Project Followership                                Prof. Marco Sampietro                        marco.sampietro@sdaboccon...
Agenda•  Project Followership: Introduction•  Project Followership along the Project Life CycleCopyright SDA Bocconi      ...
Followership•  The ratio of leadership to followership books is 120:1 (Bjugstad,   2004)•  One of the reasons followers ha...
Project Followership: boundaries•  Project Followership is mainly targeted at team   members that:      –  Do not manage p...
Project Management andProject Team Members: the current situation•  The project management discipline is still based on a ...
Project Followership: What is it?•  Project Followership is a new project management   approach that puts project team mem...
Agenda•  Project Followership: Introduction•  Project Followership along the Project Life CycleCopyright SDA Bocconi      ...
Project Followership alongthe project life cycle  Resource Usage                                                   Control...
Kick off meeting                        Low participationCopyright SDA Bocconi                       NASA PM Challenge 201...
Kick off meeting                        Low commitmentCopyright SDA Bocconi                    NASA PM Challenge 2011   10
Kick off meeting           Technical approach               Project Followership           • Waste of time. It is not     ...
Requirements Analysis                        How it should beCopyright SDA Bocconi                      NASA PM Challenge ...
Requirements Analysis                        How it is sometimesCopyright SDA Bocconi                         NASA PM Chal...
Requirements Analysis           Technical approach            Project Followership           • People that should provide ...
WBS                        I know what to do…Copyright SDA Bocconi                        NASA PM Challenge 2011   15
WBS                        Interesting, lets see some detail…Copyright SDA Bocconi                                   NASA ...
WBS                        Interesting, lets see some detail…Copyright SDA Bocconi                                   NASA ...
WBS           Technical approach             Project Followership           • Why spending time on         • Understanding...
Scheduling and Estimating            I think we will still be within the tolerances…Copyright SDA Bocconi                 ...
Scheduling and Estimating           Technical approach             Project Followership           • Trying to provide good...
Risk ManagementPanta Rei Approach      Reactive ApproachCopyright SDA Bocconi           NASA PM Challenge 2011   21
Risks Management           Technical approach            Project Followership           • Risks happen, is a fact. We • Ri...
Changes                        Positive or negative change?Copyright SDA Bocconi                                  NASA PM ...
Changes           Technical approach             Project Followership           • Changes depend on lack of • Projects are...
Control                        I will deliver perfectly on time!Copyright SDA Bocconi                                     ...
Control           • Technical approach              • Project Followership           • Inserting data related to the   • C...
Lesson Learned              It is not the single activity, is the interfaceCopyright SDA Bocconi                          ...
Lesson Learned           Technical approach            Project Followership           • I do not see the point to   • I ha...
Conclusions•  Project Followership is not the opposite of Project   Leadership, it is complementary.•  Project performance...
Copyright SDA Bocconi   NASA PM Challenge 2011   30
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Project followership

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Speech held by Professor Marco Sampietro, SDA Bocconi School of Management at the NASA Project Management Challenge 2011.
Project Followership is a recent Project Management discipline that looks at projects with a bottom up approach. While in fact the vast majority of Project Management publications are targeted to Project Managers, Project Followership considers team members as the key actors. Project Followership is not antagonist to Project Management but it is complimentary.

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Project followership

  1. 1. Project Followership Prof. Marco Sampietro marco.sampietro@sdabocconi.itCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011
  2. 2. Agenda•  Project Followership: Introduction•  Project Followership along the Project Life CycleCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 2
  3. 3. Followership•  The ratio of leadership to followership books is 120:1 (Bjugstad, 2004)•  One of the reasons followers haven’t been researched is that there is a stigma associated with the term “follower” (Bjugstad, 2006).•  One-third of all executives are followers in some fashion. Yet, rarely did any of the executives concede that they were followers (Williams and Miller, 2002)•  Management and organizational behavior have been dominated by the concept of leadership, which has assumed a romanticized, larger than life role as a result (Meindle, 1987)•  Leaders only really accomplish something by permission of the followers (Depree, 1992).•  Followers motivate themselves (Huges, 1998).•  A key to motivating followers is the concept of having them realize how important their function is in a broad sense (Blanchard and Bowles,1998) .Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 3
  4. 4. Project Followership: boundaries•  Project Followership is mainly targeted at team members that: –  Do not manage projects but participate to projects –  Manage project activities, sometime alone, other times in small teams –  Mainly provide technical competencies –  Do not work full time on projects –  Do not need to know “everything” about project management –  Sometime, they do not want to be project managersCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 4
  5. 5. Project Management andProject Team Members: the current situation•  The project management discipline is still based on a top down paradigm: –  Traditionally, the project manager manages the team –  More recently, the project sponsor supports the project manager•  Project Management training follows this dominant paradigmCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 5
  6. 6. Project Followership: What is it?•  Project Followership is a new project management approach that puts project team members at the center of the stage.•  Project Followership aims at actively and proactively involving project team members in managing projects.•  Project Followership aims at increasing the satisfaction of project participants, by supplying the knowledge and the tools to fully understand their role in a project environment.•  Project Followership aims at increasing project performance, by creating more effective relationships between project team members and project managers and by promoting positive behaviors.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 6
  7. 7. Agenda•  Project Followership: Introduction•  Project Followership along the Project Life CycleCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 7
  8. 8. Project Followership alongthe project life cycle Resource Usage Control Change Risk Management Scheduling and Estimating WBS Requirements Analysis Kick off Lesson learned meeting Transfer Time Conception Planning Execution and ClosureCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 8
  9. 9. Kick off meeting Low participationCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 9
  10. 10. Kick off meeting Low commitmentCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 10
  11. 11. Kick off meeting Technical approach Project Followership • Waste of time. It is not • Opportunity to ask strictly related to my work, I clarifications, to understand can read the meeting how my work fits into the minute to get directly to the project. point. • Opportunity to modify the project before is too late. • Ability to understand the choices made at the C level. • Opportunity to “sell” myself.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 11
  12. 12. Requirements Analysis How it should beCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 12
  13. 13. Requirements Analysis How it is sometimesCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 13
  14. 14. Requirements Analysis Technical approach Project Followership • People that should provide • It is my duty to translate requirements are not able to business requirements into do so and it seems that they technical requirements. do not speak my language. • If requirements are • Making mistakes during incomplete, I will define this phase will lead to huge them by myself. I know our reworks in the future and business. even to project failure.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 14
  15. 15. WBS I know what to do…Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 15
  16. 16. WBS Interesting, lets see some detail…Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 16
  17. 17. WBS Interesting, lets see some detail…Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 17
  18. 18. WBS Technical approach Project Followership • Why spending time on • Understanding the big planning tasks that are not picture helps my tasks too. related to mine? • I have spent a lot of time • There is a huge difference speaking about technical between identifying the aspects not related to my Work Package and writing a tasks. We did not spent To Do List. enough time to discussing • Micro-planning lead to my technical problems. inefficiencies.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 18
  19. 19. Scheduling and Estimating I think we will still be within the tolerances…Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 19
  20. 20. Scheduling and Estimating Technical approach Project Followership • Trying to provide good • Providing good estimates estimates is useless, since increases the stability of my the project schedule will agenda. change many times and • In addition, my colleagues priorities change every day. consider me a reliable person and my reputation is improving. • The project manager • Understanding the activity should manage the network facilitates the interfaces between the communication with my activities, otherwise why we colleagues. Reworks and are paying him/her? conflicts are reduced.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 20
  21. 21. Risk ManagementPanta Rei Approach Reactive ApproachCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 21
  22. 22. Risks Management Technical approach Project Followership • Risks happen, is a fact. We • Risks may happen but have to live with them. many of them can be managed before they have a negative impact. A proactive approach creates a more stable environment. It is easier to organize my agenda. • I cannot tolerate • Projects are dynamic emergencies, they make environments, it is me crazy. It seems that the impossible to completely project manager is adding stabilize them, it is their complexity, and not nature. reducing it.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 22
  23. 23. Changes Positive or negative change?Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 23
  24. 24. Changes Technical approach Project Followership • Changes depend on lack of • Projects are dynamic, knowledge of the Project changes are necessary and Manager. they are not always related to mistakes. • If changes are related to • A change can be negative my activities, I am the only at the activity level but can person that can accept, add value at the project modify and interpret them. I level. Before judging it, it is know what is the best. better to look at it from different perspectives and ask for clarifications.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 24
  25. 25. Control I will deliver perfectly on time!Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 25
  26. 26. Control • Technical approach • Project Followership • Inserting data related to the • Calculating the work done activity status is a waste of and work left increases my time. I know where I am. ability to estimate and thus The Project Manager my ability to organize my should trust me. activities. • Having data on the other activities permit me to better plan my work.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 26
  27. 27. Lesson Learned It is not the single activity, is the interfaceCopyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 27
  28. 28. Lesson Learned Technical approach Project Followership • I do not see the point to • I have a lot of experience share my mistakes (if any) but taking time to and my best practices. I systematize it is not so know my job, I am able to common and can lead to improve by myself, if new and interesting necessary. discoveries. • The optimization of a single activity does not lead, automatically, to project success. Lesson learned are helpful to reconsider the project as a system and to see how, sometimes, mistakes derive from “local best” decisions.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 28
  29. 29. Conclusions•  Project Followership is not the opposite of Project Leadership, it is complementary.•  Project performances depend on the contribution of all the subjects involved in the project.•  Project Followership aims at creating more involvement and more awareness of the Project Team Member role.Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 29
  30. 30. Copyright SDA Bocconi NASA PM Challenge 2011 30

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