8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:35 PM   Page i                                                  8TH GRADE     ...
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8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:35 PM   Page iii                   8TH GRADE                    READING       ...
8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:35 PM   Page iv          Copyright © 2009 LearningExpress, LLC.          All r...
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8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09    3:35 PM   Page vi                                                         –CONT...
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8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1    8/11/09   3:35 PM   Page ix                        How to Use This Book             E    ...
8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1    8/11/09   3:35 PM   Page x                                                 –HOW TO USE TH...
8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:35 PM   Page xi                                                  8TH GRADE    ...
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8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:21 PM   Page 3                                            –LEARNINGEXPRESS ANSWER ...
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8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:21 PM   Page 5                                                               –PRET...
8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:21 PM    Page 6                                                             –PRETE...
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8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:21 PM   Page 8                                                           –PRETEST–...
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8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:22 PM   Page 16                                                            –PRETES...
8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1     8/11/09   3:22 PM   Page 17                              1              S E C T I O N       ...
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8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1            8/11/09   3:22 PM   Page 19                              1              L E S S O N  ...
8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09    3:22 PM   Page 20                                             –BECOMING AN ACTIVE R...
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8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1   8/11/09   3:22 PM   Page 26                                                –FINDING THE MAIN I...
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Reading Comprehension Workbook
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Reading Comprehension Workbook

  1. 1. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page i 8TH GRADE READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS
  2. 2. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page ii
  3. 3. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page iii 8TH GRADE READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS ® NE W Y O RK
  4. 4. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page iv Copyright © 2009 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 8th grade reading comprehension and writing skills. — 1st ed. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-1-57685-711-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-57685-711-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Language arts (Middle school) I. LearningExpress (Organization) II. Title: Eighth grade reading comprehension and writing skills. LB1631.A16 2009 428.00712—dc22 2009016509 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 First Edition ISBN 978-1-57685-711-3 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
  5. 5. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page v Contents HOW TO USE THIS BOOK ix PRETEST 1 SECTION 1 BUILDING A STRONG FOUNDATION 17 LESSON 1 Becoming an Active Reader 19 LESSON 2 Finding the Main Idea 25 LESSON 3 Defining Vocabulary 31 LESSON 4 Distinguishing between Fact and Opinion 39 LESSON 5 Putting It All Together 47 SECTION 2 STRUCTURE 53 LESSON 6 The Parts of a Plot 55 LESSON 7 Organizing Principles 63 LESSON 8 Similarities and Differences: Comparison and Contrast 71 v
  6. 6. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page vi –CONTENTS– LESSON 9 Cause and Effect 79 LESSON 10 Summaries and Outlines 87 LESSON 11 Putting It All Together 95 SECTION 3 LANGUAGE AND STYLE 103 LESSON 12 Point of View 105 LESSON 13 Word Choice 113 LESSON 14 Style 119 LESSON 15 Literary Devices 127 LESSON 16 Putting It All Together 135 SECTION 4 READING BETWEEN THE LINES 143 LESSON 17 Finding an Implied Main Idea 145 LESSON 18 Identifying an Author’s Purpose 153 LESSON 19 Assuming Causes and Predicting Effects 159 LESSON 20 Analyzing Characters 165 LESSON 21 Putting It All Together 173 SECTION 5 INTERPRETING NON-LITERARY SOURCES 181 LESSON 22 Instructions 183 LESSON 23 Advertisements 191 LESSON 24 Graphs 199 LESSON 25 Visual Aids 207 LESSON 26 Putting It All Together 215 SECTION 6 WRITING SKILLS 225 LESSON 27 Prewriting 227 LESSON 28 Organizing Ideas 235 vi
  7. 7. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page vii –CONTENTS– LESSON 29 Writing with Focus and Clarity 243 LESSON 30 Reviewing and Revising 251 LESSON 31 Putting It All Together 259 POSTTEST 267 APPENDIX Suggested Reading for 8th Graders 285 vii
  8. 8. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page viii
  9. 9. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page ix How to Use This Book E ighth grade is an exciting year that is full of changes and challenges. It’s also an important year aca- demically. As an eighth grader, you’ll be required to take tests that measure your reading, writing, and math skills. This year is also your last chance to brush up on your academic skills before you enter high school. And because you’ll need to read for almost all your classes, reading comprehension is perhaps the most important set of skills you’ll need for success. In high school, you will also be required to write more than you have before, and this book will help you develop your writing skills to excel at the next level. In eighth grade and beyond, you’ll be asked to read, understand, and interpret a variety of texts, including stories and poems, reports, essays, and scientific and technical information. While a lot of your learning will still take place in the classroom, you’ll be expected to read more and more information on your own, outside of class. You’ll need not only to understand what you read but also to respond to and assess what you read. And as the texts you read become more complex, you’ll spend a lot more time “reading between the lines” and drawing your own conclusions from the text. As your reading skills improve, so will your writing. You’ll learn to recog- nize and implement the techniques good writers use to communicate ideas to their readers. As you work through the lessons in this book you will build your critical reading, thinking, and writing skills. Each of the 31 short lessons should take about a half hour to complete. You’ll start with the basics and move on to more complex reading and writing strategies. While each chapter can be an effective skill builder on its own, it is important that you proceed through this book in order, from Lesson 1 through Lesson 31. Each les- son builds on skills and ideas discussed in the previous chapters, and as you move through this book and your skills improve, the practice passages will become longer and more difficult. ix
  10. 10. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page x –HOW TO USE THIS BOOK– The lessons are divided into six sections. Each section focuses on a different group of related reading com- prehension strategies and skills. These strategies are outlined at the beginning of each section and reviewed at the end of the section in a special lesson, Putting It All Together. Each lesson includes several exercises that allow you to practice the skills you have learned. To be sure you’re on the right track, at the end of each lesson you’ll find answers and explanations for the practice ques- tions. You’ll also find a section called Skill Building until Next Time after each practice session. These are help- ful suggestions for practicing your new skills. This book also includes a pretest and posttest. To help you measure your progress, take the pretest before you begin Lesson 1. The pretest will give you a sense of your strengths and weaknesses so you can focus on spe- cific chapters. After you finish the lessons, take the posttest. You’ll be able to see how much your reading com- prehension skills have improved. You’ll also be able to find out whether there are areas in which you may still need practice. x
  11. 11. 8th_GRD_FM_i_xii.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:35 PM Page xi 8TH GRADE READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS
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  13. 13. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 1 Pretest B efore you begin, find out how much you already know about reading comprehension—and how much you need to learn. Take this pretest. These 40 multiple-choice questions and one writing assign- ment cover all the topics in this book. If your score is high, you might move through this book more quickly than you expected. If your score is low, you may need more than 30 minutes to get through each lesson. On the following page there is an answer sheet, or you can just circle the correct answers. If you don’t own this book, write the numbers 1 to 40 on a sheet of paper, and write your answers next to the numbers. Then answer the writing assignment in the space given or on a sheet of lined paper. Take as much time as you need for this test. Use the answer key at the end of the test to check your answers. The key tells you which lesson covers the strategy in that question. Good luck! 1
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  15. 15. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 3 –LEARNINGEXPRESS ANSWER SHEET – 1. 15. 29. 2. 16. 30. 3. 17. 31. 4. 18. 32. 5. 19. 33. 6. 20. 34. 7. 21. 35. 8. 22. 36. 9. 23. 37. 10. 24. 38. 11. 25. 39. 12. 26. 40. 13. 27. 14. 28. 3
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  17. 17. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 5 –PRETEST– Reading 2. Which of the following best sums up the activities within an ecosystem? Directions: Read each passage below carefully and a. predator–prey relationships actively. Answer the questions that follow each b. interactions among all members passage. c. human–animal interactions d. human relationship with the environment Ecosystems An ecosystem is a group of animals and plants 3. An ecosystem can most accurately be defined as living in a specific region and interacting with a. a specific place. one another and with their physical environ- b. a community of plants and animals. ment. Ecosystems include physical and c. a group of animals working together. chemical components, such as soils, water, and d. a protected environment. nutrients. These components support the organisms living in the ecosystem. Ecosystems The Story of Dr. Mudd can also be thought of as the interactions On the night of April 14, 1865—five days after among all organisms in a given habitat. These the Civil War ended—President Abraham organisms may range from large animals to Lincoln was attending the theater in microscopic bacteria and work together in Washington, D.C. In the middle of the various ways. For example, one species may performance, an actor named John Wilkes serve as food for another. People are part of the Booth, seeking to avenge the defeat of the ecosystems where they live and work. Human South, slipped into the presidential box and activities, such as housing developments and shot the president. trash disposal, can greatly harm or even destroy Booth escaped the theater, but broke his local ecosystems. Proper ecosystem manage- leg when he leaped from the president’s box ment is crucial for the overall health and seat to the stage. Before anybody could stop diversity of our planet. We must find ways to him, he limped out the back door, mounted a protect local ecosystems without stifling waiting horse, and disappeared into the night economic development. with a fellow conspirator. Five hours later, at four o’clock in the morning, Booth and his companion arrived at Questions the home of Samuel Mudd, a doctor living in southern Maryland. Dr. Mudd knew nothing 1. Which sentence best expresses the main idea of about the assassination of the president. Acting this passage? as any doctor would with a stranger in distress, a. Our actions can have a great impact on our he set the leg and persuaded the two travelers to ecosystems. stay in his house for the rest of the night. The b. Ecosystems have been badly managed in next morning, Booth and his friend, using false the past. names, paid the bill and departed. c. Humans must clean up their trash. d. Ecosystems interact with one another. 5
  18. 18. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 6 –PRETEST– Because of this merciful act, Dr. Mudd Questions was arrested, taken to Washington, and tried on the charge that he was a friend of Booth’s and 4. What was the cause of Dr. Mudd’s conviction? therefore helped plan the assassination. Dr. a. He helped Booth assassinate Lincoln. Mudd insisted that he knew nothing of the plot. b. He helped Booth get away. But the military courts, angry at the president’s c. The military courts wanted someone to pay death, sentenced the unfortunate doctor to life for Lincoln’s death. imprisonment. d. He lied to the military courts. Dr. Mudd was imprisoned at Fort Jefferson, an island fortress about 120 miles 5. An alternative title for this passage might be west of the southern tip of Florida. a. Lincoln’s Assassination. As horrible and unjust as this punishment b. Good Doc Gone Bad. must have been, a greater plight lurked at Fort c. A Prison Abandoned. Jefferson. The warm, humid climate was a d. An Unfair Trial for a Fair Man. perfect breeding ground for mosquitoes. Again and again, these pests spread yellow fever germs 6. What sort of doctor was Dr. Mudd? to prisoners and guards alike. a. careless, sloppy When the fever struck, Dr. Mudd b. generous, caring volunteered his services, because he was the c. greedy, money-hungry only doctor on the island. He had to fight the d. cold-hearted, unfeeling disease, even after he was infected himself. In spite of the fact that the guards and other 7. Dr. Mudd fought the yellow fever outbreak at inmates called him “that Lincoln murderer,” Fort Jefferson because and treated him very badly, he worked hard to a. there was no one else to treat the sick fight the disease. prisoners. Meanwhile, his wife was working b. he thought it would help get him a pardon. heroically back in Washington for her c. he didn’t want to get sick himself. husband’s cause. After a four-year struggle, she d. he was forced to by the prison warden. secured a pardon for him—for a crime he never committed. 8. Read this sentence from the essay. Dr. Mudd returned to Maryland to pick up the pieces of his shattered life. Soon after Dr. As horrible and unjust as this punish- Mudd’s release, Fort Jefferson was abandoned. ment must have been, a greater plight Today, the one-time prison is accessible to lurked at Fort Jefferson. visitors as part of Dry Tortugas National Park. As it is used in this passage, plight most nearly means a. challenge. b. difficulty. c. scare. d. sickness. 6
  19. 19. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 7 –PRETEST– Year-Round School versus Regular Questions School Schedule Both year-round school and regular school 9. What percentage of schools in the United schedules are found throughout the United States use a year-round schedule? States. With year-round school schedules, a. 96% students attend classes for nine weeks and then b. 4% have three weeks’ vacation. This continues all year c. more than 20% long. The regular school schedule requires that d. less than 4% students attend classes from September to June, with a three-month summer vacation at the end 10. The author feels that of the year. This schedule began because farmers a. each school should decide what schedule to needed their children at home to help with crops follow. during the summer. Today, most people work in b. year-round school is better. businesses and offices. Year-round school is easier c. both year-round and regular school for parents who work in businesses and don’t schedules have different advantages and have the summer to be with their children. The disadvantages. regular school schedule is great for kids who like d. the regular school schedule is better. to have a long summer vacation. While some educational systems have changed their schedules 11. The main organizing principle of this passage is to keep up with their population, others still use a. chronology. the old agrarian calendar. Both systems have b. order of importance. disadvantages and advantages, which is why c. comparison and contrast. schools use different systems. d. cause and effect. Comparison of U.S. School Schedules A Sibling Rivalry You will need to know the following words as you 4% read the story: year-round schedule tandem: working together maneuver: make a series of changes in direction The man with the bullhorn encouraged the runners as they made their way up the hill. “Two hours, fifteen minutes, forty seconds.” His 96% deep, amplified voice boomed toward us. regular It was mile 17 of the marathon. schedule “Hey, great stride!” a bearded spectator yelled to me. He clapped loudly. “You’re looking strong. Keep going—go, go, go!” You betcha I’m looking strong, I thought, In the United States, only 4% of schools currently use a as I followed my younger sister, Laura. I had year-round schedule, but the number has risen steadily in just gotten started. She had been diligently the last 20 years. clocking eight-minute miles since the race had 7
  20. 20. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 8 –PRETEST– begun downtown. Initially in the middle of a Easing off the bridge and heading south pack, which was several thousand people, she on Avila Boulevard, Laura and I found our pace had been steadily passing other runners for the together again. Here we could hang to the left past ten miles or so. We were now on the of the group and enjoy some brief conversation. relatively steep rise to the St. Cecelia Bridge. “You keeping up okay?” she asked. Being her Once we crossed, we would begin heading back older brother, and therefore unable to admit into town, running along the east side of the weakness, I nodded convincingly. Rincon River. Laura had asked me to run the “Hey, Lee!” yelled a waving man on the most difficult section of the marathon with her. sidewalk. Immediately pleased that my Not having trained for anything more marathon efforts had been recognized by challenging than a brisk walk and with no someone I knew, I waved back and reflected on experience running in organized events, I the importance of wearing tie-dyed clothing to figured I might be good for two or three miles. a road race of this size. It made it a lot easier to Despite our running in tandem, we were be spotted! taking different approaches to the event. Laura The town marathon is a “people’s” was on an aggressive tack, maneuvering quickly marathon in that it tends to be a family affair, through the slowing pack of runners. She began with the runners and spectators creating a calling out “On your left, sir” and “Excuse me” festival atmosphere. The crowds are demonstra- as she doggedly yet gracefully attacked the bly vocal and supportive all day, which means a rising slope approaching the bridge. Keeping up lot to the participants. I managed to run six with her was no small feat. On one hand, I felt miles before bowing out, and Laura finished the like saying to her, Wait up! On the other hand, I entire race in under four hours. knew that a timely finish would be a personal I now pride myself on telling people that I record for her. ran in a marathon. The distinction between Up ahead, steel drums were playing. A having run a marathon and having run in a group of percussionists was pounding out marathon seems unimportant. If pressed, rhythms, chanting, and encouraging us with however, I’ll admit that I only ran one-fourth their music and smiles. Crossing the bridge, I of one. recalled the advice in the Marathon Handbook Inspired by this year’s experience, I plan to be sure to spit off of the steely span. During to walk the course—really fast—next year. It’s my preview of the route, it had seemed like a not because I’m jealous of my sister’s accom- juvenile thing to do. But now it seemed like a plishment. This is not some silly sibling rivalry fine idea, and I spat magnificently over the side in which I must do whatever she does. Rather, of the bridge. Laura got free cookies at the finish line, and the “I read the handbook, too!” trumpeted a promise of that will lead me to any goal. triumphant woman behind me, who also let loose over the side of the bridge. We had now initiated a chain reaction of subsequent bridge spitters. It was quite a sight, but I had other things to occupy my attention, namely the back of Laura’s jersey. 8
  21. 21. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 9 –PRETEST– Questions 16. Why was Lee glad he wore a tie-dyed shirt? a. It helped people locate him easily. 12. This story is told from the point of view of b. The shirt brought him good luck. a. Laura. c. It added to the festival atmosphere. b. Lee. d. The shirt was a favorite of Laura’s. c. both Laura and Lee. d. an unidentified, third-person narrator. 17. What part of the marathon did Laura ask Lee to run? 13. Read these sentences from the story. Below a. the last six miles them are four definitions of tack. Which one b. the downhill section describes the meaning of the word as used in c. the most difficult section this section of the passage? d. the last two to three miles Laura was on an aggressive tack, 18. At next year’s marathon, Lee plans to maneuvering quickly through the slowing a. run half of the course. pack of runners. She began calling out b. beat his sister Laura. “On your left, sir” and “Excuse me” as she c. walk the race really fast. doggedly yet gracefully attacked the rising d. improve his time. slope approaching the bridge. a. a sharp, pointed nail 19. Which of the following words best describes b. something that attaches Laura as she is presented in this passage? c. a sticky or adhesive quality a. competitive d. a zigzag movement b. foolish c. comical 14. What happened immediately after Lee spit over d. carefree the side of the bridge? a. Laura was embarrassed. 20. The author wants the reader to think that Lee b. A woman spat over the bridge. a. is too aggressive. c. Lee apologized for his manners. b. has little self-confidence. d. Lee saw someone that he knew. c. has a future as a runner. d. is a good-natured brother. 15. Why did the author write this story? a. to explain how marathons are won 21. Lee tells Laura that he’s keeping up okay b. to tell about the history of marathons because c. to tell a story about a marathon experience a. he doesn’t want her to think he can’t keep d. to show how difficult running in a up with her. marathon can be b. he is always lying to her. c. he really is doing okay. d. he wants to motivate her. 9
  22. 22. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 10 –PRETEST– 22. Which event is the climax of the passage? Together, they invented games that could be a. Laura finishes the race. played on the ship, and they ran around the b. Lee spits over the bridge. decks. One afternoon, tired of being pestered c. Lee gets recognition from the crowd as he with questions, the ship’s engineer gave them a runs. tour of the engines. d. Laura and Lee begin the race. The next day, as Tatiana was walking along the deck, she heard some of the Journey to a New Life passengers talking about the Statue of Liberty. For hundreds of years, people have come to the This conversation confused her because she United States from other countries seeking a knew that liberty was an idea; it was intangible. better life. One of the first sights to greet many No one could see or touch it, so how could you immigrants is the Statue of Liberty. This is the make a statue of liberty? When she asked her story of Tatiana and her journey to the United friend’s father, Mr. Dimitrivitch, he explained States. that the statue looked like a woman, but it represented freedom. This explanation just In 1909, when Tatiana was just 11 years old, her made Tatiana more curious to see the statue for parents and older brother traveled to the herself. United States. Because the family could not One morning, Tatiana woke up to the afford to buy her a ticket, she had to remain in sound of wild shouting. Convinced that the Russia. She had lived with her uncle and ship must be sinking, she grabbed her lifejacket cousins for almost a year in a small and and ran upstairs. All the passengers were crowded house before the special letter arrived crowded onto the deck, but the ship wasn’t from her father. “Dear Tatiana,” he wrote. “At sinking. The shouts were really cries of last we have earned enough money to pay for excitement because the Louisa Jane had finally your ticket. After you join us in New York, we reached the United States. When Tatiana will travel by train to a place called South realized that she would soon see her family Dakota where we have bought a farm.” again, she joined in with shouts of her own. A week later, Tatiana’s uncle took her into As the Louisa Jane came closer to shore, the city of St. Petersburg and, using the money the tall figure of a woman holding a torch her father had sent, bought her a ticket for the became visible on the horizon. The cries died Louisa Jane, a steamship that was leaving for away and the passengers stared in awed silence America. Tatiana clutched her bag nervously at the Statue of Liberty. Tatiana gazed at the and walked up the ramp onto the steamship woman’s solemn face as the ship steamed past. that would be her home until she reached Mr. Dimitrivitch had told her that the statue America. She listened to the ship’s whistle give a represented freedom, and she finally under- piercing blast and then leaned over the railing stood what he meant. At that moment, Tatiana to wave good-bye to her uncle. knew that she was free to start her new life. Although she was lonely and missed her family, Tatiana quickly made friends with the other children aboard the Louisa Jane. 10
  23. 23. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 11 –PRETEST– Questions 28. Which of the following statements best summarizes the story? 23. For Tatiana, the Statue of Liberty was a symbol a. Tatiana traveled to the United States. of b. Tatiana, a Russian girl, had an amazing a. a new beginning. journey by steamship to America. b. interesting ideas. c. Many Russian families moved to America c. the excitement of traveling. in the 1900s. d. the ability to earn money. d. In 1909, a young Russian girl traveled to America to join her family. 24. Which words in the story tell the reader that these events took place long ago? Excerpt from “First,” a Short Story a. “stared in awed silence at the Statue of First, you ought to know that I’m “only” fourteen. Liberty” My mother points this out often. I can make my b. “a steamship that was leaving for America” own decisions when I’m old enough to vote, she c. “she was lonely and missed her family” says. Second, I should tell you that she’s right— d. “Tatiana’s uncle took her into the city” I’m not always responsible. I sometimes take the prize for grade-A dork. Take last weekend, for 25. The engineer showed the children the ship’s instance. I was staying at Dad’s, and I decided it engines because was time I learned to drive. It was Sunday a. he was tired of answering their many morning, 7 A.M., and I hadn’t slept well. I’d been questions. up thinking about an argument, which I’ll tell b. the parents asked him to amuse their you about in a minute. Well, nobody was up yet children. in the neighborhood, so I thought it couldn’t c. Tatiana had asked him to do so. hurt to back the car out of the garage and drive d. the tour was included in the price of the around the block. But Dad has a clutch car. The R tickets. on the shift handle was up on the left side, right next to first gear. I guess you can guess the rest. 26. The best way to learn more about the kind of Dad’s always been understanding. He ship described in this story would be to didn’t say, “Okay, little Miss Know-It-All, you a. ask someone who builds sailboats. can just spend the rest of the year paying this b. read a book about the immigrants in off,” which is what Mom would have said. New York. Instead, Dad worried about what might have c. visit a port where large ships dock. happened to me. To me. And that made me feel d. look in an encyclopedia under Steamships. more guilty than anything. I think he’d be a better number-one caregiver, but I can’t say 27. Which emotion did the passengers on the ship things like that to Mom. To her, I have to say, feel when they saw the statue? “But Mom, Dad’s place is closer to school. I a. excitement could ride my bike.” b. awe To which she replies, “Amy Lynn, you c. loneliness don’t own a bike. Remember? You left it in the d. regret yard, and it was stolen. And you haven’t got the patience to earn the money to replace it.” 11
  24. 24. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 12 –PRETEST– Questions 34. The narrator’s tone is a. emotional and familiar. 29. How does the narrator show how she feels b. stuck-up and superior. about her dad and mom? c. angry and sad. a. through specific detail d. pleasant and charming. b. by asking questions that make a point but don’t invite a direct answer 35. The main conflict between the narrator and c. through similes and metaphors her mother is about whether she d. by contrasting her parents’ typical reactions a. can make her own decisions. b. should live with her mom or her dad. 30. The first-person point of view in this story c. should be allowed to drive. a. hides the narrator’s feelings. d. should pay for things she loses or breaks. b. shows the thoughts and personality of the narrator. 36. The narrator’s mom thinks the narrator is c. makes the narrator seem cold and distant. a. too attached to her dad. d. lets you hear the thoughts of all the b. too emotional. characters. c. too shy. d. irresponsible. 31. The narrator feels guilty because she a. made her dad worry. 37. The narrator feels that her mom b. ruined the car. a. is too busy to care for her. c. broke the law. b. should never have divorced her dad. d. didn’t tell her mom about the car incident. c. makes too many rules. d. cares more about things than about people. 32. The narrator says she “sometimes take[s] the prize for grade-A dork.” This word choice 38. What most likely happened with the car? means to show a. The narrator put the car in first gear a. that she doesn’t know proper English. instead of reverse. She ran into the garage b. that she can’t judge her own actions. wall. c. her age and culture. b. The narrator backed out of the driveway d. that she thinks she’s better than other and into a neighbor’s car. dorks. c. The narrator left the car in gear when she was finished. When her dad started the car, 33. The quotation marks around “only” suggest he ran into the garage wall. that the narrator d. The narrator broke the clutch while trying a. is almost fifteen. to shift gears. b. thinks fourteen is old enough for some things. c. wishes she were older. d. thinks fourteen is a lousy age. 12
  25. 25. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 13 –PRETEST– MIDLAND ADVENTURE GYM RATES Midland Adventure Gym AGE 12 If you like climbing, jumping on trampolines, or AND UNDER ADULTS learning cool gymnastic tricks, you should call Day Pass $8 $12 Midland Adventure Gym. With two giant trampolines, a foam pit, parallel bars, and two Monthly Pass $28 $36 complete walls for rock climbing, we’ve got plenty Annual Pass $125 $150 of adventure for you. Professional instructors offer weekly classes or private lessons to build your skills. Or, consider Midland Adventure Gym for your next birthday party! Come explore the gym with a day pass, or become a privileged member with a monthly or annual pass. Stop by Midland Adventure Gym today! Questions 40. How much does a monthly adult pass cost? a. $28 39. What type of text is this? b. $12 a. instructions c. $32 b. informative d. $36 c. an advertisement d. a narrative 13
  26. 26. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:21 PM Page 14 –PRETEST– Composition The four seasons of the year are characterized by different kinds of weather and activities. Which season is your favorite and why? Write a focused paragraph with a clear thesis and several supporting statements. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 14
  27. 27. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 15 –PRETEST– Answers If you missed any of the questions, you can find help with that kind of question in the lesson(s) shown to the right of the answer. QUESTION ANSWER LESSON QUESTION ANSWER LESSON 1 a 2, 17 21 a 1, 19 2 b 1, 2 22 c 6 3 b 1, 2 23 a 17 4 c 9, 19 24 b 1, 13 5 d 2 25 a 19 6 b 20 26 d 1, 4 7 a 9, 20 27 b 13, 17 8 b 3 28 d 10 9 b 24 29 d 8, 17 10 c 2 30 b 12 11 c 8 31 a 17 12 b 12 32 c 13 13 d 3 33 b 13, 14 14 b 1, 7 34 a 15 15 c 17, 18 35 a 17, 19 16 a 1, 4 36 d 17 17 c 1, 4 37 d 17 18 c 20 38 a 19 19 a 13 39 c 22, 23 20 d 13, 17 40 d 25 15
  28. 28. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 16 –PRETEST– Compositions will vary, but your paragraph should have a clear thesis and support. Here is one possible response: My favorite season of the year is autumn because it’s nice outside, school starts, and I get to play soccer. I love the fall weather. It’s not as hot as it is in summer, and the leaves turn colors. When it gets chilly at night we can have campfires! I also like autumn because school starts. Sometimes school is boring, but I really have fun seeing my friends every day. I also like learning new things, especially in art class. Soccer season is in the autumn, and soccer is my favorite sport. I play forward, and last year my team was really good. I enjoy the competition and teamwork that I get in soccer. I have fun in all the different seasons, but autumn is definitely my favorite. 16
  29. 29. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 17 1 S E C T I O N BUILDING A STRONG FOUNDATION 17
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  31. 31. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 19 1 L E S S O N BECOMING AN ACTIVE READER L E S S O N S U M M A RY The most important thing you can do to improve your reading skills is to become an active reader. This lesson shows you how to read carefully and actively so that you can better understand and remember what you read. I f you want to earn a high score on a video game, you need to concentrate all of your attention on the game. You need to watch the whole screen carefully and look out for what’s coming up ahead. You need to look for certain clues and be able to predict what will happen. In other words, you need to be fully engaged with the game to win. It sounds a lot like the formula for reading success. To understand and remember what you read, you need to be involved with what you are reading. In other words, you need to be an active reader. People often think of reading as a passive activity. After all, you’re just sit- ting there, looking at words on a page. But when you read, you should actually be interacting with the text. Five specific strategies will help you become an active reader: 1. skimming ahead and jumping back 2. highlighting or underlining key words and ideas 3. looking up unfamiliar vocabulary words 4. recording your questions and comments 5. looking for clues throughout the text 19
  32. 32. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 20 –BECOMING AN ACTIVE READER– Skim Ahead and Jump Back 2. What are the main topics of Lesson 2? _____________________________________ Skimming ahead enables you to see what’s coming _____________________________________ up. Before you begin reading, scan the text to see what’s ahead. Is the reading broken up into sec- 3. What key words or phrases are defined in tions? What are the main topics of those sections? Lesson 2? In what order are they covered? What key words or ideas are boldfaced, bulleted, boxed, or otherwise _____________________________________ highlighted? _____________________________________ Skimming through a text before you read helps Finding Key Words and Ideas you prepare for your reading task. It’s a lot like checking out the course before a cross-country In any text, some facts and ideas are more important race. If you know what’s ahead, you know how than others. To be an active reader, you need to iden- to pace yourself. This head start will give you tify key ideas. By highlighting or underlining the key an idea of what’s important in the passage words and ideas, you’ll make important information you’re about to read. stand out. You’ll also make it easier to find that infor- mation when you want to write a summary or to study for an exam. When you finish reading, jump back. Review Of course, to highlight key words and ideas, you the summaries, headings, and highlighted informa- must be able to determine which facts and ideas are tion. (This includes both what you and the author most important. Ask yourself: What’s the most im- highlighted.) Jumping back helps you remember the portant information to understand and remember? information you just read. You can see how each idea Here are two guidelines for highlighting or un- fits into the whole and how ideas and information are derlining a text (you’ll learn a lot more about this in connected. the next lesson when you learn how to determine the main idea): Exercise 1 Just to test yourself, skim ahead through Lesson 2. 1. Be selective. If you highlight four sentences in a Look at the summaries, headings, and other reading five-sentence paragraph, you haven’t helped aids. Then answer the questions below. yourself at all. The key is to identify what’s most important in that passage. Ask yourself two Questions questions: a. What is the author trying to say and what is 1. What is the main thing you will learn in the main idea of his or her passage? Lesson 2? b. What information is emphasized or seems to _____________________________________ stand out as important? You can also highlight information that _____________________________________ you find particularly interesting. 20
  33. 33. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 21 –BECOMING AN ACTIVE READER– 2. Watch for clues that indicate an idea is impor- meaning again if you forget it; it will always be there tant. Words and phrases like most important, the to refer to. (Of course, if you don’t own the book, key is, and significantly signal that key informa- don’t write in it! Instead, write down the vocabulary tion will follow. Watch for visual clues, too. Key word and its definition in a notebook.) words and ideas are often boldfaced, under- If you don’t have a dictionary with you, try to lined, or italicized. They may be boxed in or re- figure out what the word means. What clues does the peated in a sidebar. author provide in that sentence and surrounding sen- tences? Mark the page number or write down the Exercise 2 word somewhere so you can look it up later. See how Lesson 2 will show you how to identify topic sen- closely you were able to guess its meaning. (You’ll tences and main ideas. Meanwhile, you can do your learn more about this in Lesson 3.) best and practice looking for verbal and visual clues. Exercise 3 Question Question Read the paragraph below, twice, and highlight the Read the paragraph below carefully. Circle any unfa- most important information. miliar words, and then look them up in the diction- ary. Write their meanings below or in the margins. Wind Chill Factor Then reread the paragraph to fully understand its People have known for a long time that they meaning. feel colder when the wind is blowing. The reason for this is simple. The faster the wind We’d just moved to South Mountain, and I blows, the faster your body will lose heat. To didn’t know anyone in the neighborhood. On educate the public, scientists in Antarctica my first day at South Mountain High, I was performed experiments and developed a table petrified. I’m shy to begin with, you know, so to give people a better idea of how cold they you can imagine how I felt walking into that would feel outside when the wind was blowing. strange school. I wore my favorite outfit to This is important because prolonged exposure bolster my confidence, but it didn’t help much. to cold temperatures can be dangerous. It seemed like everyone was staring at me, but it was probably just my imagination running rampant, as usual. In fact, I thought I was Look Up Unfamiliar Words imagining things when I walked into my new homeroom. I couldn’t believe my eyes! There, Looking up unfamiliar words is another very impor- sitting in the front row, was Maggie Rivers, my tant active reading strategy. You need to know what best friend from Oakwood Elementary School. the words mean to understand what someone is say- ing. After all, a key word or phrase can change the meaning of a whole passage. Record Your Questions Whenever possible, have a dictionary with you and Comments when you read. Circle and look up any unfamiliar words right away. (Circling them makes them easier As you read, you’re bound to have questions and to find if you lose your place.) Write the meaning in comments. You’re also likely to have reactions to the the margin. That way, you won’t have to look up the 21
  34. 34. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 22 –BECOMING AN ACTIVE READER– reading. You might wonder why the author used a As you used this shorthand, you would know that: certain example, or you might think a particular de- scription is beautiful. Write your questions and com- The + next to the second line means that you ments in the margin (or on a separate piece of paper remember the cold temperatures on your if the book is not yours) using the code that follows. school ski trip last February. The ✔ next to the fourth line means that you Place a ? in the margin if you have a question know that cold winds make your body lose about the text or if there is something that heat. you don’t understand. The next to the sixth line means that you Place a ✔ in the margin if you agree with what wish the author had included the table to the author wrote. make the point more clear. Place an X in the margin if you disagree with The ? next to the ninth line means that you what the author wrote. don’t know how long is “prolonged.” Place a + if you see connections between the text and other texts you have read, or if you un- Exercise 4 derstand the experience being described. It Question may also help you to write additional notes Reread the passage from Exercise 3, reprinted here. to help you remember the connection. Record your own questions and comments. Place an ! in the margin if you are surprised by the text or the writer’s style. We’d just moved to South Mountain, and I Place a in the margin if there is something didn’t know anyone in the neighborhood. On you read that you like about the text or the my first day at South Mountain High, I was style. petrified. I’m shy to begin with, you know, so Place a in the margin if there is something you can imagine how I felt walking into that you read that you don’t like about the text strange school. I wore my favorite outfit to or the style. bolster my confidence, but it didn’t help much. This kind of note taking keeps you actively in- It seemed like everyone was staring at me, but it volved with your reading. It makes you think more was probably just my imagination running carefully about what you read—and that means you rampant, as usual. In fact, I thought I was will better understand and remember the material. imagining things when I walked into my new Here’s an example of how you might respond to homeroom. I couldn’t believe my eyes! There, the Wind Chill Factor passage: sitting in the front row, was Maggie Rivers, my best friend from Oakwood Elementary School. People have known for a long time that they + feel colder when the wind is blowing. The reason for this is simple. The faster the wind Looking for Clues ✔ blows, the faster your body will lose heat. To educate the public, scientists in Antarctica We’ve already mentioned the word clues a couple of performed experiments and developed a table times in this lesson. That’s because good readers are a to give people a better idea of how cold they lot like detectives. They don’t read just to get through would feel outside when the wind was blowing. a passage; they pay careful attention to words and de- ? This is important because prolonged exposure tails, much like Sherlock Holmes would do if he were to cold temperatures can be dangerous. solving a mystery. Detectives look for clues that will 22
  35. 35. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 23 –BECOMING AN ACTIVE READER– help them better understand the writer’s ideas. These clues come in many forms: SKILL BUILDING UNTIL NEXT TIME ■ specific word choice and details ■ repeated words or phrases Here are some ways to practice the skills you’ve ■ the structure of sentences or paragraphs learned in this lesson. Practice them today and for the rest of the week: The key to finding these clues is to look carefully. Be observant. As you read, keep your eyes open. Look at 1. Write a quick note or e-mail to a friend and not just what the writer is saying, but also how he or explain what “active reading” means. De- she says it. Notice the words he or she uses. Look at scribe the strategies that active readers use how the ideas are organized. to better understand and remember what Being observant is essential for reading success. they read. People draw conclusions (make inferences) about 2. Develop a detective’s eye. Notice the things what they read, and sometimes those conclusions are around you. Look at the details on people’s wrong. Usually this means that they just didn’t read faces and clothing. Notice the names of the carefully enough. They didn’t notice the clues the stores you pass on your way to school. Pay writer left for them, and they based their conclusions close attention to the things around you. on their own ideas. But conclusions should be based You may be surprised at the interesting on the ideas that are there in the text. things you see that you hadn’t noticed be- The rest of this book will give you specific fore. To test yourself, write down the names strategies for recognizing these clues. of all the stores on the block where you walk every day, or jot down the colors of all the houses on the street where you live. Summary 3. Try your active reading strategies when you read your favorite magazine. Active reading is the key to reading success. Active readers use the following strategies: ■ skimming ahead and jumping back ■ highlighting or underlining key words and ideas ■ looking up unfamiliar vocabulary words ■ recording their questions and comments ■ looking for clues not just in what the writer says, but in how he or she says it SKILL BUILDING UNTIL NEXT TIME 23
  36. 36. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 24 –BECOMING AN ACTIVE READER– Answers ■ Rampant means unrestrained; going beyond normal limits; unchecked or excessive. Exercise 1 1. The main thing you will learn in Lesson 2 is Now that you know the definitions, reread the para- how to identify the main idea of a passage. graph. Does it take on a new meaning for you? 2. The main topics of Lesson 2 are the definitions of main idea, topic sentence, and main ideas Exercise 4 in paragraphs and essays. Answers will vary. Here’s one possibility: 3. The key words and phrases defined in Lesson 2 are main idea, subject, assertion, and topic We’d just moved to South Mountain, and I sentence. didn’t know anyone in the neighborhood. On my first day at South Mountain High, I was Exercise 2 + petrified. I’m shy to begin with, you know, so You should have highlighted or underlined as follows: you can imagine how I felt walking into that strange school. I wore my favorite outfit to People have known for a long time that they ✔ bolster my confidence, but it didn’t help feel colder when the wind is blowing. The much. It seemed like everyone was staring at reason for this is simple. The faster the wind ! me, but it was probably just my imagination blows, the faster your body will lose heat. To running rampant, as usual. In fact, I thought I educate the public, scientists in Antarctica was imagining things when I walked into my performed experiments and developed a table new homeroom. I couldn’t believe my eyes! to give people a better idea of how cold they There, sitting in the front row, was Maggie would feel outside when the wind was blowing. Rivers, my best friend from Oakwood This is important because prolonged exposure Elementary School. to cold temperatures can be dangerous. As you use this shorthand, you would know that: The first underlined sentence is important be- cause it explains why the wind chill factor exists. No- The + next to the fourth line means you under- tice that the second underlined sentence begins with stand what it means to be petrified. You the signal phrase “This is important.” This tells us may have been through a similar experi- that this fact is significant and should be highlighted. ence. The ✔ next to the seventh line means that you Exercise 3 know how important it is to boost self- You probably circled the words petrified, bolster, and confidence. rampant. The ! next to the ninth line means that you are surprised that the narrator’s imagination ■ To petrify means to change or cause to change had run rampant. into a stony mass; to paralyze or stun with fear. The author of this paragraph is using the sec- ond meaning of the word. ■ To bolster means to support or prop up; to strengthen. 24
  37. 37. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 25 2 L E S S O N FINDING THE MAIN IDEA L E S S O N S U M M A RY Finding and understanding the main idea of a text is an essential reading skill. When you look past the facts and information and get to the heart of what the writer is trying to say, that’s the main idea. This lesson will show you how to find the main idea of a passage. Then you’ll learn how to distinguish the main idea from its support- ing statements. I magine that you are at a friend’s home for the evening. “Here,” he says, “let’s watch this movie.” “Sure,” you reply. “What’s it about?” You’d like to know a little about what you’ll be watching, but your question may not get you the answer you’re looking for. That’s because you’ve only asked about the subject of the film. The subject—what the movie is about—is only half the story. Think, for example, about all the alien invaders films that have been made. While these films may share the same general subject, what they have to say about the aliens (and about our response to invasion) may be very different. Each film has different ideas it wants to convey about the subject. Similarly, writers write because they have something they want to write about, and they have something they want to say about that subject. When you look beyond the facts and information to what the writer really wants to say about his or her subject, you’re looking for the main idea. 25
  38. 38. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 26 –FINDING THE MAIN IDEA– Just What Is a We call this the main idea because it is the idea Main Idea, Anyway? that the passage adds up to; it’s what holds all the ideas in the passage together. Now, reread the para- One of the most common questions on reading com- graph about Wilma Rudolph carefully. Which idea prehension exams is, “What is the main idea of this holds the paragraph together? passage?” How would you answer this question for the paragraph below? a. Wilma Rudolph was very sick as a child. b. Wilma Rudolph was an Olympic champion. Wilma Rudolph, the crippled child who became c. Wilma Rudolph is someone to admire. an Olympic running champion, is an inspiration for us all. Born prematurely in 1940, The best answer is choice c: Wilma Rudolph is Wilma spent her childhood battling illness, someone to admire. This is the idea the paragraph including measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, adds up to; it’s what holds all the information in the pneumonia, and polio, a crippling disease paragraph together. which at that time had no cure. At the age of This example also shows us two important four, she was told she would never walk again. characteristics of a main idea: But Wilma and her family refused to give up. After years of special treatment and physical 1. It is general enough to encompass all the ideas therapy, 12-year-old Wilma was able to walk in the passage. normally again. But walking wasn’t enough for 2. It is an assertion. An assertion is a statement Wilma, who was determined to be an athlete. made by the writer. Before long, her talent earned her a spot in the 1956 Olympics, where she earned a bronze Main Ideas Are General medal. In the 1960 Olympics, the height of her The main idea of a passage must be general enough to career, she won three gold medals. encompass all the ideas in the passage. That is, it should be broad enough for all the other sentences in What is the main idea of this paragraph? You that passage to fit underneath it, like people under an might be tempted to answer “Wilma Rudolph” or umbrella. Notice that the first two options, “Wilma “Wilma Rudolph’s life.” Yes, Wilma Rudolph’s life is Rudolph was very sick as a child” and “Wilma the subject of the passage—who or what the passage is Rudolph was an Olympic champion” are too specific about. But that’s not the main idea. The main idea is to be the main idea. They aren’t broad enough to what the writer wants to say about this subject. What cover all of the ideas in the passage, because the pas- is the main thing the writer says about Wilma’s life? sage talks about both her illnesses and her Olympic Before we answer that question, let’s review the achievements. Only the third answer is general definition of main idea: enough to be the main idea of the paragraph. Main idea: The overall fact, feeling, or thought a writer wants to convey about his or her subject. 26
  39. 39. 8th_GRD_1_38.qxd:Layout 1 8/11/09 3:22 PM Page 27 –FINDING THE MAIN IDEA– Exercise 1 specific details or evidence. Assertions can be facts (such as “Wind chills can be dangerous.”) or opinions Question (such as “School uniforms for public school students In the group of sentences below, circle the sentence are a bad idea.”). In either case, an assertion should be that is general enough to be a main idea. supported by specific ideas, facts, and details. In other words, the main idea makes a general assertion that a. The Gold Rush began in 1849. tells readers that something is true. The supporting b. Many people moved to California after gold sentences, on the other hand, show readers that it’s was discovered. true by providing specific facts and details. c. The history and population of California For example, in the Wilma Rudolph paragraph, were shaped by the Gold Rush. the writer makes a general assertion: “Wilma d. The life of a gold miner was not an easy one. Rudolph, the crippled child who became an Olympic running champion, is an inspiration for us all.” The Main Ideas Are Assertions rest of the sentences offer specific facts and details A main idea is also some kind of assertion about the that prove that Wilma Rudolph is an inspirational subject. An assertion is a claim that something is true. person. An assertion, therefore, needs to be supported with Main Idea (general assertion about the subject) Supporting Idea Supporting Idea Supporting Idea (specific fact or detail) (specific fact or detail) (specific fact or detail) Exercise 2 Question Which of the following sentences are assertions that require specific evidence or support? a. Blue is a color. b. Blue is a calming color. c. Ray Bradbury is a fabulous science fiction writer. d. Ray Bradbury published The Illustrated Man in 1951. e. Ray Bradbury’s best book is The Illustrated Man. 27

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