HIV AIDS Update By Marco Meneses, MS Community Health Educator November 28, 2006
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV  Virus
HIV Virus
HIV structure
Structure The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) consists of a nucleoid core and the surrounding protein matrix, both encl...
HIV Infection and AIDS <ul><li>Human Immunodeficiency Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome </li></ul...
HIV Infection and AIDS <ul><li>People with HIV may live for 10 to 15 years in relatively good health. Eventually they may ...
Retrovirus <ul><li>HIV belongs to the  retrovirus  family of viruses, whose members share a unique method of replicating t...
Epidemiology <ul><li>10 people are infected every minute (5 million per year) </li></ul><ul><li>Half of these new infectio...
Race/ ethnicity of persons (including children) with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2004 Note.  Based on data from 35 areas wit...
Transmission categories for Hispanic adults and adolescents with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2001–2004 Note.  Based on data ...
Transmission categories for Hispanic adults and adolescents with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2001–2004 Note.  Based on data ...
Transmitting the virus <ul><li>HIV lives only within cells and bloody fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>It is transmitted by blood...
HIV is more likely to be transmitted by (1) <ul><li>Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse than by other sexual activitie...
HIV is more likely to be transmitted by (2) <ul><li>Oral sex is responsible  for a small but significant number of cases o...
HIV is more likely to be transmitted by (3) <ul><li>The presence of lesions, blisters, or inflammation from other STDs in ...
Intravenous needles: high risk for HIV Photo credit: Boston University, Hospitals / Medicine.
AIDS: mouth
AIDS-Tongue Photo credit: Boston University, Hospitals / Medicine.
AIDS: Pathology: Patient: Kaposi's Sarcoma ,  Photo credit: Boston University, Hospitals / Medicine.
Symptoms HIV infection <ul><li>Within a few days of infection with HIV, about half of the people will develop the flulike ...
Symptoms <ul><li>As the immune systems weakens, some symptoms can develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swollen lymph nodes </li>...
Prevention <ul><li>Don’t drink alcohol or use drugs in sexual situations </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the number of partners </...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Hiv aids update

498 views
403 views

Published on

HIV, AIDS

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
498
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hiv aids update

  1. 1. HIV AIDS Update By Marco Meneses, MS Community Health Educator November 28, 2006
  2. 2. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  3. 3. HIV Virus
  4. 4. HIV Virus
  5. 5. HIV structure
  6. 6. Structure The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) consists of a nucleoid core and the surrounding protein matrix, both enclosed in a lipid envelope. The nucleoid core contains the viral genetic material and the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which are used in viral replication. The transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 are attached to the envelope; these proteins enable HIV to bind and fuse with a target host cell.
  7. 7. HIV Infection and AIDS <ul><li>Human Immunodeficiency Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV is present in an infected person’s blood and bodily fluids and vaginal secretions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission through exchange of those fluids by sexual contact, sharing intravenous needles or blood transfusion prior 1985. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. HIV Infection and AIDS <ul><li>People with HIV may live for 10 to 15 years in relatively good health. Eventually they may develop one or more threatening diseases like pneumonia or cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no cure yet for HIV infection </li></ul>
  9. 9. Retrovirus <ul><li>HIV belongs to the retrovirus family of viruses, whose members share a unique method of replicating themselves when they infect living cells. Retroviruses store their genetic information in molecules of ribonucleic acid (RNA). However, unlike other RNA viruses, retroviruses use RNA as a template (master pattern) for forming deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the genetic material that puts viral replication instructions into effect. </li></ul><ul><li>This process, called reverse transcription, is the exact opposite of the normal flow of genetic information in living things, in which DNA serves as the template for RNA formation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Epidemiology <ul><li>10 people are infected every minute (5 million per year) </li></ul><ul><li>Half of these new infections are in people age 15-24. </li></ul><ul><li>The following information is based on: </li></ul>http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/hispanic.htm
  11. 11. Race/ ethnicity of persons (including children) with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2004 Note. Based on data from 35 areas with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reporting. Note. Based on data from 33 states with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reporting. Source. CDC. Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses—33 states, 2001–2004. MMWR 2005;54:1149–1153.
  12. 12. Transmission categories for Hispanic adults and adolescents with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2001–2004 Note. Based on data from 33 states with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reporting. Source. CDC. Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses—33 states, 2001–2004. MMWR 2005;54:1149–1153.
  13. 13. Transmission categories for Hispanic adults and adolescents with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2001–2004 Note. Based on data from 33 states with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reporting. Source. CDC. Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses—33 states, 2001–2004. MMWR 2005;54:1149–1153.
  14. 14. Transmitting the virus <ul><li>HIV lives only within cells and bloody fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>It is transmitted by blood and blood products. Semen, vaginal and cervical secretions, and breast milk. </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot live in the air, in water or on objects or surfaces such as toilet seats, eating utensils, or telephones. </li></ul>
  15. 15. HIV is more likely to be transmitted by (1) <ul><li>Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse than by other sexual activities </li></ul><ul><li>Being the receptive partner during unprotected anal intercourse is the riskiest of all sexual activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral-genital contact carries some risk of transmission, although less than anal or vaginal intercourse. </li></ul>
  16. 16. HIV is more likely to be transmitted by (2) <ul><li>Oral sex is responsible for a small but significant number of cases of HIV transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV can be transmitted through tiny tears in the fragile lining of vagina, cervix, penis, anus, and mouth and through direct infection of cells in some of these areas. </li></ul>
  17. 17. HIV is more likely to be transmitted by (3) <ul><li>The presence of lesions, blisters, or inflammation from other STDs in the genital, anal, or oral areas makes it two to nine times easier for the virus to be passed. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Intravenous needles: high risk for HIV Photo credit: Boston University, Hospitals / Medicine.
  19. 19. AIDS: mouth
  20. 20. AIDS-Tongue Photo credit: Boston University, Hospitals / Medicine.
  21. 21. AIDS: Pathology: Patient: Kaposi's Sarcoma , Photo credit: Boston University, Hospitals / Medicine.
  22. 22. Symptoms HIV infection <ul><li>Within a few days of infection with HIV, about half of the people will develop the flulike symptoms of primary HIV infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Other than the initial flulike symptoms associated with HIV primary infection, most people in the first months or years of infection have few if any symptoms. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Symptoms <ul><li>As the immune systems weakens, some symptoms can develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swollen lymph nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night sweats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pneumonia </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Prevention <ul><li>Don’t drink alcohol or use drugs in sexual situations </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the number of partners </li></ul><ul><li>Use condoms </li></ul><ul><li>Use condoms properly </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid sexual contact that could cause cuts or tears in the skin or tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t share needles </li></ul><ul><li>Get periodic screening for STD </li></ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated for hepatitis B </li></ul>

×