Psychology Teaching And Training In Europe

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Psychology Education and Training in Europe by Anna Sagana & Kristina Potocnik. Presentation in the Symposium by invitation: "Advances in Psychology Education around the world" in XXXII Interamerican …

Psychology Education and Training in Europe by Anna Sagana & Kristina Potocnik. Presentation in the Symposium by invitation: "Advances in Psychology Education around the world" in XXXII Interamerican Congress of Psychology in Guatemala, 2009

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  • The presentation is based on the upon main principles. We will start with a short trip to the resent years and how the events then lead to the formation of what we today know in Europe as EDP, the European Diploma of Psychology. Then on we will continue on the philosophy of EDP and on what consists its structure. We will stop by to the Erasmus Mundus Programmes which are something quite new at least for the European higher educational level. Finally the presentation will close by pointing the importance of Student Organisations into promoting the advantages and standing for the problems and interests of students.
  • The Treaty of Rome in 1957 promoted freedom of movement of professionals across Europe. However, implementation of this commitment was slow and difficult. Early on, there were attempts to harmonise qualifications across member countries and so-called Sectoral Directives were agreed for the seven professions of doctors, dentists, nurses, midwives, veterinarians, pharmacists and architects, with agreement across all the member countries on the harmonisation or standardisation of education and training. However, it soon became clear that these attempts to harmonise qualifications were enormously complex and time-consuming, and the task of extending this process to other professions appeared impossible.
  • On 1985 the Commission introduced a new approach to cover other professions to which access is in some way restricted (or regulated) by the State either by law or through a professional organisation and which require at least three years’ university level training or equivalent (the General Directive 89/48/EC, entitled Mutual Recognition of Higher Education Diplomas, and more recently the second General Directive 92/51). Although these Directives are intended to facilitate mobility of professionals, there has not been significant progress in using them to promote mobility of psychologists across Europe, since each country is able to impose its own requirements on psychologists seeking to enter the country with qualifications obtained in another country. The General Directive provides a complicated approach to the evaluation of equivalence which depends on individual cases being evaluated and compared against a national “template’”
  • In 1990 the European Federation of Professional Psychologists Associations (EFPPA) adopted a set of Optimal Standards for the Profession of Psychology (EFPPA 1990) in which requirements were laid down for the academic education and the professional training of psychologists. The European Network of Organizational and Work Psychologists (ENOP), on the basis of a Copernicus-grant from the European Commission, elaborated a curriculum framework and minimum standards for work and organizational psychology (Roe et al., 1994; ENOP, 1998). A working group of European psychologists followed a similar approach when defining a framework for education and training for European psychologists in the context of the EU’s Leonardo da Vinci program (Lunt, 2000; Lunt et al. 2001a, Lunt 2002).
  • In 1996, consultations began for a proposed “Third Directive” to replace the previous sectoral and vertical directives to facilitate free movement throughout the European Economic Area. These culminated on March 7, 2002 when the European Commission issued a Directive proposal to replace the 15 separate directives, and to “clarify and simplify the rules in order to facilitate free movement of qualified people”. This Directive was subject to consultation and debate for over two years, and has now been accepted by the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.
  • The European standard may serve to improve quality of professional training and practice, and to enhance quality in countries which are developing their own education and training routes and professional practice guidelines. It will also enable EU countries to share and promote good practice, and to develop the European dimension in professional training and practice in psychology.
  • European Diploma in Psychology represents a system of standards for the education and training of professional psychologists in Europe. It has been developed in order to promote or enhance high quality education in psychology, to promote ethical commitments of all psychologists and of course to enhance mobility of psychologists across European countries.
  • A number of guiding principles underlie this proposal for a set of European Diplomas in Psychology (EDP) in which the European Standard is embedded. These principles aim to: 1) promote the availability of adequate psychological services across Europe. Every citizen and any institution should be able to obtain psychological services from a competent and qualified professional, and the system should help to achieve this objective. 2) protect consumers and citizens in Europe through the assurance of quality and to protect the public against unqualified providers of services. 3) promote the mobility of psychologists by enabling them to practise anywhere in Europe, provided that they have the proper qualifications. 4) ensure that the EDP is awarded on the basis of: (a) demonstrated completion of an academic curriculum in psychology of sufficient scope; (b) demonstrated competence in the performance of professional roles during supervised practice; (c) endorsement of European (as well as national) ethical standards for psychologists.
  • 5) ensure that the EDP system is fair and avoids favouring or disfavouring psychologists on the basis of national or other differences in educational or professional background, and that it recognizes high service quality as a prevailing principle. This implies that the EDP shall not pose specific requirements concerning the structure or format of the academic education, or the nature and organisation of the internship for professional practice. 6) guarantee the qualification for psychological practice at an entry level to the profession as well as beyond. 7) endorse a commitment to the active maintenance of competence. For this reason the Diploma is awarded for a limited time period, and shall be renewed, again for a limited period of time, on the basis of evidence of continuing professional practice and professional development. 8) respect rather than to replace national regulations for psychologists which are already in place.
  • The requirements are formulated with reference to a curriculum model that makes a distinction between three phases: 1st phase refers to Bachelor or equivalent, 2nd phase refers to Masters or equivalent and 3rd phase represents Supervised practice. The 1st and 2nd phase are part of the academic curriculum in psychology, whereas the 3rd phase may or may not be included within the university curriculum. It is further assumed that there will be a range of arrangements made by universities to meet these requirements and that a structure of different phases is not essential. This framework is neutral in relation to the organisation and sequence of the learning programme.
  • The first phase or bachelor degree is typically devoted to the orientation of students in the different sub-specialities in psychology, but it can also be opened to related disciplines. It offers a basic education in all the psychology specialities, and in the major theories and techniques in psychology. It gives a basic introduction to psychologists’ skills, and a grounding for research in psychology. It does not lead to any occupational qualification and does not provide the necessary competence for independent practice in psychology.
  • The second phase (Masters degree) prepares the student for independent professional practice as a psychologist. This part of the curriculum can either be undifferentiated and prepare for further PhD training or employment as a “general practitioner” in psychology or be differentiated and prepare for practice within a particular professional area of psychology, such as work & organisational psychology, educational psychology or clinical psychology. In the first case the student will acquire additional knowledge on topics that were already addressed during the first phase, such as cognitive architecture theory, specific theories of emotions, advanced personality theory. In the second case the student will acquire specialist knowledge on e.g. theories of work performance, theories of leadership, or statistical models of personnel selection. Since all of the knowledge and skills acquired are based on the discipline of psychology, either type of curriculum content is acceptable in the framework of the second phase. As part of the second phase the student has to demonstrate the capacity to acquire skills in research. Finally, also at least 6 month internship is carried out within this secoind phase to provide an introductory professional field training in order to enable students to: integrate theoretical and practical knowledge , to learn procedures related to psychological knowledge , to start practising under supervision , to be able to reflect upon and discuss own and other people’s activities and to begin working in a setting with professional colleagues .
  • The third phase in the education of psychologists consists of supervised practice within a particular area of professional psychology. It can be considered as professional field training in order to: prepare for independent practice as a licensed (or equivalent) psychologist, to develop working roles as a professional psychologist based on one’s unique training and personality, to consolidate the integration of theoretical and practical knowledge. This training usually occurs after completion of the second phase, and often occurs after leaving university. However, it can also be part of university training as the third cycle. Its duration is 12 months (60 ECTS). The type of practice consists of semi-independent work as a psychologist under supervision in a professional collegial setting. This form of training is held to be essential for obtaining the professional qualification of psychologist. Graduates who have completed the first and second phases without a period of supervised practice cannot be considered qualified for independent work as a psychologist.
  • The curriculum must have a duration of at least 5 years (300 ECTS), divided over 180 units for the 1st phase and 120 units for the 2nd phase. The duration of the 3rd phase (supervised practice) must be at least 1 year (60 ECTS or its equivalent). This leads to a total length of 6 years or 360 ECTS. As can be seen from this table, the largest part of the 1st phase should be devoted to theoretical courses and skills training; however some part should be reserved for methodology and non-psychological theory (e.g. philosophy or sociology) that is relevant for the study of psychology. The behaviour of people in groups and society should receive a minimal coverage of 20 units each. Methodology should have a coverage of at least 30 units; non-psychological theory between 15 and 25 units. Taken together, these curriculum components should account for 45 to 55 units. Within the 2nd phase approximately 60 units (1 year) should be spent on theoretical courses, seminars, assignments etc. To ensure that sufficient attention is being paid to individuals in the context of systems and/or society the number of units to be devoted to this should be at least 30. Minimally 30 units should be devoted to an internship (“stage”) and a research project or thesis. These two activities should cover at least 60 units (1 year). Minimally 60 units (1 year) should be spent on supervised practice. A paper or a dissertation or thesis is not deemed necessary for the first phase, because the Bachelor's Degree is not considered to lead to a qualification for independent practice. However, a dissertation is required for the second phase.
  • Most of the scepticism regarding the EDP has to do with the EDP accreditation to the graduates who finished their studies according to older systems. Namely, it is very rare that graduated students have one year of supervised practice according to the minimal standards of the EDP framework. Another controversy is the thesis that is required at the masters level according to the EDP framework. For instance, in Spain, it is not necessary to do a dissertation to obtain the license. Lastly, the validity of the Diploma is limited. Thus, according to the regulations, each psychologist will have to renew his/her diploma every 7 years.
  • ERASMUS MUNDUS, is a cooperation and mobility program of excellence in Higher education, promoted by the European Union with a worldwide scope. This program has been conceived to support high quality European Masters and to promote the visibility and attractiveness of the European Higher Education in the rest of the world countries.
  • The European Commission has awarded the Master in Work, Organization and Personnel Psychology in the framework of the Erasmus Mundus Program. It is the first Master in Psychology in Europe that has been selected in this European program. The Master is jointly offered by the Universities of Barcelona, Bologna, Coimbra, Paris V, and Valencia and started in the academic year 2006-07. It is directed by Prof. José María Peiró, chair of Organizational Psychology at the University of Valencia, which is the institution in charge of the coordination of the studies. The Master qualifies students for the professional practice of Work, Organizational, and Personnel Psychology. As it is based on national laws regulating the psychologist profession, the titles awarded make it possible to practice the profession of psychologist in the field of WOP Psychology. Moreover, the Master facilitates access to doctoral studies in this and related disciplines.
  • The duration of the Programme is two years, with a total workload of 120 ECTS (60 per year). The programme is based on the "scientist-practitioner" model, which assumes that a good preparation as practitioner implies the acquisition of professional and research competences. The Master implements the main guidelines developed by the Euro-Psych model for the European Diploma of Psychology (EDP). For more information, pleas visit www.erasmuswop.org.
  • The workload is distributed as follows: a) 48 ECTS are devoted to courses on work, organizational, and personnel Psychology, including theory and methodology aspects; b) 16 ECTS are devoted to free-choice courses related to the field; c) 10 ECTS to the Joint Intensive Learning Unit (Winter-School); d) 15 ECTS to professional stage, e) 24 ECTS to the development of research competences; and f) 7 ECTS to prepare a Professional Report integrating research and practice.
  • Student organizations can play a fundamental role in spreading the information about important changes and future plans regarding teaching and training in Europe. In this line, one survey carried out by the EFPSA EDP project team showed that almost 50% of the surveyed students were aware of the EDP framework thanks to local / national psychology students’ associations that take part in EFPSA.

Transcript

  • 1. Psychology teaching and training in Europe XXXII Congreso Inter americano de Psicología June 28 - July 2, 200 9 , Guatemala City, Guatemala Symposium: Advances in Psychology Education around the World Anna Sagana, University of Athens Kristina Potočnik, University of Valencia
  • 2. Outline
    • 1. The context of higher education in Europe
    • 2. Historical background
        • 2.1 Treaty of Rome 1957
        • 2.2 The General Directive 89/48/EC
        • 2.3 European Framework (EroPsyT)
        • 2.4 The Third Directive
    • 3. Euro Psy – EDP
        • 3.1 Aim
        • 3.2 Principles
        • 3.3 Framework and minimal requirements
        • 3.4 Summary
        • 3.5 Scepticism/ disagreements
    • 4. Erasmus Mundus Programs
        • 4.1 Aim
        • 4.2 WOP-P
    • 5. The role of Student Organizations
  • 3. Historical Background Treaty of Rome 1957
      • Article 48 : freedom to work anywhere in the European Community
      • Article 45: allowed for mutual recognition and co-ordination of professional qualifications
      • Seven Professions:
      • Doctors
      • Dentists
      • Nurses
      • Midwives
      • Veterinarian
      • Pharmacists
      • Architects
    Sectoral Directives
  • 4. Historical Background The General Directive 89/48/EC
    • Mutual Recognition of Higher Education Diplomas
    • Aim: was to cover other professions restricted by State or Law
    • Psychologists are covered by the directives 89/48 and 92/51, which cover all regulated professions whose qualifications require at least a Diploma (Lunt 1997)
    • Provides a complicated approach to the evaluation of equivalence which depends on individual cases being evaluated and compared against a national “template”
  • 5. Historical Background European Framework for Psychologists Training (EuroPsyT) 1 st Project: aimed to develop a “reference model” and minimal standards (ENOP 1998) and to develop standards which specified competencies of psychologists at the stage of independent practice (Bartram 1996) 2 nd Project: aimed and did design the European Diploma of Psychology (EuroPsy) which provides a set of standards or benchmark for quality of psychology education and training across Europe.
  • 6. Historical Background The Third Directive
    • “ More flexible and automatic procedure based on common platforms established by professional associations at European level”,
    • (European Commission 2004)
    • “ Common platforms” are defined as ‘”a collection of criteria on professional qualifications able to bridge the substantial differences between the training conditions in the different Member States”
    • (Directive COM(2002)119, Article 15)
  • 7. Historical Background The Third Directive Article 15 provides a means for the profession of psychologist to propose a European standard which has been agreed by all EU member states (the EuroPsy) and for this standard to contribute to a fast track mechanism for recognition, by enabling comparison with the training of each of the Member States (see Lunt 2005). Importance for Psychologists
  • 8. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Aim
      • EDP represents a system of standards for the education and training of professional psychologists in Europe aiming to enhance:
      • High quality education
      • and training in
      • psychology
      • Ethical commitment
      • of all psychologists
      • Mobility of psychologists
      • and
      • psychological thinking
  • 9. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Principles
    • To promote the availability of adequate psychological services
    • To protect consumers and citizens in Europe through the assurance of quality and to protect them against unqualified providers of services
    • To promote the mobility of psychologists by enabling them to practise anywhere in Europe
    • To ensure that the EDP is awarded on the basis of demonstrated completion of an academic curriculum in psychology and competence in the performance of professional roles
  • 10. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Principles
    • To ensure that the EDP system is fair and avoids discrimination of psychologists on the basis of national or other differences
    • To guarantee the qualification for psychological practice at an entry level to the profession as well as beyond
    • To endorse a commitment to the active maintenance of competence
    • To respect rather than to replace national regulations for psychologists which are already in place
  • 11. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Framework Bachelor degree Master degree Supervised practice Part of the academic curriculum Not necessarily included in the university curriculum
  • 12. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Framework and minimal standards
    • Orientation of students in the different sub-specialities in psychology; it can also be opened to related disciplines
    • Offers a basic education in all the psychology specialities, and in the major theories and techniques in psychology
    • Basic introduction to psychologists’ skills, and a grounding for research in psychology
    • NOT providing an occupational qualification nor the necessary competence for independent practice in psychology
    • Duration of 3 years
    Bachelor degree
  • 13. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Framework
    • Prepares the student for independent professional practice as a psychologist
    • Either undifferentiated and prepare s for further PhD training or employment as a “general practitioner” in psychology or
    • Differentiated , preparing student for practice within a particular professional area of psychology
    • The student has to demonstrate the capacity to acquire skills in research.
    • Internship, providing an introductory professional field training
    • Duration of 2 years
    Masters degree
  • 14. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Framework
      • To prepare for independent practice as a licensed (or equivalent) psychologist,
      • To develop working roles as a professional psychologist based on one’s unique training and personality
      • To consolidate the integration of theoretical and practical knowledge
      • Duration of 12 months
    Supervised practice
  • 15. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Minimal requirements
  • 16. E uropean Diploma in Psychology (E DP ) Scepticism
    • One year supervised practice
    • The duration of university curriculum in some countries too short
    • The dissertation or thesis is not required in some countries
    • The issue of validity /renovation of the Diploma
  • 17. E RASMUS MUNDUS PROGRAM Aim
    • A cooperation and mobility program of excellence in Higher education
    • Promoted by the European Union with a worldwide scope
    • Supports high quality European Masters
    • Promotes the visibility and attractiveness of the European Higher Education in the rest of the world countries
    • http://ec.europa.eu/education/external-relationprogrammes/doc72_en.htm
  • 18. E RASMUS MUNDUS PROGRAM WOP-P
    • Master in Work, Organization and Personnel Psychology (WOP-P) is the first Master in Psychology in Europe that has been selected in this European program
    • Jointly offered by the Universities of Barcelona, Bologna, Coimbra, Paris V, and Valencia (in charge of coordination)
    • It started in the academic year 2006-07
    • It qualifies students for the professional practice of Work, Organizational, and Personnel Psychology
    • It facilitates access to doctoral studies in this and related disciplines
  • 19. E RASMUS MUNDUS PROGRAM WOP-P-guidelines
    • Duration: 2 years (120 ECTS)
    • The programme is based on the "scientist-practitioner" model, which assumes that a good preparation as practitioner implies the acquisition of professional and research competences.
    • The Master implements the main guidelines developed by the Euro-Psych model for the European Diploma of Psychology (EDP)
    • www.erasmuswop.org
  • 20. E RASMUS MUNDUS PROGRAM WOP-P - Workload
    • Courses on work, organizational, and personnel Psychology, including theory and methodology aspects (48 ECTS)
    • Free-choice courses related to the field (16 ECTS)
    • Joint Intensive Learning Unit (Winter-School) (10 ECTS)
    • Professional stage/internship (15 ECTS)
    • development of research competences (24 ECTS)
    • Professional report integrating research and practice (7 ECTS)
  • 21. The Role of Students’ Organsations Goals-Means
    • Academic life
    • Political issues
    • Social issues
    • Cultural activities
    • Scientific activities, congresses, lectures etc
    • Demonstrations (in certain cases)
    To resolve students’ problems referring to: Support Activities
  • 22. The Role of Students’ Organsations Benefits For Students For the modernisation of psychology Amelioration of educational programmes at universities Protection of psychology Proficiency and responsible preparation for the profession
  • 23. The role of Students Organisations
    • One of there main sources of information regarding the EDP were students’ associations*
    * Students’ attitudes towards EDP . An European Survey, carried out by EFPSA’s EDP project team. Results presented At the 9th European congress of psychology, Granada, Spain