Contents INTRODUCTION i THE 7 BIGGEST MISTAKES WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 The 7 Mistakes Hints Page 2 Finding, Choosing & Using Video 2 Finding the Appropriate Video Grade Level, Teacher’s Guide, Previews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Choosing the Right Video for Your Lesson Yearly Planning Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 Bulleted Points to Consider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 Using School Videos Effectively in Your Classroom Lessons Video Integration Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 Lesson Techniques for Implementing Video in Your Classroom Lessons. . . . . 8 Lesson Design with Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Addendums A: VIDEO RATING SHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 B: Answer Key to “7 Mistakes…” and Solutions table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 C: VIDEO TRANSCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
i INTRODUCTION This Expert Guide provides step-by-step solutions to the problems outlined in the video “The 7 Biggest Mistakes Teachers Make Using Video in the Classroom.” After viewing the video, fill in the worksheet on the next page with the “7 Mistakes” and read on for solutions. By taking just a few extra steps at the lesson planning stage of your instruction, you will be able to teach your lessons faster and more ef- fectively. The new research driven techniques will help you meet the goal of increasing student interest, retention and performance in your classroom. Please view the accompanying video first. It can be viewed or downloaded at www.schoolvideos.com/resources/7_mistakes
| 1The 7 Biggest Mistakes TeachersMake Using Video in the Classroom (Fill in the answers after viewing the video.)1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
2 | The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teacher’s Make Using Video in the Classroom 1 The Seven Mistakes Hints 1. The biggest mistake teachers make using video in the classroom is not using it enough. 2. The second biggest mistake teachers make using video in the classroom is not using appropriate videos. 3. The third biggest mistake teachers make using video in the classroom is by just playing the video and not making it an interactive part of the lesson. 4. The fourth biggest mistake teachers make using video in the classroom is by believing Free content on the internet saves money and is legal. 5. The fifth biggest mistake teachers make using video in the classroom is not testing equipment before lesson and having equipment fail and the lesson fail. 6. The sixth biggest mistake teachers make using video in the classroom is not using the video to support objectives across subject areas. 7. The seventh biggest mistake teachers make using video in the classroom is not re-visiting the program to reinforce lesson concepts with visual images and audio sounds throughout unit.
schoolvideos.com | 3 Finding, Choosing and Using school videos and multi media in your classroom lessons will improve your goal of increas- ing student engagement in the classroom, the retention of concepts, and the overall improved performance of your class.2 Finding the appropriate video Teachers often use entertainment videos from TV because of their popularity and price, but a PG rating does not mean by 30 students divided by an average 5 year life = pennies per student—and that’s just for one classroom! + PLUS the time “Pretty Good ” for teaching! you save not having to search through inappropriate materials on the Internet. Take the extra time while preparing your lesson to find the ap- propriate video or multi media. School videos are designed by School video companies offer grade level identification, sub- education professionals specifically for classroom instruction. ject area and content objective information so you know what Since the content is already matched to curriculum and stan- you’re getting without having to preview the entire program dards, you save time while searching for appropriate videos before purchase (or being disappointed in content after the for your lessons. You could spend hours on the Internet sifting purchase). through resources that may or may not be appropriate. Is that time not your time? Is your time not money? Grade Level First, look for the grade level of the video when searching. If it’s not specified, it’s probably not designed for classroom lessons and you’re going to have to spend more time matching the content to your lesson. Teacher’s Guide Next, look for Teacher’s Guides included with the video. The Teacher’s Guide should be an outline of the content and you should be able to identify if the video content matches your lesson objectives. Previews Finally, many websites for school videos offer previews. Use this resource to check content, appropriateness and quality. And remember, FREE digital clips from the Internet vs. a quality school video program? Let’s see, a $30 video divided
4 | The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teacher’s Make Using Video in the Classroom 3 Choosing the right video Use your curriculum and textbooks to create an outline of your units in semester or trimester order. Use this table as a guide for finding and choosing the right videos or multi media pieces for your lessons throughout the school year. You will want to note the Subject Areas you will be teaching and then the specific objectives and/or standards to be covered in each unit. You will then be looking for Grade Level and Teachers Guides available with the video to match with your objectives. FALL Grade Level: Subject Area Lesson Objectives/Standards Video Title/Objectives match WINTER Grade Level: Subject Area Lesson Objectives/Standards Video Title/Objectives match
schoolvideos.com | 5 SPRING Grade Level: Subject Area Lesson Objectives/Standards Video Title/Objectives matchConsiderations to keep in mind while choosing a video for your lesson to keep you from being confounded:• What is the grade level of the video? If it is not clearly noted, it may be too broad in content, for entertainment purposes or inappropriate for the developmental level of your students (either too complex for younger children or too simple for older children).• A note on clip length: The younger the child, the shorter his/her attention span. A good rule of thumb is to double the student’s age. For example, a 6-year-old can attend to something for about 12-15 minutes. Showing a video in segments might be ap- propriate. When using a longer video, look for suitable divisions in the presentation as clips or pause points. Use these clips or pauses to have class discussions or interactivity exercises about the material just covered.• A school video is a teaching tool and to be effective it should present information logically.• When used in a unit and used for cross-curricular objectives, the video should provide images for you to build on. It can also be used as a “hook” to prior knowledge or link to concepts you have already taught.• A good school video can also provide a great way to summarize or review your lessons.• Look for video that illustrates the concept well. If a concept is not clearly expressed, minimal lasting retention is likely to occur. Chances are the student won’t “get it” and there is little hope of comprehension much less retention.• Re-stating or summarizing a concept before introducing a new concept will help avoid confusion.• Use clips or pauses for summarizing, clarifying, expanding or re-teaching the information presented in the video that supports the lesson objective. Hearing concepts or ideas restated can clarify information that was confusing or confirm what is already comprehended.• Videos should provide auditory and visual clues, and can provide written clues, to address the multiple learning modalities of your students in presenting new terms or vocabulary.• Use video previews to determine if the presentation is interesting enough to keep your students engaged. Are there children in the video they can identify with? Is the information presented with variety or repetition? Is there humor in the presenta- tion of information? Are there examples that tie new information or concepts to students’ life experiences? Do the graphics and music and animations make students more interested and more likely to remember concepts?
6 | The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teacher’s Make Using Video in the Classroom For a checklist in choosing the right video, see our addendum at the end of this guide. Now that you have the right video for your lesson, let’s look at all the different ways you can use it. 4 USINg school videos effectively in your classroom lessons Do you know what a digital native is? They are today’s chil- dren raised in a media and technology loaded society. They Video Integration Strategies can be identified as students who pay partial attention, are Designing effective lessons using school videos involves care- proficient at multi-tasking, prefer graphics over text. They en- ful lesson planning. joy discovering information randomly rather than sequentially. They network with other students to find information. They 1. What are the curriculum and/or standard objectives you respond to instant and frequent rewards. And they are prob- are trying to meet? ably thinking about checking their text messages right now! a. This is the basis of all your lessons. Being familiar The last 10 years in education has seen a huge transition in with the objectives will help you choose the ap- student learning styles and a huge transition in how we teach propriate video for the lesson and the placement of to these new students. Education is recognizing the digital your video pauses or clips for the best effect. native’s learning styles and is transforming instruction into a 2. How can you present the video in your lesson to keep the technology-rich and media-rich interactive environment. students actively engaged in the lesson? The consistent use of video also supports the learning modali- a. Keeping your students in “active learner” mode is ties of your visual and auditory learners. Take advantage of vital to using your class time efficiently and teaching their modalities to efficiently give them information instead the most effectively. of relying solely on print based materials. Keep your students engaged and maximize your time efficiency in covering your b. Don’t let them be passive viewers of media — in curriculum. “TV mode.” Design your lesson to keep them interested in the concepts so they stay in “active” By implementing research supported and technology driven learning mode. techniques that integrate video and multimedia into your instruction consistently, you can make the most of the learn- c. Remember, never just hit play and run a video from ing style of your students and teach your curriculum more beginning to end and outside of a lesson. effectively. Your lessons should start improving quickly and you should feel more confident in finding, choosing and using video in your classroom.
schoolvideos.com | 7Keeping your students Design your lesson toin “active learner” keep them interestedmode is vital in the concepts3. What connection does this lesson have to past or 6. How are you going to introduce the lesson? Lecture, future lessons? readings, discussion, experiments? a. The video should be connected to a unit or re- a. Identifying your delivery will allow you to see the played across subject areas and not just dropped best placement of the video in your lesson. into the curriculum in isolation. b. Match the video with the parts of the lesson it b. By planning your units over the whole school year at supports one time, you can more easily choose which videos c. or design the lesson to follow the video points for will go with which lessons and where you can make sequential play. connections to past, future and cross-curricular lessons d. Identify the parts of the lesson where a pause in the video or playing a clip of the video will allow c. This planning method will also help you know when for prediction, review, introducing a new concept, to have the materials, especially if you borrow from discussion, clarification, etc. a media center. e. Make sure the video image supports the concept at4. What materials do you have available to support the appropriate time during the lesson. the lesson? 7. Try to highlight or emphasize parts of the video that you a. Are you using a textbook, handouts, articles or will use in cross-curricular lessons throughout the year. worksheets? Use the video or clips to access prior knowledge or make b. Familiarity with the support materials will allow a connection with. you to decide the sequence more efficiently. 8. How will you assess your lesson?5. What activities do you have to facilitate interactivity a. How did the video support the objectives? during the lesson? b. What was the student response to the lesson? a. Suggested activities in the Teacher’s Guides offer relevant and easy-to-use exercises for interactivity 9. Don’t forgot, re-playing the video is a valuable tool in opportunities in the lesson. re-teaching, clarifying and/or summarizing the lesson based on your assessment.
8 | The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teacher’s Make Using Video in the Classroom Lesson Techniques If the video covers the lesson objectives, have the lesson follow Develop lesson concepts by building on information through the order of the video. activities and discussions including problem-solving, evaluation and summarization. If the video has specific parts that support your lesson objec- tives, use clips as a resource in the order of your lesson. Focus student attention with video imagery and sound that connect with lesson objectives. If you can make a connection to previous or future lesson, use a clip or clips as a resource for that point or connection. Show an object; show different variations of an object When you are using video again in a different subject area, Show a different time period for history or literature activate prior knowledge and make connections across the Show a physical process subject. You can even tell the students your making a cross- subject connection and discuss their relationships. Show a model of appropriate or positive behavior Class Discussion As a Pre-Activity, use the video to show a process that will be used in a hands-on activity, like a science experiment or an art Pause the video often and replay the video to allow project. This also models appropriate behavior and expecta- for class discussion. tions for students when they do the process. Ask questions. Link classroom discussion points to the video segments throughout the lesson sequence to Make predictions. enhance video integrated instruction. Make Pause for clarification. connections. Build a hypothesis for the lesson during discussion. Ask students to share how they feel about the material. Schema building Let them explore their emotional response. Pause for review or summarization of the Discussion and activities that allow learners to use material to support objectives. knowledge they already have and to use their higher Activate prior knowledge of imagery order cognitive skills to extend understanding of a or words during discussion. concept or process, and thus their knowledge, are very important in designing your lesson and in assuring the success of your lesson. Note the time signature or time counter during the initial preview of the video on your media player on the important images or explanations to play at points in your lesson.
schoolvideos.com | 9 Allow your pauses to be opportunities for prediction, hypoth-The Lesson eses formulation, determining important details related to the focus question or objective, summarizing or clarifying♦♦ Required Materials and Equipment information.ALWAYS check the equipment for playing your video ahead oftime to make sure it will be operable when you need it during ♦♦ Closurethe lesson. Familiarize yourself with your player’s controls and You can use the school video program that reviews and sum-time counter. marizes the program objectives for your lesson closure.♦♦ Objectives and Goals ♦♦ Independent practiceThe video you have chosen should clearly present information If you are using a DVD or CD-ROM video player, you can in-that supports your objective. corporate a re-play of the video in a small group or computerYou should have previewed the video completely to ensure its activity.appropriateness for your lesson. ♦♦ Assessment and Follow-Up (Connections)♦♦ Anticipatory Set Re-play video without the sound and have students tell whatLet your students know what the lesson is about and why you information is being covered.are using the video. Evaluate impact of video use on your lesson. Were the stu-Discuss the relationship between concepts using diagrammatic dents engaged in the video presentation? Could placement intools to record student responses. the sequence of the lesson have been better?Introduce the video.♦♦ Direct Instruction & Guided Practice The Final NoteAll your pre-planning and lesson design comes into play the This Expert Guide was created to look at the problems andmost during Direct Instruction. offer solutions in integrating video into your classroom.Use video to focus attention on the lesson objectives. Ask a After reading through the expert guide, think about howfocus question. you plan your lessons and about how the information offered can help you. By starting off with just a few tech-Introduce vocabulary and support with video images and audio niques, you can analyze your planning and video deliveryof vocabulary words. and determine what works the best for you. Then continuePause for discussion (see Lesson Techniques); pause at logical to implement using video in your lessons more and morebreaks in video. and see the benefits and results that the research has already shown.Worksheets, diagrams, tables and other exercises can beused to compare & contrast, synthesize information, identify We hope this video and Expert Guide to solutions will helprelationships or connect ideas from the video. resolve planning frustrations and ultimately save you time and money while delivering fantastic lessons that your students will always remember.
schoolvideos.com | 11ADDENDUM B Answer Key to “7 Mistakes…” and Solutions table. The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teachers Make Using Finding, Choosing & Using Solutions Video in the Classroom1. The biggest mistake teachers make using video in the Use consistently throughout the year as an essential tool in classroom is not using it enough. your lesson planning.2. The second biggest mistake teachers make using video Take the extra time preparing your lesson to find the appro- in the classroom is not using appropriate videos. priate video or multi media.3. The third biggest mistake teachers make using video in The video is a tool in your lesson structure that uses imagery the classroom is by just playing the video and not making and audio to support objectives and build new concepts. it an interactive part of the lesson.4. The fourth biggest mistake teachers make using video in School videos are professionally designed and licensed the classroom is by believing free content on the internet specifically for classroom instruction. The content is already saves money and is legal. matched to curriculum and standards, so you save time while searching for appropriate videos for your lessons.5. The fifth biggest mistake teachers make using video in Part of your lesson preparation should be making sure the the classroom is not testing equipment before the lesson equipment is in working order. Take one more step in lesson and having equipment fail and the lesson fail. planning and ensure a video or multi media enhanced lesson.6. The sixth biggest mistake teachers make using video in Maximize your video resources by recognizing how they cross the classroom is not using the video to support objectives over subject areas. Connect video content to your whole unit. across subject areas.7. The seventh biggest mistake teachers make using Play the video, or clips from it, again and again to cover dif- video in the classroom is not re-visiting the program to ferent and cross over subject objectives. Repeating the video reinforce lesson concepts with visual images and audio is an efficient method for re-teaching, as well. sounds throughout unit.NOTES
12 | The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teacher’s Make Using Video in the Classroom ADDENDUM C “The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teachers Make Using Video in the Classroom” Transcript of Video (Lynell Burmark, PhD) Our youth has grown up with televi- ♦♦ 2. TITLE SCREEN – Not Using Appropriate Videos sion. By the time a teenager reaches the end of high school, The 2nd Biggest Mistake Teachers Make Using Video in the they’ve watched an average of 22,000 hours of television. Classroom is not using appropriate videos. Compare this to the 12,500 hours that they spend sitting in the classroom. “PG ≠ Pretty Good” Teachers often use entertainment videos from TV because ♦♦ 1. TITLE SCREEN – Not Using Video As Much As Neces- of their popularity and price, but a PG rating does not mean sary “Pretty Good” for teaching! The Number One Biggest Mistake Teachers Make Using Video “Save time! Use well designed; Grade, Subject, Curriculum, in the Classroom is not using it enough. Or, not using it consis- Standards” tently throughout the year. Take the extra time preparing your lesson to find the appropri- “Super; Faster processing, Longer in memory” ate video or multi media. Save time by using school videos The human brain processes images 60,000 times faster than because their educational content is specifically designed for text and studies show that our minds remember concepts built grade level and subject area to match your curriculum and on images faster and longer than concepts built from text. state standards. “Use the Tool” “Grade Level” Use the inclination of the 21st century student, who has grown First, look for the grade level of the video when searching. up watching TV and using computers, to save instructional If it’s not specified, it’s probably not designed for classroom time and increase learning by using video and multi media as lessons and you’re going to have to spend more time matching a tool in every lesson. the content to your lesson. (Dr. Burmark) When you sit in the typical chalk and talk class- “Teacher’s Guides” room, it’s like going down the freeway at 30 miles an hour. You Next, look for Teacher’s Guides included with the video. The have plenty of time to get distracted looking to the left looking Teacher’s Guide should be an outline of the content and you to the right, and you have plenty of time to get bored. On the should be able to identify if the video content matches your other hand, in a multi media classroom, it’s like going down lesson objectives. that same freeway at 80 miles an hour and you have to focus or you’re going to crash and burn. “Always preview and plan” “Teach better” Always preview the video during the lesson planning stage and decide how and where you’re going to use it during the lesson. Take the extra time and incorporate video and multi media into your lessons—research shows it will make you a better teacher.
schoolvideos.com | 13♦♦ 3. TITLE SCREEN – Just Playing the Video ♦♦ 4. TITLE SCREEN – Using Internet Video To Save Money“Make it interactive” “FREE! May not be!”The Third Biggest Mistake Teachers Make Using Video in the The Fourth Biggest Mistake Teachers Make Using Video inClassroom is by just playing the video and not making it an the Classroom is by believing all FREE content on the Inter-interactive part of the lesson. net saves time, money and is legal.(George Pickett, University of San Diego) When you’re doing, FREE digital clips from the Internet vs. a quality school videoor you’re playing a video, you’re going to stop it. And what are program? Hmmm... let’s see. A $30 video divided by 30your strategies for stopping the video? Is it for clarification? students divided by an average 5 year life equals pennies perIs it for review? Are you indeed going to make some kind of student—and that’s just for one classroom! PLUS the timeother statement or bring in materials at that point and so you save not having to search through inappropriate materialsfourth that you hadn’t used before, or maybe you have used be- on the Internet.fore and you’re gong to review that? This is well planned and “Grade , Subject, Objective”thought out and we really think it’s important of the stopping “Take back your time!”the video and knowing why and when you’re going to do this. School videos are professionally designed specifically for“Avoid passive viewing” classroom instruction. Why use anything else? Since theNever just play a video from beginning to end because it will content is already matched to curriculum and standards, youinvoke “TV mode” in your students and be a passive learning save time while searching for appropriate videos for yourexperience. lessons. You could spend hours on the Internet sifting through resources that may or may not be appropriate.(Jenny Horning, University of San Diego) Sometimes we thinkthat classroom videos have gotten a bad rap. That people may “Avoid naïve theft”think the teacher is just baby-sitting, maybe, “Oh you’re just “The Laws: http://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap5.html ”pulling something off the shelf, you really don’t know what’s “Educational Performance Rights:in it,” the teacher’s not sure that it fits with what they’ve been http://www.schoolvideos.com/article/?id=14 ” teaching before. It’s kind of taken out of context and just slot-ted into a particular 10, 15, half and hour, whatever time slot With digital sharing, violations of copyright laws and licensingin the classroom. Through the 30 years that I’ve spent in the agreements are increasing — alarmingly. Teachers, not awareclassroom in various levels, I have seen teachers use videos of the consequences of sharing, may face criminal prosecutionover and over again, many different ways, and with great as the industry catches up to the unique issues the Internetsuccess. has created regarding intellectual property.“Use the tool to; meet objectives, design lessons, initiatediscussion”The techniques for using video at different stages in the lessonare outlined in our Expert Guide.
14 | The Seven Biggest Mistakes Teacher’s Make Using Video in the Classroom 5. TITLE SCREEN – Not Testing Your Equipment Before Maximize your video resources by recognizing how they cross Lesson over subject areas. Connect video content to your whole unit. “Test and avoid failure!” “See Expert Guide” The 5th Biggest Mistake Teachers Make Using Video in the “Connections” techniques are available in the Expert Guide. Classroom is not testing equipment before the lesson and hav- ing the lesson fail. ♦♦ 7. TITLE SCREEN – Not Replaying Videos Have you ever had an equipment failure and skipped the les- The 7th Biggest Mistake Teachers Make Using Video in the son instead of trying again? Did you give up and fall back on Classroom is not repeating the video program or re-using clips the whiteboard and the textbook? throughout the unit of study. “Super; Protect your time… Test!” “Retention with Replay!” Test your equipment! Part of your lesson preparation should Concept retention by students is one of the greatest challenges be making sure the equipment is in working order. Take one to the classroom teacher. Don’t let the TV belief of “already more step in lesson planning and ensure a video or multi seen that” prevent you from repeating the video you’ve used in media enhanced lesson. your lessons. Play the video, or clips from it, again and again for covering different and cross over subject objectives. ♦♦ 6. TITLE SCREEN – Not Reusing Video for Multiple Re-use to Remember! Use videos and clips with teaching Subjects techniques like summarizing, reviewing and predicting to help The 6th Biggest Mistake Teachers Make Using Video in the students remember concepts. Classroom is not using the video to support objectives across (Dr. Burmark) So really, what we’re talking about is trans- subject areas. forming classrooms. Transforming them from places where “meet cross-curricular objectives” students are bored and they’re asking, “Why do we have to learn this?” To classrooms where the students are all engaged Did you buy a science video about habitats and only show it for and they’re asking “Why do we have to go home? one lesson about earth science? Why not let science or history be an opportunity to meet cross-curricular objectives? Remember, the images we share with students will be with them forever, not just for the test, “Connect Content, Access Prior Knowledge, Build Knowledge Base” Stop making mistakes! Download and print our Expert Guide for Solutions today! Learn more about VISUAL LITERACY View the entire 30-minute video online, or order your complimentary copy today. http://www.schoolvideos.com/videos/EVU03
schoolvideos.com | 15 Resources ith Classroom ive Teaching w k, PhD: “Effect Lynell Burmar 2004. olMedia, Inc. Videos”, Scho m”, to the Classroo rating Media in Visual Literacy, “Integ /article/?id=3 hoolvideos.com http://www.sc os”, Classroom Vide Teaching with Ginny Horni ng, “Effective n Diego. University of Sa oom Videos”, ng with Classr t, “E ffective Teachi George Picket ego. Unive rsity of San Di ity of tice”, Univers Theory & Prac David Denn ing, “Video in Victoria.