chips: the engine
beneath your apps

marco@marcojacobs.nl
Phone 5
Nexus
•  Software
•  Electronics
•  Mechanics
21 January 2014

6
Fabs
21 January 2014

8
21 January 2014

ASML

9
Industry drivers
Moore’s law

“The number of transistors per chip
doubles approximately every 1.5 years”
Moore’s law

2013
4x 2.3GHz CPU
2GB RAM
16GB Storage

1996
16x 200MHz CPUs
2GB RAM
2GB Storage
The semiconductor value chain
Processor'IP'

license fee+
royalties
(e.g. 1% ASP)
IP yellow pages:
www.design-reuse.com

C...
Why phone drives the CE industry - volume

1.8B
per
year

every
5 mins
truck

9x
around
earth

everyone wants to different...
Why phone drives the CE industry - loans

Banks:

Loan-based sales caused huge influx of $$$
Mobile phone drives the CE industry

mobile phone architecture and ecosystem has
become extremely complex, innovative and ...
Which one is more powerful?

€99

$5,349.00
Let’s go inside
iPhone 5s

Teardowns:
www.ifixit.com
www.techinsights.com
www.chipworks.com
Wired
Wireless

Audio IO

Touch
apps
processor

Memory
IMU
Display / Camera
Three kinds of chips

Where
your
software
runs
How it
interacts
with real
world

•  Digital
"   Logic
"   SRAM (fastest me...
Wired
Wireless

Audio IO

Touch
Apps
processor

Memory
IMU
Display / Camera

All digital chips get “sucked into the apps p...
Wired
Wireless

Audio IO

Touch
Apps
processor

Memory
IMU
Display / Camera
Wired
Wireless

Audio IO

Touch
Apps
processor

Memory
IMU
Display / Camera

Intel at this moment plays no big role in mob...
Apple’s A7

Total: 102mm2
Dual CPU: 17mm2
3.6Mgates each
Page 291, http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/swpu249y/swpu249y.pdf

Texas Instruments OMAP5
Dual'
core'
A15'+'
NEON'

audio'

boLlen...
Software design

instruction set
register files
/* Hello World */
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
printf("Hello
World");
}

sou...
Hardware design (for logic)
module up_counter
(
out
,
enable ,
counter ,
clk
,
reset
);
output [7:0] out;
input enable, cl...
Processors and logic: horses for courses

CPU'
Big'
>1Mgate,'2GHz+'
Small''
10kgate,100MHz'
generic processing
(OS, web br...
Moore’s law: 2x transistors every 18 months
! side effects
•  Heterogeneous architectures
"   Different processors each wi...
Future
Exciting things: depth cameras

Sees depth and can measure volume
Examples: cooking, weighing yourself
Exciting things: gestures interfaces

Think “Iron
Man’s user
interface”,
without the
holographic
display

Gestures go from...
Exciting things: minidrones

Companion to your phone
Examples: navigation, wedding pictures
Thank you!
marco@marcojacobs.nl
@marcocjacobs
Appsterdam talk - about the chips inside your phone
Appsterdam talk - about the chips inside your phone
Appsterdam talk - about the chips inside your phone
Appsterdam talk - about the chips inside your phone
Appsterdam talk - about the chips inside your phone
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Appsterdam talk - about the chips inside your phone

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In this talk we'll focus on the hardware inside the phone: the chips that enable the mobile user experience. I'll give an overview of the semiconductor industry, show typical phone chip architectures, their trends and how they influence the mobile experience. Here and there during the presentation, we'll take a quick peek into the future of the mobile phone.

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Appsterdam talk - about the chips inside your phone

  1. 1. chips: the engine beneath your apps marco@marcojacobs.nl
  2. 2. Phone 5 Nexus •  Software •  Electronics •  Mechanics
  3. 3. 21 January 2014 6
  4. 4. Fabs
  5. 5. 21 January 2014 8
  6. 6. 21 January 2014 ASML 9
  7. 7. Industry drivers
  8. 8. Moore’s law “The number of transistors per chip doubles approximately every 1.5 years”
  9. 9. Moore’s law 2013 4x 2.3GHz CPU 2GB RAM 16GB Storage 1996 16x 200MHz CPUs 2GB RAM 2GB Storage
  10. 10. The semiconductor value chain Processor'IP' license fee+ royalties (e.g. 1% ASP) IP yellow pages: www.design-reuse.com Chips' Fabs' Systems' Apps' Consumers'
  11. 11. Why phone drives the CE industry - volume 1.8B per year every 5 mins truck 9x around earth everyone wants to differentiate ! innovation
  12. 12. Why phone drives the CE industry - loans Banks: Loan-based sales caused huge influx of $$$
  13. 13. Mobile phone drives the CE industry mobile phone architecture and ecosystem has become extremely complex, innovative and efficient ! it is displacing lots of ICs in other markets
  14. 14. Which one is more powerful? €99 $5,349.00
  15. 15. Let’s go inside
  16. 16. iPhone 5s Teardowns: www.ifixit.com www.techinsights.com www.chipworks.com
  17. 17. Wired Wireless Audio IO Touch apps processor Memory IMU Display / Camera
  18. 18. Three kinds of chips Where your software runs How it interacts with real world •  Digital "   Logic "   SRAM (fastest memory, expensive) •  Memory "   DRAM (cheap, fast, but loses data without power) "   Flash (cheap, slower, doesn’t loose data without power) •  Analog / Mixed Signal "   Radio waves + "   Sensors, audio, etc. Typically built in different factories
  19. 19. Wired Wireless Audio IO Touch Apps processor Memory IMU Display / Camera All digital chips get “sucked into the apps processor”
  20. 20. Wired Wireless Audio IO Touch Apps processor Memory IMU Display / Camera
  21. 21. Wired Wireless Audio IO Touch Apps processor Memory IMU Display / Camera Intel at this moment plays no big role in mobile
  22. 22. Apple’s A7 Total: 102mm2 Dual CPU: 17mm2 3.6Mgates each
  23. 23. Page 291, http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/swpu249y/swpu249y.pdf Texas Instruments OMAP5 Dual' core' A15'+' NEON' audio' boLleneck' DRAM' DSP' HD' video'+' ARM9' Face'detect' Display' Imaging'' (+2'ARMs)' Imaging' 2D' GPU' USB' Flash'
  24. 24. Software design instruction set register files /* Hello World */ #include<stdio.h> main() { printf("Hello World"); } source code compiler executable
  25. 25. Hardware design (for logic) module up_counter ( out , enable , counter , clk , reset ); output [7:0] out; input enable, clk, reset; reg [7:0] out; std cell library + memories always @(posedge clk) if (reset) begin out <= 8'b0 ; end else if (enable) begin out <= out + 1; end endmodule + MHz target synthesis source code GDS II place & route Quite similar to software design
  26. 26. Processors and logic: horses for courses CPU' Big' >1Mgate,'2GHz+' Small'' 10kgate,100MHz' generic processing (OS, web browser, database, etc) GPU' DSP' 2D / 3D UI / Gaming comms' became generic and so powerful, use it for generic compute audio' video' voice' hardwired' CPUs' 10S100kgate, 100S500MHz' modems camera, audio display, video apps programmers only exposed through APIs
  27. 27. Moore’s law: 2x transistors every 18 months ! side effects •  Heterogeneous architectures "   Different processors each with their own specialization "   Exposed with APIs (e.g. OpenCL, Renderscript, app specific, etc) •  ARM’s big.LITTLE "   Automatic code migration between multiple processors with same instruction set, different power envelopes "   Like a hybrid car: two engines, one optimized for maximum horsepower, one optimized for power efficiency "   Programmer doesn’t notice •  Dark Silicon "   Transistors up 2x, power only goes down by √2 "   Silicon real-estate is cheap, but power becomes issue "   Not everything can be on at the same time ! dark silicon
  28. 28. Future
  29. 29. Exciting things: depth cameras Sees depth and can measure volume Examples: cooking, weighing yourself
  30. 30. Exciting things: gestures interfaces Think “Iron Man’s user interface”, without the holographic display Gestures go from 2D (touch) to 3D Examples: angry birds, layered keyboard
  31. 31. Exciting things: minidrones Companion to your phone Examples: navigation, wedding pictures
  32. 32. Thank you! marco@marcojacobs.nl @marcocjacobs

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