, which are the usual quality problems (passing through the 14 Deming points) and how to solve them in a “quality way”. This standard approach could be adopted to all restaurants as a guideline of Quality Management according to Deming. Project presentation “The problem of quality management is not what people do not know about this topic. The problem is what they think they know " Crosby Philip B. (guru) This is the objective of this report: to analyze, to understand, to study and to develop what “we think to know” about quality within the catering services, passing through the 14 Deming’s points. Historically Deming and his philosophy were developed in the manufacturing field, but this does not take away the opportunity to apply it either to restaurants or to service business. The main problems of this discrepancy between manufacturing and service business arise from the fact that the association of the word “quality” is still tied solely to the product. Deming instead proposed the following definition: "A product or service possesses quality if it helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market"1 which has clearly broader perspectives:  “Help somebody”: try to transmit a value that can be psychological more than quantitative.  “Enjoy a good and sustainable market”: try to have a long term way to act. Therefore this project aims to use the 14 Deming’s points to analyze a restaurant in order to: 1. describe a sample restaurant easily comparable with a general Italian standard 2. find quality problems and solutions 3. define guided lines to describe a new standard of quality management restaurant The Deming cycle (first developed by Shewhart) results very useful to explain which the steps of a quality management revision are. Anyway this report will focus on the Plan phase. 1 New Economics for Industry, Government, Education - 1993 Page 2
  4. 4.  Plan: o Intelligence:   o AS-IS analysis Identify problems Design:  Problems map  Alternative  Do: implementation of the alternative  Check: looking if results are in line with forecasts  Act: create standards looking at new projects lunches General description The restaurant was born in 1960 from the idea of Richard Invented, a famous entrepreneur who decided to meet his love for cooking with his work career. Starting from a small number of employees it has now become a famous restaurant also thanks to the contribution of his two sons John Invented and Richard Invented, who have become managers of the restaurant for 10 years. Nowadays the restaurant covers more or less 50 seats, has 14 employees on permanent contracts and about 15 on fixed-term contracts. The organizational structure of the restaurant is functional and easily recognizable. There are two levels. The first level consists of the top managers who basically make all the decisions regarding the economic and organizational aspects of the restaurant. The second level consists of two areas: the “Saloon” and the “Kitchen”. The first one is directed by John and the second one by James, separately. The following scheme represents the general structure of the restaurant. TOP MANAGERS JOHN SALOON (Head Waiter) JAMES KITCHEN (Chef de cuisine) Page 3 First level Second level
  5. 5. Kitchen At the head of that business unit there is the Chef de cuisine that reports and cooperates with Mr. James Invented.  Chef de cuisine: 1 o Coordinates the work of the members of the brigade, sets work shifts and assigns free days. o Directs and supports employees’ activities. o Always ensures the proper functioning of the kitchen machineries. o Is in close contact with the management (with Mr James). o Proposes to Mr James the menus cooperating with chef de parties.  Chefs de parties: 4, one for each food area. They organize, direct and participate in their own area. Moreover, they compile the weekly shopping list. o Starters + desserts (chef patissier) o Meat (chef rotisseur) o Fish (chef poissonier) o First courses (chef entremetier)  Commis: 8 (2 for each food area). They help and collaborate directly with chefs de parties.  Marmiton: apprentices. This role is overloaded. Their original roles were that of washing dishes and, of course, keeping their department clean and in order. Saloon At the head of that business unit there is the Head waiter that reports and cooperates with Mr. John Invented.  Head waiter: 1 o Sets and manages the service. o Makes sure that everything is going well. o He has a good knowledge of languages. o He is also the sommelier: even if he is not qualified as a sommelier he has this role (no certification).  Waiters with daily roles: 10-15 o Take the orders and maintains continuous relationship with customers. Page 4
  6. 6. PLAN Intelligence Analysis AS-IS and problems identification The objective of this paragraph is trying to explain what is the AS-IS situation of the restaurant. This can give us an overall vision of managers and workers’ approaches toward organization, relationship and level of responsibilities. In order to clearly define these aspects we set a double point of view, the top manager and the internal one. We know it is hard to ask questions and receive true answers. This way to approach helps us to go in the deeper side of the restaurant organization, having a REAL as is situation, and not only the one that top managers would show us. The main goals are:  Understand if there are some quality problems in the company.  Show the best way to implement the 14 Deming’s points in a restaurant After two long interviews with the top managers and one month study of the situation directly from the interior (one of us worked there some months) it could have been possible to summarize the AS-IS situation in the following way. PRINCIPLE TOP MANAGERS POINT OF VIEW INTERNAL POINT OF VIEW Deming applications and suggestions improving. Page 5
  7. 7. TOP MANAGERS INTERNAL POINT OF VIEW 1 PRINCIPLE: create vision and demonstrate commitment The restaurant has been established for 53 years and his management is In this case, the principle concerns more the top management than the nowadays clear: provide to the customer an experience, showing lower levels of the organization. him/her that eating is not just to meet a basic need, but it is the best way It is clear that the vision of the restaurant is constantly pursued and it to feel alive. In according with this vision there is a constantly research has always been the same but, mostly for the Saloon, it is difficult to of new plates because, as James said, “the cooking is a market in identify a large commitment. Waiters are very young and most of them continuous improvement and so you must have a flexible and always up do not see their future career here, in the restaurant. to date menu. For this reason our chefs have an international knowledge”. Having only 2 managers helps a good commitment at the top level. In fact, their efforts are towards the same direction: having a long term view for the company and involving all the personnel. As it was explained previously, the two managers usually work separately, each on his area, interacting only for main decisions. Both sides told the same phrase during the interview: “I trust my partner”. This is the definition of two responsible managers. The vision is clear and well-known. The main emerged problem is the misalignment between the two levels of the company. From the description made by the managers emerges a good overall commitment; but looking from the inside of the company it is clear that this is not the real situation: the last part of the organization is not involved. To solve it, the best way to act is to demonstrate to all the employees that a personal growth can be combined to the company growth. To do that an Page 6
  8. 8. improvement in policy contract should be implemented, underlining the long term view and the possibility to have a professional growth. Moreover, managers must understand that improving the competitive position means to create a real social entity, in which everyone knows his role and his value for the company. 2 PRINCIPLE: learn the new philosophy When the restaurant was started in 1960, it was just a little eatery with In the Kitchen, it could happen that someone is in a tight spot because of few employees, under the direction of a one person who decided both an overload of ordinations. In this case, other chefs immediately help cooking and administration. Little by little, the cooperation improved her/him. On the other hand, it never happens that someone from the due to the integration in the organization of the two brilliant brothers. Kitchen interacts with the Saloon, trying to better manage the waiting They thought that a constant exchange of ideas between kitchen and top time of clients. For example, in rush hours, waiters splitting up times level would have brought to a continuous improvement. This happened, might solve an overload in the kitchen. and happens nowadays in the restaurant. The main driver has always been the customer, providing him/her the best product in term of quality. It is not the aim of the restaurant to have a wide number of clients. The “actual company philosophy”, well explained by the two managers, does not seem to be the “real company philosophy”. Of course, the customer is the center and there is a good cooperation inside each business unit, but the main problem is in the relationships between Kitchen and Saloon. Each side does not know about tasks, problems and errors of the other one. A good solution could be a stronger liaison person (head waiter), who knows what happen in each side. He/she could check, understand and solve problems that are correlated between the two units and, consequently, improve the overall commitment. Page 7
  9. 9. 3 PRINCIPLE: understand inspection There aren’t programmed and regular inspections in the kitchen. The kitchen’s employees recognize the lack of inspection, but they are It only happens that, after a claim (too cold plate, too high waiting time), conscious that, thanks to their background, they are able to organize and managers try to investigate why it occurred, reaching always a solve problems quickly by themselves. They know it is a high stalemate. Moreover, managers know very well that an excessive control responsibility, but they are not worried about it. in the Saloon, could transform the waiter’s work in something hard and Differently, for the Saloon, waiters are generally young boys without heavy. The consequence of doing that would be an excessive turnover, serious controls. That leads them to work serenely, but on the other hand transforming the waiters’ search in something more and more difficult. to work under their capabilities, as they admit. For that reason, they try not to blame them every time they make a mistake. As we said before, waiters know and recognize their responsibility, but their soft way to work impacts directly on costumers. A quality control should be done in order to find organizational solutions and continuous improvements in service. A good way to act it could be going deeper through mistakes in order to understand which the real causes are, not stopping the control on the results of the mistake. By the way this must be realized without a searching of 4 PRINCIPLE: stop making decision purely on the basis of purchasing costs About the suppliers’ topic (why and how they choose them), managers’ Listening to the chefs’ opinion the relationship with the suppliers seems answer in the same precise way: the decision driver is the products to be more problematic. quality. They have few suppliers, one for each area of food (one for Beyond delivery delays, generally solved by a member of the restaurant vegetables and fruits, one butcher, one fishmonger and so on), which who goes to buy whatever they miss at the supermarket, chefs de parties Page 8
  10. 10. always guarantee good and fresh products. notice a lack of products quality. It rarely happens that suppliers provide below standard products but John and James recognize a problem of delivery delay. Managers are adopting the Deming method regarding the number of suppliers and the relationship with them. Having a managerial view of the company, they make us believe they take into account only the quality of their product, however talking with the chefs we understand this is not the only driver. The lack of products quality leads us to believe that also costs have a weight on their decision. It is a typical managerial problem due to a “money vision” that doesn’t take into consideration costs of poor quality. It is the same for the Saloon: sometimes it would be better to hire someone more qualified that could add value to the service of the restaurant. 5 PRINCIPLE: improve constantly and forever The single sourcing for each area of suppliers’ market is surely a way to The constant improvement in food diversification is the bases of reduce variation in the process because, of course, they establish better restaurant philosophy. Chefs are happy to find new plates because, as long term relationships. Therefore, suppliers often propose different they said “cooking is a science in itself (science considered as exact products according to the best they have in every moment. formulas written on a book), it is the chef who makes it art”. Regarding the internal improvement, we must consider the two business Waiters told us that it is difficult to apply continuous improvements units differently. On the one side, chefs are incentivized to invent and because they do not have time to think and they do not feel the need to purpose new plates, in line with the restaurant vision; on the other, do that. talking about the saloon, John said that they are all qualified and well- Harshly, they are not paid enough to do that. motivated. Page 9
  11. 11. Again, the problem stands in the Saloon unit. The low involvement of waiters leads them to avoid the possibility to improve the customer service. This causes a breach into the company vision. We must engage all employees to innovate and seek ways to do their job more efficiently and effectively, providing them longer contracts and giving them the possibility to gain a better and more profitable position in the company. They must be considered as part of the whole project. 6 PRINCIPLE: institute training Before to become a member of the cooking team there is a six-month At the end of the training period, the chef de cuisine decides who is stage, in which you are tested and helped in understanding the best way ready for the new role and who is not. Anyhow, there were occasions in to work. In this period, you are called “marmiton”. Surely, it never which someone upgraded due to the necessity to recover a particular happens that in a workday, your task is just to wash dishes but you will position. also actively participate in the kitchen life. After the stage if you are Regarding the saloon, the more experienced waiters have the role to well qualified, you could be hired. explain to the new ones the job. Regarding the service, they do not provide any stage and, usually, do not Unfortunately, this is not the best solution: on one side, the more experts upgrade waiters’ level until they have reached a good level of must conciliate their work with the help they are supposed to give to the experience. new waiters. On the other, the new employees have difficulties in understanding quickly and clearly the best way to work. The solution could be standardizing the waiter’s work, establishing fixed trial periods. Moreover, another important step could be to carry out specific courses for new waiter in order to improve the saloon work. This would also give the possibility to recognize keen boys and to allow them to go-getting in the restaurant. Furthermore, this could be a first step to an undetermined period contract eliminating, at the same time, the variability given by the waiters. Page 10
  12. 12. 7 PRINCIPLE: institute leadership John and James prefer to not interact constantly with all the personnel. The two business units have different styles of management. In the They said: “we do not want to scare them”. Nevertheless, of course, they Kitchen, the Chef de Cuisine is very strict, but at the same time, he is are always available in helping and speaking with the Head waiter and very polite in explaining new methods, giving advices and helping the Chef de cuisine. younger members. “It is funny that if you make something “well” you receive a punch on the shoulder, if you make something “wrong” the chef usually tells how it should be made”. This anecdote is useful to explain that, anyway, there is a good motivation and you feel part of something bigger. In the Saloon, the Head Waiter is the point of reference for all the others. He usually tries to bridge the gap in service and he is always polite in giving some advices to the new waiters. The concept of leadership is well interpreted by both the Chef de Cuisine and the Head Waiter. They always help workers in order to improve their skills and not just to supervise them. Instead, there is a lack in managers’ leadership: they are more interested in top level decisions and not directly present in the process. Anyway, the two figures at the head of the business units fill this gap. Probably this situation is the best to avoid the problem of “duality of command”. 8 PRINCIPLE: drive out fear Regarding the extra rewards, in the Kitchen, there is not a real policy. Generally, the restaurant life seems to be more or less out of fear. The Page 11
  13. 13. The only service provided is having lunch or dinner free, before starting main problems are related to people unaware that, reporting some work. That improves also the team strength. ideas/problems about the process, could increase the value of the Instead, in the Saloon, there is a tips policy: the whole month tips are restaurant. For instance, as it was mentioned before, in the Kitchen chefs collected as extra cash and, at the end, they divide it based on monthly de parties do not report any product quality problems just because that is working day. not their task. The theme of fear can be analyzed from two points of view. On the one hand, the fear of reporting is in the Kitchen, where chefs de parties avoid discussing with the manager about some quality products problems. A good solution could be a more informal relationship between chefs and managers, in this way, chefs could explain to managers the real importance of product quality. Chefs are the only ones who know the real meaning of quality in the Kitchen. On the other hand, employees are worried about their rewards. Regarding that, it could be better to have a different approach: a solution could be dividing tips daily instead of monthly. This could lead to a more equitable enhancement of their work. 9 PRINCIPLE: optimize the effort of team Top managers think that teamwork is critical for the implementation of Chefs think they work in great harmony thanks to the possibility to their philosophy. In the kitchen, this idea is clearly identified; in the confront each other in order to create new plates. This leads them to be a saloon, there is a great difficulty to be a real team because of the high real team. turnover. On the contrary, waiters recognize some problems regarding service They recognize that there is low vertical interaction. The only direct quality, but they never communicate them to higher levels. relationship between top managers and chefs or waiters is when they go It happens because they do not want to take any responsibility. The to check something. The top management is continuously in contact turnover hides in some way these problems. Page 12
  14. 14. only with the highest figures of the business units. Again, we face problems in the Saloon area. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to create a team when there is not a real tangible goal. This could happen when the business unit provides a service instead of a product. By investing in long term contracts, you could eliminate variability and could create better relationships among employees, enhancing communications. As Ishikawa said "Employees have the responsibility to influence their leaders so that in the company they apply the more suitable approaches and techniques of quality" 10 PRINCIPLE: eliminate exhortations Exhortations are part of Italian manager’s background. Those recall Employees are much flexible about the topic of exhortations; they know every day grandparents’ aphorisms through which you grow up. that managers try to create a good climate of work. They try to follow Therefore, it does not want to be a methodology to follow every day. those exhortations not because managers want a standardization of Otherwise, those represent guidelines to go after during hard times. In working, but because it is a good way to work. other words, Manager told us that exhortations are not as Mr. Deming thinks they are. These exist only to create a good work’s climate where you can give a good notion without stress and constraint. The 10th point of Deming quality management suggests avoiding any kind of exhortation inside the company. That is due to the fact that sometimes mistakes are caused by process variations and not to human error. But in restaurants process variations are lower than in a manufacturing process. For that reason, moreover in the “Saloon”, making exhortations is a good way to act under a quality management point of view. Page 13
  15. 15. 11 PRINCIPLE: eliminate numerical quota and MBO Recently, in the Kitchen, managers tried to purpose a new management The new policy is perceived as a good way to act. This is due to the link policy in order to reduce cost maintaining the same level of quality. The with sustainability, more than reducing cost. In fact, sometimes, when policy consists in decreasing average waste during the month. Daily chefs, but also young neo-assumed, see a manager in the kitchen, they managers control the amount of waste going out from the Kitchen and usually do not throw away literally anything! that is having good results on total costs. In conclusion, for employees the importance of reducing waste is clear, but they are too scared about controls. Managers are delighted about the new waste policy, but this is not in line with a quality management view. In fact, it is correct to reduce unnecessary waste maintaining the same quality level, but a short term control based on how much the restaurant throws away is wrong. Sometimes, it could happen that more variations in wasting are caused by products or, generally, by the process and not by a bad application of the policy from the personnel. In conclusion, managers must pursue the policy in another way: they must try to explain to the personnel the importance of reducing waste without a fear of measurement. Doing that, managers can pursue the long term view objective of reducing unnecessary waste, without acting management by objectives (MBO). 12 PRINCIPLE: remove barriers to pride in workmanship Top managers always try to make people proud of their work. Waiters cannot work in the right way because they do not really know Chefs are aware about it (it is explained in the previous points). what top management requires from them. They do not have enough On contrary, waiters are treated as “a commodity”. responsibilities because they are treated as occasional workers, doing However, they try to justify themselves by telling us that these are only monotonous tasks. It is the Head Waiter who often makes decisions Page 14
  16. 16. temporary workers. They know that this is a “vicious cycle”, but we about work timetables and work modalities. Waiters are proud to understand that this is an obliged choice, due to the necessity to be belong to the restaurant, but they are frustrated because they know that flexible and to save costs. can provide their ideas On the other hand, chefs are well empowered and motivated because there is a clear career path. They are happy to belong to the organization because they can express themselves in the kitchen. The goal is to transform the as-is “vicious cycle” (concern the Waiters situation) in a “virtuous cycle”. A good solution could be the creation of training courses also for the Saloon employees, changing the organizational structure in order to give them the possibility to improve their position (becoming head waiter) and explain them that they could have a future in the restaurant. Doing that, waiters could be happier and more motivated to work in the restaurant. 13 PRINCIPLE: encourage education and self improvement Managers recognize the problem of education. In this way, they Chefs feel the willingness to invest on themselves, so they are encourage the exchange of knowledge and self-improvement in encouraged to dare and to be brave doing their plates. company’s core: the Kitchen. When we asked the same question to the waiters, they burst into However, they know there isn’t the same attention in Saloon. The laughter. continuous turnover does not allow them to invest in specialized They do not see any investment on them. The feeling is that they seem courses. They invest the main resources on "level 0” preparation to be a piece of the restaurant, not “important machinery”. (standard preparation for people which don’t belong to restoration) and on the research of new employees. Page 15
  17. 17. There is a great self-improvement approach in the kitchen, though they don’t make any external courses. The problem stands in the Saloon, as we said in the previous point, a good specialization courses would be necessary. In this way, they do not want only to invest in their business, but also in personnel development. Elevating knowledge basis, the restaurant creates self-sufficient people, improving their affinity towards the restaurant and, above all, towards its clients. 14 PRINCIPLE: take action The real idea of quality, in this case, belongs to plates and kitchen: the Chefs are happy to satisfy people’s expectations. They are happy to test main goal is to create excellent food. They try to change menu and to invent something new every day. according to seasons and according to the particular products suppliers provide them. They told us chefs know this philosophy and, for this reason, they are pushed to make better and create something new. If we look at the interview, it seems that managers believe only in food quality: the secret of a good restaurant with a long time success is differentiation. The main problem is the managerial point of view. They focus the quality approach only on kitchen. It is true that this allows them to have success for a long time but they should understand a change in service is needed. How? Creating a vision that pushes on the introduction of new knowledge, new jobs and new feelings among employees and customers too. Page 16
  18. 18. Design The As-Is analysis of the restaurant through the 14 Deming’s Points allows us to understand which the quality management problems are, and on which areas it could be right to take action. The aim of the following section is try to summarize the main problems emerged during the analysis in order to classify them, start to think some alternatives, and choose the one from which start to improve quality in the restaurant. Problems Map Main problems identified are organized into the tree Area of the restaurant. - Managers participate but do not understand the real processes - The good commitment between the top managers is not demonstrate - Low investments in training - Old philosophy approach - Vision is not clear SALOON MANAGERS - Variation in quality products depends on costdriven purchasing decisions - No-cooperation between business units - Lack of statistical inspection with the goal to improve quality - There is no passage of information - There is no selfimprovement - There is no companyimprovement objective - Lack in skills knowledge - Most of all short term contracts - Not belonging to the values of the company High impact on customer Normal impact on customer Low impact on customer KITCHEN - It is difficult to enter in the team The Problems Map graphically helps to understand which are the areas and the weights of problems in the organization. In that way is easy to understand the solutions to implement in order to improve restaurant performances are linked first with the improving of service level in the Saloon. Page 17
  19. 19. Alternative The objective of this paragraph is to provide a good alternative to solve the “red” problems of the organization. Following the “quality road”, the first step would be very precise investments. With long-term contracts, you could bind the employees to the company, underlining your interest in making them a real part of your machinery. The benefit is double: direct, if we consider waiters approach towards customer and indirect, if we think about the positive influence this could have on the restaurant. It does not mean a change in the idea of “providing a service”, but giving the service the necessary tools to make it better and better (continuous improvement). We could approach this change following the six sigma model:  Changing the mind-sets.  Standardize the job: it is necessary to give specific tasks in order to optimize the saloon service, providing the right figures in the right moment.  Create a defined career path in order to give new employees a clear idea.  Look for keen people who want to pursue a career in the restaurant, giving them an idea of “investments in the future”.  Give them the possibility to optimize the work by themselves giving every time their own contribution (six sigma). 1. Rethought of Saloon roles: the new organization of the business unit of the Saloon must be customer-oriented.  There will be Primo Maître with new tasks that are not present in the As-Is situation. He must be the “strategic process owner” of the transversal process of service of customers, ensuring a good exchange of information between the business units. The right person to take this role is the Head Waiter who already knows what the point of strength and weakness are. Under the six-sigma point of view, he will be the master black-belt.  There will be a sommelier: the Primo Maître (the old Head Waiter) cannot have the time also to do this task. Therefore, a training of one of the more ambitious waiters could be exploited/leveraged as a competitive advantage.  Some waiters must be organized looking to the output of the process (customers). So they must be more like “account managers”, taking care of the customer from his arrival to his departure. They have the responsibility of the customer they are taking care of. Page 18
  20. 20. Moreover, they will bring courses, and have a continuous exchange of information with the Primo Maître. Under the six-sigma point of view, he will be the black-belt.  Other waiters helping in bringing/taking away courses will support each account manager, but they will be organized by area and not by function. Under the six-sigma point of view, they will be the green-belt. 2. Empowerment of waiters: managers must understand that improving training of waiters means improving value in service, customer satisfaction and so value for the restaurant. In order to reach the rethought/re-org of the Saloon roles, managers must provide the right skills to waiters. Therefore, an investment in training courses is required. One sommelier course made for one waiter, and another one for the other waiters to become more responsible. Conclusion "In a service or a product the quality is not what you put in but what the customer gets from it" Peter Drucker (guru) This is what we hope we transmit with this analysis: both in product and service, it is the quality that guides the company to a profitable future, towards customer loyalty and continuous improvement. Quality must be built, not controlled. This is the reason why everyone, from top management until marmiton, must work together. As Deming said: “quality is meeting the customer's needs and exceed their own expectations by continuous improvement”. This must be the goal of every restaurant and this is the principle that will make it better and better. Page 19

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