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DepEd K to 12 curriculum guide

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The K to 12 Basic Education Program is the flagship program of the …

The K to 12 Basic Education Program is the flagship program of the
Department of Education in its desire to offer a curriculum which is
attuned to the 21
st
century. This is in pursuance of the reform
thrusts of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda, a package of
policy reforms that seeks to systematically improve critical
regulatory, institutional, structural, financial, cultural, physical and
informational conditions affecting basic education provision, access
and delivery on the ground.

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  • hi sir' can you please send a copy of the scope and sequence in all subjects....thank you and God bless
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  • hi sir marco! would you please help me make a schedule for the senior high school 11-12 and share its possible effects to general education subjects in college? my email is levangeline18@yahoo.com thank you in advance and god bless you.
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  • please send to my email add the tgs and lms for all subject in grade 3...tnz a lot.. God blz
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  • can you post a teacher's guide in english grade 2 k to 12, 2nd to 4th unit
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  • hI SIR MARCO can u please uploaqd learning module in araling panlipunan grade 9? thank u! God Bless
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  • 1. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM (as of March 12, 2012)Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 i
  • 2. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEI. The K to 12 Basic Education Program Elementary 22 Background and Rationale 1 Secondary 23 Introduction 1 Alternative Learning System 24 Historical Development of the Basic Education Program 6 III. Glossary of Terms 29 Outcome Goals of the K to 12 Basic IV. References 33 Education Program 8 V. Committees on K to 12 Curriculum 34 Process Goals of the K to 12 Education Program 8II. The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum 9 Goal 9 The Learning Areas 13 Co-Curricular and Community Involvement Programs 13 Core Content 14 Distinctive Features and Guiding Principles 15 Structure of the Curriculum 21 Kindergarten 22
  • 3. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM List of Figures List of TablesFIGURE PAGE TABLE PAGEFigure 1 National Achievement Test Results SY 2005- 1 Table 1 Total Basic Education Cycle of Asian 4 2010 CountriesFigure 2 Trends in International Mathematics and 2 Table 2 Historical Bases of the Additional Years of 4 Science Study (TIMMS) 2003 Education, SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2011Figure 3 Average of TIMSS Scores, Philippines 2 Table 3 Unemployment Rate in the Philippines, 5Figure 4 Typical Progression of a Cohort of Pupils 3 Based on a Cohort of Grade 1 Pupils from SY 2010. 1995-1996 to College Graduates SY 2008- 2009, both Public and Private Table 4 Basic Education Curricular Reforms 6Figure 5 Unemployed vs. Available Skill-Based Jobs 5 Table 5 Common Competencies in the Grade 7 and 26 8 TLE Exploratory Courses and SpecializationFigure 6 The K to 12 Graduate 10 in Grade 11 and 12Figure 7 The K to 12 Philippine Basic Education 12 Table 6 Proposed Subjects for Grades 11 and 12 27 Curriculum FrameworkFigure 8 The Learning Areas of the K to 12 13 Table 7 The Components of the K to 12 Curriculum 28 Curriculum at a GlanceFigure 9 Structure of the K to 12 Curriculum 21Figure 10 K to 12 Curriculum in both Formal 24 Education and Alternative Learning SystemFigure 11 Core Learning Areas/Domains from K to 12 25Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 iii
  • 4. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMThe K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMI. BACKGROUND and RATIONALEIntroductionThe K to 12 Basic Education Program is the flagship program of theDepartment of Education in its desire to offer a curriculum which isattuned to the 21st century. This is in pursuance of the reformthrusts of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda, a package ofpolicy reforms that seeks to systematically improve criticalregulatory, institutional, structural, financial, cultural, physical andinformational conditions affecting basic education provision, accessand delivery on the ground. The Department seeks to create abasic education sector that is capable of attaining the country’sEducation for All objectives and the Millennium Development Goalsby the year 2015 and President Benigno Aquino III’s ten-point basiceducation agenda by 2016. These policy reforms are expected tointroduce critical changes necessary to further accelerate, broaden,deepen and sustain the Department’s effort in improving the quality Figure 1. National Achievement Test Results, SY 2005-2010of basic education.The challenges of the Department are great but are notinsurmountable. Education outcomes in terms of achievement, Students’ performance in international tests such as the Trends inparticipation and completion rates point to the urgent need to International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is as dismal.improve the quality of basic education in the country. The National In Grade IV Math and Science, TIMSS, 2003, the PhilippinesAchievement Test results for SY 2005-2010 show that many ranked 23rd in performance out of 25 countries. For high schoolstudents who finished basic education do not possess sufficientmastery of basic competencies. (See Figure 1) Math, the Philippines ranked 34th out of 38 countries. In high school Science, it ranked 43rd out of 46 participating countries.1 In TIMMS, 2008 for Advanced Math, the Philippines ranked 10th out of 10 1 National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003.December 2004Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 1
  • 5. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMcountries, even with only the science high schools participating.2(See Figures 2 and 3) Figure 3. Average of TIMSS Scores, Philippines Another major challenge of the Department of Education is retaining Figure 2. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study those in school, particularly those at risk of falling out of the system. (TIMMS) 2003 Those who are at risk of dropping out are those who encounter difficult circumstances in life – poverty, cases of teenage pregnancies, student laborers, children whose parents were poorly schooled, slum dwellers, families who live in areas with peace and order problems and learners with various forms of disabilities . Figure 4 shows that of the 100 students who enrolled in Grade 1,2 I.V.S. Mullis, M.O. Martin, D.F. Robitaille, & P. Foy, (2009). Chestnut Hill, MA. Trends in only 65 students reached First Year high school and 46 of whichInternational Mathematics and Science Advanced 2008.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 2
  • 6. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMgraduated HS. Of these 46 HS Graduates, only 20 reached college subjects. The relatively weak performance of Filipino students inlevel and 16 earned college degrees. Mathematics and Science in the TIMMS signifies that the Philippines must catch up with the rest of the world. Besides, trade liberalization, the growing global market, international agreements such as the Bologna and Washington Accords have kept countries focused on the comparability of educational degrees. Filipino graduates need to develop a competitive advantage over others in the ASEAN region and in the world. Unfortunately, the 10-year basic education system handicaps overseas Filipino professionals competing in the world market. The Bologna Process3 requires 12 years of education for university admission and practice of profession in European countries. On account of the Bologna Process4, starting 2010, undergraduate degrees in the Philippines are no longer recognized in most European countries. The Washington Accord5 prescribes a minimum of 12 years of basic education as an entry to recognition of engineering professionals. Obviously, the short basic education cycle is a deterrent in pursuing recent initiatives like the APEC and ASEAN mutual recognition projects. APEC or Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation is an international forum of 21 member economies that acts collectively to advance their common interests. APEC is committed to a policy of reducing barriers to trade and of Figure 4.Typical Progression of a Cohort of Pupils Based on a being a vehicle for promoting economic cooperation within the Asia- Pacific Region. (Source: SEAMEO INNOTECH Study)Cohort of Grade 1 Pupils from SY 1995-1996 to College Graduates SY 2008-2009, both Public and PrivateThe sad state of basic education in the country can be partly 3 Batomalaque, Antonio. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines forattributed to the congested basic education curriculum. The basic International Cooperation. University of San Carlos.; Marinas, Bella and Ditapat, Maria. Philippines: Curriculum and Development. UNESCO International Bureau of Educationeducation curriculum is meant to be taught in twelve (12) years, yetit is delivered in ten (10) years. The research findings of the 4 Batomalaque, Antonio. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines forcomparative study of the curricula of Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, International Cooperation. University of San Carlos.; Marinas, Bella and Ditapat, Maria. Philippines: Curriculum and Development. UNESCO International Bureau of EducationSingapore and the Philippines conducted by SEAMEO INNOTECH, 5affirmed that indeed the Philippine basic education curriculum is International Engineering Alliance. The Washington Accord. http://www.washingtonaccord.org/Washington-Accord/FAQ.cfm (Accessed 11 Septembercongested, especially the Mathematics, Language and Science 2010)Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 3
  • 7. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMThe Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three In 1949, the proposal to expand basic education was revived. 6countries in the world (the other two being Djibouti and Angola of Since then the call for extension of the Philippine basic educationAfrica) with a 10-year pre-university program. (Refer to Table 1) duration persisted as presented in Table 2. Total Duration of Year Source Recommendation Total Basic Country Education Cycle Pre- University 1949 UNESCO Mission Restore Grade VII in primary education Education Survey Brunei 11/12 13/15 1953 Education Act Revise the Primary school system by adding one year (Grade VII) Cambodia 12 13 Indonesia 12 13 1960 Swanson Survey Restore grade 7 in Primary education Lao PDR 12 14 1970 PCSPE Extend secondary education by one year to better prepare students who have no plans to take up university education Malaysia 12 14/15 Retain the 10-year basic education phase while Myanmar 11 12 1991 EDCOM Report institutionalizing career counseling in Primary and Philippines 10 10 secondary schools in preparation for higher education Philippines Prioritize student learning through curricular reforms, the Singapore 11 12/14 Education Sector provision of textbooks, the use of the vernacular in lower 1998 Thailand 12 12 Study (World Bank Primary grades, and the institution of a longer basic and ADB) education cycle Timor-Leste 12 12 Implement a compulsory one-year pre-baccalaureate stage Vietnam 12 14/15 2000 PCER as prerequisite for students interested in enrolling in higher education degree programs Source: SEAMEO-INNOTECH, 2011 Lengthen the educational cycle by adding two years to Philippine EFA 2015 Table 1. Total Basic Education Cycle of Asian Countries 2006 National Action Plan formal basic education (one each for Primary and high school) Extend pre-university education to a total of 12 years, Presidential TaskUntil the 1930s, the Philippines actually had 11 years of basic 2008 Force on Education benchmarking the content of the eleventh and twelfth years with international programseducation: seven years of primary and four years of secondary Compulschooling. The Commonwealth government even then, did not feel ory Table 2. Historical Bases of the Additional Years of Education,that 11 years provided adequate preparation for tertiary education Learning SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2011 Areasor the work place. It decided to reduce the primary cycle to sixyears, which was duly done, and added two years to high school, sted in enrolling in higher education degree programswhich did not happen (de Jesus, Edilberto. Philippine Daily Inquirer, The poor quality of basic education as reflected in the inadequate 200601/08/2010). preparation of high school graduates for the world of work contributes toEFA 20 relatively high unemployment rate among the Philippine the young andpaths/ choices career the educated. See Table 3. Exploratory Courses for Academic Specialization • Journalism • Mother Tongue 6 • & Foreign Languages Esther Care andLanguages Valenzuela, Analysis of Basic Education of the VI. Technical- Vocational Ethel Philippines:Implications for the K to 12 Education Program, Jan. 2012. VII. Math for Specific PurposesWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulation • Life Sciences/ Physical SciencesDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 • Literature • Contemporary Issues 4 • (local and global) Career Pathways - Entrepreneurship -Tech Voc - Academic
  • 8. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMTable 3 shows that of the total unemployed in 2010, 80.6% arebetween the ages 15 to 34 years, with 51.5% from the 15-24 yearsold sub-group. Aside from being young, most of the unemployedare at least high school graduates. Figure 5 also shows that there ishuge number of skills-based jobs available (650,000++) and also ahuge number of unemployed high school graduates (972,458). Thisimplies a mismatch between graduates’ skills and job demands. Figure 5. Unemployed vs. Available Skill-Based Jobs (Source: NSO, 2009 and 2010) Table 3. Unemployment Rate in the Philippines, 2010.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 5
  • 9. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMHistorical Development of the Basic Education Program Like the K to 12 curriculum, the curricular revisions were backed up by research findings and recommendations. The issue of curriculumThe historical development of the Philippine basic education congestion which resulted to the learners’ lack of mastery of basicprogram proves the Department’s continuing effort at improving the competencies was the reason behind the introduction of thequality and relevance of basic education. In terms of curriculum decongested New Elementary Education Curriculum (NEEC) anddevelopment, Table 47 shows that since 1945, the elementary New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) in 1983 and 1989,curriculum underwent three (3) revisions while that of the secondary respectively, and the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. Forcurriculum underwent four (4) before the K to 12 curriculum. This is relevance, the 2-2 plan was introduced for the secondary schools inbecause the introduction of the 2-2 Plan, 2-year college preparatory 1958 which was revised in the offering of electives for secondaryand 2-year vocational curriculum, was relevant only to the students in 1973, to give students choice on career path.secondary. In the 2-2 Plan, both general and vocational secondary schools offered the basic or common curriculum of academic courses with one unit of Practical Arts in the first two years. In the last two years, the general secondary schools offered a pre-college academic curriculum with one unit of vocational elective each year while the vocational secondary schools offered more specialized vocational courses with one unit of academic elective each year. 8 The 2-2 Plan was a differentiated curriculum leading either to a college or a technical course. Similar to that of the K to 12 curriculum, one of the guiding principles of the 2-2 Plan was that “the curriculum of each school should provide vocational courses which are geared to the occupations, resources and industries of the community or region where the school is located.”9 It was seen to be a very responsive curriculum. However, it was met with strong opposition especially from the private sector which requested for its deferment due to lack of money, facilities, equipment for vocational education and lack of guidance counselors10. The pitfalls of the 2-2 Plan implementation could be attributed to “insufficient preparation before the plan was implemented and the continued high ’prestige’ Table 4. Basic Education Curricular Reforms 8 Board of National Education, General Policies on Education, 1967-1972,7 9Prepared by Avelina T. Llagas , former Director of the Bureau of Secondary Education, Board of National Education, General Education Policies : A Report , 1959-1961 10DepEd Board of National Education, General Education Policies : A Report , 1959-1961Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 6
  • 10. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMvalue of the college preparatory course in the eyes of parents and essential and big ideas. It makes use of the “backward design”students.11 which necessitates determining targets and goals and assessment first before identifying and planning learning activities to ensureTo respond to the need on improving curriculum relevance to clarity of targets.increasing diverse contexts of learners as a result of globalizationand in addition to the issue of an overcrowded curriculum that The issue on lack of mastery of concepts and skills partly due to ahaunted basic education, the Department of Education restructured congested curriculum did not end even with the alreadythe NEEC (1983) and the NSEC (1989) into the 2002 Basic decongested 2002 BEC. This means that the clamor for qualityEducation Curriculum (BEC). basic education cannot be responded to by mere curriculum decongestion. Thus the K to 12 Basic Education Program is notThe 2002 BEC, the forerunner of the K to 12 curriculum, is a only concerned with curriculum decongestion but also with otherdecongested curriculum consisting of five (5) core learning areas critical concerns like addressing shortages of educational inputs,from as many as ten (10). It had the following objectives: improving the quality of teachers, and strengthened stakeholder participation.  Connect related subjects  Increase the time allotted for Science, English, and The K to 12 Basic Education Program is a comprehensive program Mathematics; in the sense that the support systems to ensure its implementation  Reduce congestion of subjects; – the family and other stakeholders, instructional, administrative  Improve attitude towards work to increase productivity ; and society as a whole are given the needed attention.  Increase individuals ability to cope in a fast changing world;  Increase the importance of the arts, music, sports, dance, and other aspects of Philippine culture; and  Develop nationalism among Filipino learners for responsible citizenryAfter the introduction of the 2002 BEC, the Bureau of ElementaryEducation conducted a thorough review of the competencies toenhance the vertical articulation of competencies. In 2010, theBureau of Secondary Education implemented the 2002 BEC basedon the Understanding by Design (UbD) framework for meaningfuland integrative teaching. This was called 2010 SEC. Thiscurriculum design is focused on teaching for understanding and on11 Board of National Education, General Education Policies : A Report , 1959-1961Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 7
  • 11. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMOutcome Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program 7. Institute reform in assessment framework and practice for learner-centered basic educationThe K to 12 Basic Education Program seeks to realize the following: 8. Address basic input shortages in classrooms, teachers, textbooks 1. Philippine education standards to be at par with 9. Promote good education governance in the entire international standards Department 2. more emotionally mature graduates equipped with 10. Pursue legislation to institutionalize K to 12 Basic technical and/or vocational skills who are better Education Program prepared for work, middle level skills development and 11. Formulate transition management plan for the K to 12 higher education implementation 3. significantly addressed shortages or gaps in educational 12. Identify K to 12 model schools per region and per inputs (teacher items, school head items, classrooms, specialization tracks that will model senior high school instructional materials) by SY 2012-2013. 4. broadened and strengthened stakeholder support in the improvement of basic education outcomes 5. improved internal efficiency 6. improved system of governance in the Department 7. improved quality of teachersProcess Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program 1. Decongest and reform the basic education curriculum in coordination with CHED, TESDA and other education stakeholders 2. Develop culture-sensitive, culture-responsive and developmentally-appropriate print and non-print online learning resources for K to 12 3. Conduct in-service training for teachers relative to the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum 4. Focus on integrated instruction to equip learners with skills for future employment, critical and creative thinking and life skills 5. Universalize kindergarten by 2012 6. Institutionalize school-based management for school empowermentWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 8
  • 12. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMII. THE K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMGoalAs Figure 6 shows, the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum isgeared towards the development of a holistically developedFilipino with 21st century skills who is ready for employment,entrepreneurship, middle level skills development and highereducation upon graduation from Grade 12.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 9
  • 13. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Figure 6. The K to 12 Graduate 10
  • 14. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM proud to be a Filipino.13 The overarching goal of the K to 12 stThe K to 12 graduate is equipped with the following 21 century Curriculum is achieved when every K to 12 graduate demonstratesskills: 1) information, media and technology skills, 2) learning the desired outcomes as illustrated below:and innovation skills, 3) effective communication skills, and 4)life and career skills.Information, media and technology skills include 1) visual andinformation literacies, media literacy, basic, scientific, economic andtechnological literacies and multicultural literacy and globalawareness. The learning and innovation skills are 1) creativityand curiosity; 2) critical thinking problem solving skills and risktaking. To develop effective communication skills, the followingskills must be taught: 1) teaming, collaboration and interpersonalskills; 2) personal, social, and civic responsibility and interactivecommunication, and local, national and global orientedness. Thelife and career skills are: 1) flexibility and adaptability; 2) initiativeand self-direction; 3) social and cross-cultural skills; 4) productivityand accountability, 5) leadership and responsibility, and 6) ethical,moral and spiritual values.The ideal K to 12 graduate is one who manifests patriotism andnationalism, love of humanity, respect for human rights,appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historicaldevelopment of the country, observance of rights and duties ofcitizenship, strong ethical and spiritual values, moral character andpersonal discipline, critical and creative thinking, scientific andtechnological knowledge, and vocational efficiency”12.The ideal K to 12 graduate is one who has discovered his/herpotential in a child-centered and value-driven teaching-learningenvironment, one who is enabled to create his/her own destiny in aglobal community, one who is prepared to become a responsiblecitizen and an enlightened leader who loves his/her country and is12 13 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 3. (2) DepEd’s vision statement, http://www.deped.gov.phWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 11
  • 15. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Figure 7. The K to 12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Framework 12
  • 16. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMThe Learning Areas in practical terms yet be used as a further teachable opportunity. Co-curricular and community involvement programs areThe cluster of subjects of the K to 12 curriculum – Languages, Math irreplaceable opportunities for the learner to reinforce and put intoand Science, Arts and Humanities, and Technology and Livelihood practice the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes learned.Education – cuts across the grade levels from K to Grade 12 tonurture the learner’s holistic development. There is no demarcation Co-curricular programs and community involvement programs areline among the cluster of subjects – to indicate that the curriculum is an extension of the core subject areas and the teaching andorganized to cut across subject lines and to put across the concept learning process. They are an integral part of the school curriculumthat the whole curriculum is life itself. that enhances the holistic development of the learner. The co- curricular programs in a large sense also serve as a laboratory ofThe Language subjects are Mother Tongue, Filipino and English. life where what is learned in the classroom context can be appliedThe Arts and Humanities subjects are Edukasyon sa in practical terms yet be used as a further teachable opportunity.Pagpapakatao, Araling Panlipunan, Music, Arts, Physical Education Co-curricular and community involvement programs areand Health (MAPEH). The other subjects are Science, Math and irreplaceable opportunities for the learner to reinforce and put intoTechnology and Livelihood Education. practice the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes learned.There are changes in the nomenclature of some subjects.Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga for the secondary and Edukasyon saPagpapakatao for the elementary are now renamed Edukasyon saPagpapakatao. Science and Health is called Science. Health isjoined to MAPEH.The learning areas in the K to 12 curriculum can be grouped intotwo: 1) core compulsory learning areas and 2) areas ofspecialization. These are enumerated in the discussion ofelementary and secondary education.Co-Curricular and Community Involvement ProgramsCo-curricular programs and community involvement programs arean extension of the core subject areas and the teaching andlearning process. They are an integral part of the school curriculumthat enhances the holistic development of the learner. The co-curricular programs in a large sense also serve as a laboratory oflife where what is learned in the classroom context can be applied Figure 8. The Learning Areas of the K to 12 CurriculumWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 13
  • 17. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM INFORMATION, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS  LEARNING INNOVATION SKILLS General Academic Program LEARNING DOMAIN  Mother Tongue • English • English TLE Exploratory Courses  Values Education  Languages  Physical Health &  Filipino  • Filipino • Filipino o -English Motor  English • Mathematics • Mathematics Development o -Filipino  Mathematics • Science • Science  Social &  Literature  Science • Araling Panlipunan • Music, Arts, PE & Health EmotionalDevelop  Mathematics ment  Araling Panlipunan • MAPEH (MAPEH )  Cognitive  Science  • Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao • Araling Panlipunan Subjects Development Edukasyon sa • EPP • Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao  Contemporary  Creative Arts Pagpapakatao Issues  Language  MAPEH • Technology & Livelihood LiteracyCommunic Education ation  Academic Specialization o Mathematics o Science o Languages NONE NONE NONE Specialization o Journalism in TLE o Sports and Arts  Technical- Vocational  Others Consolidation of complex knowledge and skills, development of attitudes, Development of knowledge, skills, Development and mastery Consolidation of complex values as a result of a attitude and values: mastery and of complex knowledge and knowledge and skills, strong liberal education; application basic skills skills, development development of attitudes, values, adequate preparation for the world of work of attitudes and values. aptitudes and interest. entrepreneurship, middle level skills development and higher education.  In Grade 1, oral Filipino is taught in 1st Semester and oral English in the Second Semester For Grades 7 and 8 only  LIFE AND CAREER SKILLS  EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 14
  • 18. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMDistinctive Features and Guiding Principles 3. It is developmentally appropriate. – The K to 12 curriculum considers the various developmental stages of learners. Selection1. It is learner-centered. – The learner is the very reason of the of activities is informed by age-appropriateness, individualentire curriculum system. Who the learner is in his/her totality, how differences, and social and cultural diversity.he/she learns and develops and what his/her needs are were highlyconsidered in the making of the K to 12 curriculum framework. 4. It is standard-based and competency-based. – What learners should know and be able to do and the levels of proficiency atThe holistic learning and development of the learner is its primary which they are expected to demonstrate what they know and canfocus. Teacher creates a conducive atmosphere where the learner do are clearly stated in the form of standards unpacked intoenjoys learning, takes part in meaningful learning experiences and competencies. With a standards- and competencies-basedexperiences success because he/she is respected, accepted and curriculum, learners understand what are expected of them, parentsfeels safe even if in his/her learning exploration he/she commits are clear on what are expected of their children, teachers aremistakes. He/she learns at his/her own pace in his/her own learning guided on what to teach and how to teach, and the DepEd isstyle. He/she is empowered to make choices and to become provided with a common reference tool for national assessment.responsible for his/her own learning in the classroom and for alifetime. With standards, competencies are connected to ensure integrated and meaningful teaching instead of isolated, disconnected andThe learner-centered K to 12 curriculum gives prime importance to meaningless teaching.developing self-propelling and independent lifelong learners. 5. It is research-based. – The new features of the K to 122. It is inclusive. – The vision statement of DepEd states, “We curriculum are backed up by hard data. The use of Mother Tongueaffirm the right of every Filipino child especially the less advantaged as a medium of instruction from K to Grade 3 is supported by ato benefit from such system.”14 [referring to the existing educational research finding that children learn better and are more active insystem.] It reaches out to all kinds of learners regardless of ability, class and learn a second language even faster when they are firstcondition, age, gender, ethnicity, and social status. It is built on the taught in a language they understand.principle that every child has a right to education and that theeducation system needs to be flexible to accommodate the learning The strengthening of ICT-integration in the basic educationneeds of all learners. The emphasis is on making schools learner- curriculum in order to meet the 21st century skills required byfriendly, mainstreaming learners with disability into general schools, employers, the use of the spiral progression approach in theand creating a non-discriminatory education system where all teaching of Math and Science, and the development of alternativelearners have equal opportunity to learn. delivery modes to provide equal opportunity for all are backed up by the recommendations of the DepEd-commissioned researches conducted by SEAMEO INNOTECH and University of Melbourne.14 DepEd’s vision statement, http://www.deped.gov.phWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 15
  • 19. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMOther research recommendations that were integrated in the K to 8. It is culture-responsive and culture-sensitive. – To be truly12 curriculum are the use of the expanding spiral progression inclusive, the K to 12 curriculum respects cultures and experiencesapproach in the teaching of Science, Mathematics, Araling of various ethnic groups and uses these as resources for teachingPanlipunan, MAPEH and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao and the and learning. Teachers are expected to provide lessons that caterdeliberate teaching of the investigatory process in Science as a to a culturally diverse population and honor the cultural heritage ofseparate topic by Grade 7. all learners.6. It is relevant and responsive. – The K to 12 curriculum is Given the multi-cultural characteristics of Philippine schools, thealigned with national education and development goals enunciated Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) makesin the laws of the country and to the ten-point education agenda of the curriculum truly culture-responsive. Learning mother tonguethe President. It also responds to the Millennium Development language helps learners retain their ethnic identity, culture, heritageGoals and Education for All. and values.As the curriculum framework shows, the K to 12 curriculum is To make it responsive to Muslim learners, the K to 12 curriculumdesigned to respond to the need for a nationalistic and productive continues to offer Madrasah education with subjects in Arabiccitizenry who contributes to the building of a progressive, just, and Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) as a vitalhumane society and whose personal discipline is grounded on component of the basic education system.ethical, moral and spiritual values. The curriculum likewiseaddresses the demands of global citizenship and partnership for 9. It is decongested. – To allow for mastery of competencies anddevelopment that ensures environmental sustainability. In short, the to give more emphasis to the development of studentK to 12 curriculum responds to the learning needs of the learner of understanding and on learning how to learn, repetitions ofthe 21st century and the local, national and global community. competencies were weeded out. The new curriculum was redesigned in line with the standards and competencies desired of7. It is value-driven. – The curriculum offers a subject in Values a K to 12 graduate.Education with the descriptive title Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao.This is one of the core and compulsory subjects from Grades 1 to 10. It is seamless. – The K to 12 curriculum consists of a10. Values and Character Education is also one of the 6 domains in continuum of competencies which provides transition from oneKindergarten. In the K to 12 curriculum, every teacher is a Values grade level to another without unnecessary duplication. TheEducation teacher as all subject matter is a potent vehicle for continuum of standards and competencies from the elementary tovalues integration. secondary level is ensured by the unified curriculum framework for each learning area from elementary to high school. The standardsIn the K to 12 curriculum, the learner learns and develops in a and competencies are developed following expanding spiralvalue-driven environment where everyone is respected and is progression model. This means that learning is built upon priorvalued for he/she is. knowledge, skills, values and attitude of students to ensure vertical continuity.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 16
  • 20. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Learning is organized around the 4 fundamental types of learning:11. It is flexible. – The flexibility of the curriculum is in keeping with 1) “learning to know”, 2) “learning to do”, 3) “learning to be”, and 4)the constitutional mandate of schools “to encourage non-formal, “learning to live together”15. The K to 12 curriculum emphasizes theinformal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, significant role that co-curricular activities and communityindependent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those involvement play in the holistic development of the learner. Theythat respond to community needs” (Article XIV, Section 2(1). are genuine opportunities for contextualized learning. The co- curricular activities and community involvement programs enable12. It is ICT-based. – ICT is taught in the junior high school as one learners to build on their classroom learning and apply theof the Technology and Livelihood Education courses and is now knowledge and skills learned.integrated starting Grade 1 not Grade 4 as it is done in the 2002Basic Education Curriculum. The K to 12 curriculum promotes the In Technology and Livelihood Education, areas are so chosen touse of technology for an engaging, effective, and efficient avoid duplication, make connection across the areas and to includeinstruction. other cross-curriculum elements (mensuration, technical drawing, use of hand tools, occupational health & safety and tools/equipment13. It is global. -– The K to 12 curriculum is benchmarked with maintenance) in order to ensure greater cohesiveness in thecurricula of other countries. It meets international standards not curriculum as a whole.merely by adding two years to the 10 years of basic education butalso by ensuring that the standards of the 12-year basic education For flexibility, the K to 12 curriculum provides a balance of ais equivalent to the 12-year basic education offered in other common core of compulsory academic courses and electives tocountries. Graduates of the K to 12 curriculum will be recognized as meet needs of learners and community in the 21st century.such in other countries. As early as Grade 9, the learner is offered multiple career pathwaysIt expands the local orientedness of the learner to national and for technology and livelihood education continued on Grades 11global concerns. It enables learners to relate local, national and and 12 where he/she is offered other specializations such asglobal events and concerns and builds patterns of academics, sports and the arts in addition to technical andinterconnectedness which help them make sense of their own lives vocational education.and the world. Schools are encouraged to localize the curriculum to respond to14. It is integrative and contextualized. – For holistic learning, their teaching-learning needs. They can likewise enrich thesubjects are taught using the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary curriculum without sacrificing the established content andapproach. Learners do not learn isolated facts and theories performance standards and competencies to make the curriculumdivorced from their lives. Learning involves change in knowledge,skills, values and attitudes. responsive to their needs. This is in response to RA 9155, Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 which states that “The 15 UNESCO’s Report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st century.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 17
  • 21. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMState shall encourage local initiatives for improving the quality of frameworks for elementary and high school for all the learningbasic education. The State shall ensure that the values, needs and areas.aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of The K to 12 curriculum builds on the previous curricular reforms.education for children, out-of-school youth and adult learners. The 1957 2-2 Plan for secondary education and 1958 revisedSchools and learning centers shall be empowered to make elementary education curriculum provided for the preparation ofdecisions on what is best for the learners they serve.” students in the world of the academe or the world of work. However, it limited the students to only two choices – college orThe K to 12curriculum lends itself to alternative delivery modes of vocational education. The K to 12curriculum affords the studentinstruction which support self-paced study options such as Open more choices after graduation, at least four (4) – employment,High School Program, computer-aided instruction, modular entrepreneurship, middle level skills development, or higherteaching, Drop-Out Reduction Program (DORP) and Alternative education.Learning System (ALS), and multi-grade classes as these programstarget learners who have unique needs not addressed by the formal The K to 12 curriculum outshines the past curricula in addressingschool system. the demands of a knowledge-based economy for local, national and global development. It provides multiple pathways for further15. It is broad-based. – K to 12 curriculum provides for a broad studies and career development aligned to international standardsgeneral education that will “assist each individual in the peculiar and manpower requirement of the 21st century.ecology of his own society, to (a) attain his potentials as a humanbeing; (b) enhance the range and quality of individual and group Unlike the past curricula, the K to 12 curriculum includes anparticipation in the basic functions of society; and (c) acquire the integrated and play-based Kindergarten curriculum as aessential educational foundation of his development.”16 commitment of the Philippines to EFA. It includes MTB-MLE which is built on the basic idea to use the childs first language in teaching16. It is enhanced. – The K to 12 curriculum is a product of the – learning so the child is provided with a firm foundation for on-collaborative effort of curriculum specialists, subject specialists, going education in Filipino and English, the two majorpractitioners and education stakeholders representing NGOs, languages of education in the Philippines.17business and industry, public and private higher educationinstitutions, educational associations, government agencies such as Like its forerunners, the K to 12 curriculum is decongested notCHED, TESDA, NEDA, DSWD and DOLE. This curriculum was interms of the number of subjects (2002 BEC) but in terms ofcrafted based on the suggestions from sectoral representatives, competencies. Makabayan as a learning area in the 2002 BEC iscollege readiness standards formulated by CHED, split into Music, Art, P.E. Health, Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, andrecommendations from researches, and feedback from Araling Panlipunan in the K to 12 curriculum but are taught usingpractitioners. The K to 12 curriculum takes pride in the unified the integration approach. 17 Board of National Education, General Policies on Education, 1967-1972,1951-1961 &16 Education Act of 1982. 1958-1960Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 18
  • 22. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM range of information, understanding the sources of information andPedagogical Approaches evaluating the objectivity of information. They are thus better able to draw meaningful conclusions which are supported by evidence. Rather than examining an issue from any one perspective, the learners are challenged to explore other possibilities by applying higher order thinking skills in their decision-making endeavours. To develop the 21st century skills of critical and creative thinking, the use of the inquiry approach in teaching is a must. With inquiry method, teaching departs from simply memorizing fact laden instructional materials (Bruner, 1961). In Inquiry learning, progress is assessed by how well learners develop experimental and analytical skills rather than how much knowledge they possess. The teacher’s role is to plan and facilitate the exploration of the ideas and skills required in the curriculum.The pedagogical approaches are integrative, constructivist,inquiry-based, reflective and collaborative. Reflective. Reflective teaching means making the learners look at what they do in the classroom, think about why they do it, and thinkConstructivist. Teaching of all the subjects is anchored on the about if it works. Reflective teaching encourages learners to engagebelief that the learner is not an empty receptacle who is mere in a process of self-observation and self-evaluation. By collectingrecipient of instruction. Rather, the learner is an active constructor information about what goes on in their classroom, and byof knowledge and a maker of meaning. analyzing and evaluating this information, they identify and explore their own practices and underlying beliefs. This may then lead toThe role of the teacher becomes one of a facilitator, a “guide on the changes and improvements in their learning.side” rather than a dispenser of information, the “sage on stage”.The student becomes the active “meaning-maker” not the teacher Collaborative. Learning is a social activity and so must beimposing meaning. This means that learners construct their own collaborative. Learning is intimately associated with connection withknowledge and understanding of what is taught out of their other human beings- classmates, teachers, peers, family as well asexperiences. community. The teaching-learning process is a rich opportunity to teach what it means to “live together”, the fourth pillar of learning.Inquiry-based. The curriculum ensures that the learners have the The teaching-learning process should be interactive and mustopportunity to examine concepts, issues and information in various promote teamwork.ways and from various perspectives. It provides them opportunitiesto develop skills of creative and critical thinking, informed decision- Integrative. Subject matter is taught using interdisciplinary andmaking, and hypothesis building and problem-solving. The learners multidisciplinary approaches. Science is taught in relation to Mathare encouraged to become active investigators by identifying aWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 19
  • 23. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMand vice versa. The content in Science, Health, Art, and Physical Self-assessment (assessment as learning) develops in the learnerEducation may become a reading material in English or the content personal responsibility for learning. It begins as he/she becomesin Araling Panlipunan and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao serves as aware of the goals of instruction and the criteria for performance.reading material in Filipino. What is taught in Science is reinforced He /she sets his/her personal learning goals based on standardsby the lessons in Health. With the thematic approach, within each set, monitors his/her progress by regularly undertaking informal andsubject itself, the connectedness of topics taught is shown. Co- formal self-assessment and by actively reflecting on his/hercurricular activities and community involvement complement progress (metacognition)in relation to his/her personal goals. Theteaching-learning in the classroom. They are real life opportunities self- assessment process gives the learners an opportunity tofor contextualized and integrative learning. assess themselves, reflect on results , why they did well or why they did not do well and learn from their experiences.Learning is contextual. Learning cannot be divorced from their lives.Learners do not learn from isolated facts and theories separate In formative assessment, the teacher and learner use assessmentfrom the rest of their lives. primarily to improve learning and teaching. Assessment for learning is about assessing progress, analyzing and giving feedback on theEvery end of the quarter is an opportunity to integrate learning by outcomes of assessment positively and constructively. It is given atway of a culminating activity. the beginning of teaching (diagnostic) or in the process of teaching (formative) to guide instruction and teacher decision-making. Before teachers introduce a new lesson teachers pre-assess the entryAssessment knowledge and skills of the learners by way of a pre-test. If the learners do not possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills,The K to 12 curriculum has a balanced assessment program. teacher adjusts instruction.Assessment in the K to 12 curriculum is, in the words of Cronbach,comprehensive and involves multifaceted analysis of performance Formative assessment is an on-going assessment which includes,that uses a variety of techniques which has primary reliance on review and observation in a classroom to check if learners areobservations of performance and integration of diverse information. learning. The results of formative assessment are recorded forIt makes appropriate use of both traditional and authentic tracking learners’ progress, not for grading purposes.assessment tools. It practices self-assessment (assessment aslearning), formative assessment (assessment for learning) and In the K to 12 curriculum, the assessment process involves the usesummative assessment (assessment of learning.) of a wide array of traditional and authentic assessment tools and techniques for a valid, reliable and realistic assessment of learning. Traditional and authentic assessments complement each other. They are not mutually exclusive. Assessment is based on multiple information sources (e.g. pre- tests, written tests, portfolios, and works in progress, teacherWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 20
  • 24. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMobservation, and conversation). Verbal or written feedback to the Except for assessment at the end of Grade 3, all assessmentslearner is primarily descriptive. Feedback emphasizes strengths, apply to the alternative learning system.identifies challenges, and points to next steps. There are other assessments given to learners. These are theA balanced assessment for the K to 12 curriculum also means Occupational Interest Inventory for Secondary Students given inputting emphasis on assessing understanding and skills Grade seven and the National Career Assessment Examinationdevelopment rather than on accumulation of content. This is one of given in Grade 8.the recommendations of the research conducted by the Universityof Melbourne. Structure of the CurriculumTeacher also checks learning at the end of a unit or term todetermine how much has been learned. This is referred to as K to 12 Curriculum includes Kindergarten, six years of elementaryassessment of learning (summative assessment). It is designed to and six years of high school which is divided into stages: four yearsmeasure the learner achievement at the end of a unit or term to of junior high school and two years of senior high school. It followsgauge what he/she has learned in comparison with established the K-6-4-2 model. (See Figure 7).standards. The assessment results are the bases of grades ormarks which are communicated to learners and parents.National assessment, a form of summative assessment, will beconducted in four key stages, namely: 1. end of Grade3, key stage 1; 2. end of Grade 6, key stage 2; 3. end of Grade 10, key stage 3; and 4. End of Grade 12, key stage 4.In addition to the usual assessment conducted at the end of eachlevel of schooling – elementary, junior high school and senior highschool – summative assessment in the national level is conductedat the end of Grade 3, to determine the impact of the use of MotherTongue as medium of instruction. The assessment in Grade 12 isconceived to accomplish several purposes, to assess achievementof the K to 12 standards and to serve the purposes of a collegeentrance examination. Figure 9. Structure of the K to 12 Curriculum.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 21
  • 25. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMKindergarten Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, 7) Music, Art, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) and 8) Edukasyong Pantahanan atUniversal Kindergarten caters to children aged 5. With the passage Pangkabuhayan. Not all subjects are taught beginning Grade 1.of R.A. 10157, otherwise known as the Kindergarten Education Act, Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan is taught beginningan act institutionalizing pre-school education, Kindergarten ismandatory by SY 2012-2013. Grade 4. Science is offered only starting Grade 3, however, science concepts and processes are integrated in the teaching ofRecognizing the central role of play in young children’s learning and Languages, Physical Education and Health, Edukasyon sadevelopment, Kindergarten teachers use spontaneous play as a Pagpapakatao, and Araling Panlipunan. The skills and steps of thenatural way of teaching - learning in all domains of development: investigatory process which are deliberately taught in Grade 7physical, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive. There are no Science are also taught in Araling Panlipunan when the learnersformal subjects in Kindergarten. Instead, there are six domains, are asked for example to determine the authenticity of primary andnamely: 1) values education, 2) physical health and motordevelopment, 3) social and emotional development, 4) cognitive secondary sources. Science content such as the human body anddevelopment, 5) creative arts and 6) language literacy and its development is also discussed in Health, Physical Education andcommunication. The teaching of Kindergarten employs the Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. Science topics like climate change,integrative approach to ensure that no learning domain is taught in environmental sustainability are favorite topics for writing andisolation. Teaching–learning activities are play-based considering discussion in the Language classes. All these and more prove thatthe developmental stage of Kindergarteners. science is all over the curriculum even before it is taught formally as a separate subject in Grade 3.Elementary Education Mother Tongue as a subject is taught from Grades 1 to 3. OralElementary education is compulsory and free. It provides basic Filipino and oral English are introduced in Grade 1, in the firsteducation to pupils aged six to eleven and it consists of six years of semester and in the second semester, respectively.study. Elementary education includes Grades 1 to 6. Aftercompleting the six-year elementary program, learners receive acertificate of graduation.The elementary curriculum provides various learning experiencesthat will enable learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills, values,attitudes, and habits essential for lifelong learning.The core compulsory subjects in the elementary are 1) English, 2)Filipino, 3) Mathematics, 4) Science, 5) Araling Panlipunan, 6)Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 22
  • 26. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMSecondary Education yet obtain a Certificate of Competency (COC). The exploratory courses are a prelude to the earning of a COC in Grade 9 and a NCSecondary education is free but not compulsory. It is meant to build I/II in Grade 10.on the foundation knowledge, skills and attitudes developed inthe elementary level and to discover and “enhance the aptitudes In Grade 9, the learner chooses one course to specialize in fromand interests of the student as to equip him with skills for productive among the exploratory courses that he/she was oriented to inendeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling.”18 With the K to Grades 7 and 8. In this level, the learner obtains a Certificate of12 curriculum, it consists of 4years of junior high school, Grades 7 Competency. In Grade 10 he/she pursues the TLE specializationto 10, and 2 years of senior high school, Grades 11 to 12. (Refer to course that he/she has chosen in Grade 9 for him/her to obtain atFigure 9). least a National Certificate Level I or Level II (NC-I/NC-II) depending on the TLE course chosen.In junior high school, the learner takes 8 core compulsory subjectsas follows: 1) English, 2) Filipino, 3) Mathematics, 4) Science, 5) Senior high school, the apex of secondary education, consists ofAraling Panlipunan, 6) Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, 7) Music, Art, Grades 11 and 12. In this level, the learner goes through aPhysical Education and Health (MAPEH), and 8) Technology and proposed core of not more than 7 compulsory subjects and aLivelihood Education (TLE). The TLE subjects that are offered are required specialization for the learner’s career pathway chosen frombased on the Training Regulations from Technical Education and among 1) entrepreneurship, 2) tech-voc, and 3) academics.Skills Development Authority to enable the learner to obtain the Specialization in academics includes course offerings in 1) science,National Certificate required by industry. 2) math 3) languages, foreign and Philippine languages, 4) journalism, 5) sports and the 6) arts.The TLE subjects in Grades 7 and 8 are exploratory. This meansthat the Grade 7 and 8 learner is given the opportunity to explore The proposed core compulsory subjects for Grade 11 are: 1)from a maximum of 4 TLE mini courses in Grade 7 and another 4 in English, 2) Filipino, 3) Math, 4) Philosophy, 5) Life Sciences, and 6)Grade 8 which the school offers depending on community needs Contemporary Local Issues. For Grade 12, the proposed coreand school resources. In the exploratory courses, the learner is compulsory subjects are: 1) English, 2) Filipino, 3) Philippinetaught 5 basic competencies common to all TLE courses. The basic Literature, 1st semester, 4) World Literature, 2nd semester, 5) Math,competencies are 1) mensuration and calculation, 2) use of tools 6) Physical Sciences, and 7) Contemporary Global Issues.and equipment, 3) interpretation of plans/drawing, 4) occupationalhealth and safety in the workplace, and 5) maintenance of tools and The subjects in senior high school are mostly the general educationequipment. (See Table 5). In Grades 7 and 8, the learner does not subjects in the first two years of college brought down to the basic education level. The specialization courses equip the senior high18 school learner with knowledge and skills in the career path of Education Act of 1982, Sec. 22Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 23
  • 27. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMhis/her choice. Those who choose to go to college will take any Figure 10). It shall be delivered through graded and non-gradedspecialization in academics. Those who opt to go for tech-voc modules, print or non-print which will also be made available on-specialization will pursue the TLE specialization began in Grade 9. line. An accreditation and equivalency test for both academic and technical skills is an important component of the program.If the learner chooses tech-voc as a specialization in Grades 11 and12, he/she continues the TLE specialization that he/she started inGrade 9 and pursued in Grade 10. This enables him/her to acquireNC-II. The vertical and horizontal transfers in Grades 11 and 12presented in Table 5 refer to the advancement in the level ofcertification either upward like a ladder (vertical) or sideward like abridge. An example of a vertical ladder is obtaining NC-II forBuilding Wiring Electricity after getting NC-I for Building WiringElectricity. Horizontal transfer means going into different fields oftraining at the same qualification level. An example is BuildingWiring Electricity NC-II to Carpentry NC-II.Alternative Learning SystemFor an integrated system of basic education, the K to 12 curriculumstructure includes an alternative learning system which is a parallel Figure 10. K to 12 Curriculum in both Formallearning or delivery system to provide a viable alternative to the Education and Alternative Learning Systemsexisting formal education instruction. It caters to specific learnerneeds and requirements, because apart from dropouts who aremostly from poor households, there are special groups not reachedby the formal education system: the indigenous peoples, Muslimcommunities, victims of armed conflict, child and youth laborers,differently-abled, inmates, homeless and street children, singleparents, etc.For ALS to be truly parallel with the formal system and for ALSgraduates not to be marginalized, it focuses on the teaching of thesame standards and competencies of the formal system. (SeeWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 24
  • 28. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM  For 24 TLE courses, refer to Table 5Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation Figure 11. Core Learning Areas/Domains from K to 12DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 25
  • 29. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY|Table 5.March 2012 Competencies As of 12 Common in the Grade 7 and 8 TLE Exploratory Courses and Specialization in Grade 11 and 12 26
  • 30. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulation Table 6. Proposed Subjects for Grades 11 and 12DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 27
  • 31. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Table 7. The Components of the K to 12 Curriculum at a Glance 28
  • 32. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMGLOSSARYOF TERMS 8. Demonstrate understanding – This is shown in the learners’ ability to do the following:1. Certificate of Competency – a document issued TESDA to individuals who were assessed as competent in a single unit or cluster a) Explain – provide thorough and justifiable accounts of of related units of competency phenomena, facts, and data. b) Interpret – tell meaningful stories, offer apt translations,2. Competence – This is a combination of knowledge, skills and provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas values and attitudes (KSVAs) which are used to achieve and events; make subjects personal or accessible through outcomes in real life scenarios. images, anecdotes, analogies, and models. c) Apply – effectively use and adapt what they know in diverse3. Competency – This refers to a specific task performed with contexts. mastery. It allows the identification of difficulty levels. It also d) Have perspective – see and hear points of view through refers to the ability to perform activities within an occupation or critical eyes and ears; see the big picture. function to the standards expected by drawing from one’s e) Empathize- find value in what others might find odd, alien, or knowledge, skills and attitudes. implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior indirect experience.4. Content – This is the scope and sequence of topics and skills f) Have self-knowledge – perceive the personal style, covered in each strand/domain/theme/component. prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; they are aware of what5. Content Standards – Statements of what the learner should be they do not understand and why understanding is so hard. able to know and be able to do. 9. Effective communication skills – It is the ability to: 1)6. Core Content – This refers to the focus of teaching-learning articulate one’s thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, process in the learning areas. For K to 12 curriculum , these written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms are communication and literacies, critical thinking and problem and contexts; 2) listen effectively to decipher meaning, solving ,ethical, moral and spiritual values, creativity and including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions; 3) use innovation, life and career competencies, development of self communication for a range of purposes (e.g. to inform, instruct, and sense of community, national and global orientedness. motivate and persuade); and 4) communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multi-lingual).7. Core Learning Area Standard – This is a broad statement that shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner 10. Flexibility and adaptability – It is the ability to adapt to is able to demonstrate after learning a particular learning area change, varied roles, jobs, responsibilities, schedules and across K to 12 in relation to the desired outcomes and overall context and to understand, negotiate and balance diverse goal. views and beliefs to reach workable solutions, particularly in multi-cultural environments.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 29
  • 33. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of11. Global Competence – This means having an open mind while information actually seeking to understand cultural norms and expectations of others, leveraging this gained knowledge to interact, 16. Initiative and self-direction – It is the ability to manage goals communicate and work effectively outside one’s environment and time, work independently and to direct oneself for learning. (Hunter, 2004). 17. Key stage – This refers to stages in the curriculum where12. Globally Competent Learner – He/she is one who is able to assessment of learning is critical. These are key stage 1, end understand the interconnectedness of peoples and systems to of Grade 3; key stage 2, end of Grade 6; key stage 3, end of have a general knowledge of history and world events, to Grade 10; and key stage 4, end of Grade 12. accept and cope with the existence of different cultural values and attitudes and, indeed, to celebrate the richness and 18. Key Stage Standard – This is a statement that shows the benefits of this diversity (American Council on International degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to Education). demonstrate in each key stage after learning a particular learning area in relation to the core learning area standard. The13. Grade Level Standard – This is a statement that shows the key stages are K-3, 4-6, 7-10 and 11-12. degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate after learning a particular learning area in each 19. Leadership and responsibility – It refers to the ability to: 1) Grade level based on the key stage standard. The key stages Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to influence and are K-3, 4-6, 7-10 and 11-12. guide others toward a goal; 2) leverage strengths of others to accomplish a common goal, 3) inspire others to reach their14. Holistically developed Filipino – He/she is one who very best via example and selflessness; 4) demonstrate possesses a healthy mind and body, has solid moral and integrity and ethical behavior in using influence and power, and spiritual grounding, has essential knowledge, skills, values and 5) act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in attitudes to continuously develop himself/herself to the fullest, mind. engages in critical thinking and creative problem solving, contributes to the development of a progressive, just, and 20. Learning and Innovation Skills – It is adequately mastering humane society, is proud to be a Filipino and who appreciates basic competencies and using these basic competencies cares for humanity, the world and the environment. creatively for lifelong learning. It is acting on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the local and global15. Information Literacy – Accessing information efficiently and community. effectively, evaluating information critically and competently, using information accurately and creatively for the issue or 21. Life and career skills – These refer to the following abilities: problem at hand; managing the flow of information from a wide 1) flexibility and adaptability, 2) initiative and self- direction, 3) variety of sources, and applying a fundamental understandingWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 30
  • 34. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM social and cross-cultural skills, 4) productivity and evaluation and analysis of work practices and the accountability, and 5) leadership and responsibility. development of new criteria and procedures.1922. Media Literacy – It is the ability to sift through and analyze the 25. Performance Standards – Statements of what the learner is messages that inform, entertain and sell to learners every day. going to do with what he/she has learned in terms of It is the ability to question what lies behind media productions — knowledge and skills. They are statements of the degree or the motives, the money, the values and the ownership — and to quality of proficiency with which the learner is able to be aware of how these factors influence message content. demonstrate his/her mastery of knowledge and skills and internalization of values and attitudes in relation to content standards.23. National Certificate – It is a certification issued to individuals who achieved all the required units of competency for a national 26. Productivity and accountability – It is the ability to manage qualification as defined under the Training Regulations. time and projects effectively, produce quality results and be accountable for results.24. National Certificate Level – It refers to the four (4) qualification levels defined in the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework 27. Skill – It is the coordinated performance of related tasks with a where the worker is: certain degree of facility. a. NC-I performs a routine and predictable tasks; has little 28. Social and cross-cultural skills – These refer to skills judgment; and, works under supervision; needed to interact effectively with others and work effectively in diverse teams. b. NC-II performs prescribe range of functions involving known routines and procedures; has limited choice and complexity 29. Spiral Curriculum – Big ideas, important tasks and ever of functions, and has little accountability; deepening inquiry must recur in ever increasing complexity through engaging problems and applications; “form follows c. NC-III performs a wide range of skills; works with some function”; If the goal (function of curriculum) is increased complexity and choice; contributes to problem solving and understanding, then a more spiral-like logic (form) may be work processes; and, shows responsibility for self and others; necessary. and 30. Standard – In its broadest sense, it is something against which d. NC-IV performs a wide range of applications; have other things can be compared for the purpose of determining responsibilities that are complex and non-routine; provides accuracy, estimating quantity or judging quality. It is a broadly some leadership and guidance of others; and, performs stated expectation of what one should know and be able to do. 19 TESDA Circular No.23, s. 2008 – Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 31
  • 35. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM31. Technological literacy – It is the ability to use computers and other technology to improve learning, productivity and performance.32. 21st Century Skills – These are the special abilities that learners need to develop so that they can be prepared for the challenges of work and life in the 21st century.Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 32
  • 36. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM International Engineering Alliance. The Washington Accord.VI. REFERENCES http://www.washingtonaccord.org/Washington-Accord/FAQ.cfm (Accessed 11 September 2010Batomalaque, Antonio. Basic Science Development Program of thePhilippines for International Cooperation. University of San Carlos.;Marinas, Bella and Ditapat, Maria. Philippines: Curriculum andDevelopment. UNESCO International Bureau of EducationBoard of National Education, General Policies on Education, 1967-1972, 1951-1961 & 1958-1960Care, Esther Care and Ethel Valenzuela, Analysis of BasicEducation of thePhilippines:Implications for the K to 12 EducationProgram, Jan. 2012.de Jesus, Edilberto. Philippine Daily Inquirer, January 8, 2010.Education Act of 1982Mullis, I.V., M.O. Martin, D.F. Robitaille, & P. Foy, (2009). ChestnutHill, MA. Trends in International Mathematics and ScienceAdvanced 2008.National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights from the Trendsin International Mathematics and Science Study 2003.December2004UNESCO’s Report of the International Commission on Educationfor the 21st century.1987 Philippine Constitutionhttp://www.deped.gov.phWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 33
  • 37. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMVII. COMMITTEES ON K TO 12 CURRICULUM Ms. Zenaida Lao Mr. Redentor Quilala Parent Teacher Association RepresentativeSteering Committee Members Ms. Tiffany Uy Student Government Name Institution RepresentativeChairperson Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Department of Education Dr. Lauro B. Tacbas PASUCCo-Chairs Dr. Patricia Licuanan Commission on Higher Dr. Jimmy Soria Sec. Joel Villanueva Education Dr. Chito Salazar Philippine Business for Technical Skills and (sometimes represented Education Development Authority by Mr. Wadel Cabrera)Members Senator Edgardo Angara Senate Dr. Jose Campos COCOPEA (represented by Dr. Dan Advisers Dr. Isagani Cruz Academe (Private) Rola and/or Dr. Chat Dr. Ester Ogena Academe (Public) Sebastian) Rep. Mariano Piamonte Partylist Representative Congressman Salvador House of Representatives Mr. Edicio dela Torre E-Net Escudero (represented by Fr. Gregorio Bañaga, Jr. Academe (Private) Ms. Maria Josefina J. Technical USec.Yolanda Quijano DepED, TWG on Curriculum Roque-Ricafort) Working Group USec. Francisco Varela DepED, TWG on Research Dir. Erlinda M. Capones National Economic Chairpersons USec. Rizalino Rivera DepED, TWG on (sometimes represented Development Authority Communications by Ms. Rhona Caoli- USec. Albert Muyot DepED, TWG on Legislation Rodriguez) ASec. Tonisito Umali DepED, TWG on Transition Mr. Valencio R. delos Department of Labor and Management Reyes, Jr. Employment Dr. Lolit Andrada DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG USec. Alicia R. Bala Department of Social Welfare on 11 and 12, Transition (sometimes represented and Development Management sub-TWG on by Ms. Cynthia Diano SHS system readiness and/or Ms. Anely A. assessment Burgo) Dr. Socorro Pilor DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG Ms. France Castro ACTWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 34
  • 38. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM on instructional materials Technical Working Group on Transition Management Dr. Paraluman Giron Curriculum Sub-TWG on K to 10 Name Institution Dr. Nelia Benito DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG Chairperson ASec. Tonisito Umali DepED on Assessment Members Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Dr. Beatrice Torno DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA on teacher education Dr. Reynaldo Vea COCOPEA? Dr. Milagros Valles DepED, Transition Dr. Vincent Fabella JRU Management sub-TWG on Dr. Amelou Reyes PWU/ FAPE SHS modeling Dr. Carol Porio FAPE Dr. Arnie Azcarraga DLSU Engr. Alex Escano MFITechnical Working Group on Research USec.Francis Varela DepED, TWG on Research Name Institution USec. Rizalino Rivera DepED, TWG on CommunicationsChairperson USec. Francis Varela DepED ASec. Jess Mateo DepED, Planning OfficeMembers Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Dr. Brenda Corpuz Curriculum Consultant Dir. Erlinda M. Capones NEDA (represented by Ms. Rhona Dir. Lolit Andrada DepED, sub-TWG on SHS Caoli-Rodriguez) system readiness assessment Dr. Vincent Fabella JRU Dir. Milagros Valles DepED, sub-TWG on SHS Modeling Mr. Jess Mateo DepED, Planning Office K to 12 Magdalena Mendoza DAP Dr. Rosario Manasan Consultant Secretariat Dr. Aniceto Orbeta ConsultantK to 12 Magdalena Mendoza DAPSecretariatWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 35
  • 39. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMTechnical Working Group on Curriculum Technical Working Group on Communications Name InstitutionChairperson USec. Yolanda Quijano DepED Name InstitutionMembers Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Chairperson USec. Rizalino Rivera DepED Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA Members Dir. Tina Ganzon DepED Dr. Lolit Andrada DepED, sub-TWG on 11 and 12 Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Dr. Socorro Pilor DepED, sub-TWG on ASec. Jess Mateo DepED, Planning Office instructional materials Mr. Kenneth Tirado DepED Communications Dr. Paraluman Giron Sub-TWG on 1 to 10 Mr. Raul Limbo Dr. Nelia Benito DepED, sub-TWG on Mr. Wadel Cabrera Philippine Business for Education Assessment Ms. Dorris Ferrer CEAP Dr. Beatrice Torno DepED, sub-TWG on teacher ASec. Tonisito Umali TWG on Transition Management education K to 12 Magdalena Mendoza DAP Dr. Brenda Corpuz Curriculum Consultant Secretariat Dr. Dina Ocampo UP, Languages (English, Filipino, Mother Tongue) Convenor Dr. Maris Diokno UP, Araling Panlipunan Convenor Dr. Ian Garces AdMU, Math Convenor Dr. Merle Tan UP NISMED, Science Convenor Dr. Dennis Faustino St. Mary’s, Music and Art Convenor Dr. Larry Gabao PNU, Physical Education Convenor Dr. Evelina Vicencio UE, Health Convenor Dr. Fe Hidalgo UST, Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Convenors Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA, EPP-TLE ConvenorWorking Document| Not yet for citation or circulationDRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 36