Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
UNEP DTIE OzonActionPhasing out HCFCs:Challenges andopportunities     Dr Ezra Clark     United Nations Environment Program...
Outline   Montreal Protocol - the link with climate   UNEP Activities   Opportunities and challenges   Sharing technol...
The Montreal Protocol• A total of now 197 governments are party to thismultilateral environmental agreement (UniversalRati...
Ozone and Climate benefits                                                Velders et al., PNAS, 20072008 CAP Advisory Grou...
Explicit Link with Climate:    Montreal Adjustment of 2007Acceleration of HCFC phase out deadlines…   Promote the selecti...
UNEP DTIE OzonAction Branch• Mission  • Assist developing countries & countries with    economies in transition (CEITs) to...
Regional Ozone Networks2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
The HCFC phase out (Agreed in 2007)‫‏‬Developing countries (production and consumption):• Freeze at 2009-2010 level      b...
Multilateral Fund and HPMPsHPMP - HCFC Phase out Management PlansFor all developing countries – Funded by theMultilateral ...
Multilateral Fund and HPMPs      Components…• A country-specific overarching strategy for the phase-out of HCFCs by 2030 a...
HCFC phase-out challenges• Technology selection• Fulfilling MOP Decision XIX/6• Funding for climate elements• Not replacin...
Technical Options in RAC• Several low and medium GWP alternatives considered as replacements  for HCFC-22.    o Lower GWP ...
Technical Options in RAC• In two stage systems centralised systems for supermarkets in Europe, R-744  (CO2) is used at the...
An unprecedented opportunity toadopt ozone and climate friendlytechnologies and policies?     The dual gains for the ozone...
HFC amendment proposal• In 2009, the Federated States of Micronesia andMauritius (plus others) submitted a proposal toamen...
HFCs: A Critical Link in    Protecting Climate and    the Ozone Layer      • The climate benefits of the Montreal       Pr...
Barriers to       adoption of low       GWP alternatives“The technical options areuniversal, but local laws,regulations, s...
Resources:AssistanceAssistance through UNEP’s Compliance assistanceprogrammeInformation toolsFor technicians and servicing...
We invite you to provide:         • Policy and technical case studies where non-           ODP and low to zero GWP alterna...
Thank you                         ozonaction@unep.org                          ezra.clark@unep.org                     www...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

UNEP E.CLARK - 15° Convegno Europeo

823

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
823
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "UNEP E.CLARK - 15° Convegno Europeo"

  1. 1. UNEP DTIE OzonActionPhasing out HCFCs:Challenges andopportunities Dr Ezra Clark United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry & Economics OzonAction Programme Paris, France ozonaction@unep.org2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008 OzonAction Programme UNEP DTIE
  2. 2. Outline Montreal Protocol - the link with climate UNEP Activities Opportunities and challenges Sharing technology and policy information 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008 OzonAction Programme UNEP DTIE
  3. 3. The Montreal Protocol• A total of now 197 governments are party to thismultilateral environmental agreement (UniversalRatification).• Specific, time-targeted actions to reduce andeliminate the production and consumption of ozonedepleting substances.• Multilateral Fund for implementation of theMontreal Protocol provides the resources 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008 OzonAction Programme UNEP DTIE
  4. 4. Ozone and Climate benefits Velders et al., PNAS, 20072008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  5. 5. Explicit Link with Climate: Montreal Adjustment of 2007Acceleration of HCFC phase out deadlines… Promote the selection of alternatives to HCFCs that minimize environmental impacts, in particular impacts on climate, Give priority to cost-effective projects and programmes which would also focus on substitutes and alternatives that minimize other impacts on the environment, including on the climate, taking into account global-warming potential, energy use and other relevant factors. MOP Decision XIX/6 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  6. 6. UNEP DTIE OzonAction Branch• Mission • Assist developing countries & countries with economies in transition (CEITs) to achieve & sustain compliance with the Montreal Protocol• Areas of work • Developing countries - Implementing Agency of the Protocol’s Multilateral Fund, through a Compliance Assistance Programme (CAP) • CEITs - Implementing Agency of the Global Environment Facility • Specific partnerships with bilateral agencies 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  7. 7. Regional Ozone Networks2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  8. 8. The HCFC phase out (Agreed in 2007)‫‏‬Developing countries (production and consumption):• Freeze at 2009-2010 level by 2013• Phase-out 10% by 2015• 35 percent by 2020• 67.5 percent by 2025• 100 percent by 2030• with 2.5 percent allowed, if necessary, for servicing existingequipment until 2040.Developed countries must completely eliminate HCFCproduction and consumption by 2020 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008 OzonAction Programme UNEP DTIE
  9. 9. Multilateral Fund and HPMPsHPMP - HCFC Phase out Management PlansFor all developing countries – Funded by theMultilateral Fund –HPMPs comprise following components: •Policy and legislation actions, e.g. to develop new or extend existing legislation regarding HCFC, products containing HCFCs, quotas, and licences •Survey of HCFC use and analysis of data … 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  10. 10. Multilateral Fund and HPMPs Components…• A country-specific overarching strategy for the phase-out of HCFCs by 2030 and a detailed action plan  Legal and economic incentives  Training (e.g. technicians, enforcement)  Public awareness  Sector-specific activities• Where appropriate - Development of investmentactivities for the HCFC-consuming manufacturingsectors UNEP is implementing ~70 HPMPs 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  11. 11. HCFC phase-out challenges• Technology selection• Fulfilling MOP Decision XIX/6• Funding for climate elements• Not replacing with high GWP alternatives• High ambient temperature conditions• Room AC (e.g. HC)• End of life issues 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  12. 12. Technical Options in RAC• Several low and medium GWP alternatives considered as replacements for HCFC-22. o Lower GWP HFC refrigerants (HFC-32, HFC-152a, HFC-161, HFC- 1234yf and other unsaturated fluorochemicals, as well as blends of them), o HC-290 and R-744 (CO2).• In commercial refrigeration stand-alone equipment, hydrocarbons (HCs) and R-744 (CO2) are gaining market shares in Europe and in Japan; they are replacing HFC-134a, which is the dominant choice in most countries.• In many developed countries, R-404A and R-507A have been the main replacements for HCFC-22 in supermarkets, however, because of their high GWP, a number of other options are now being introduced. 2010 REPORT OF THE REFRIGERATION, AIR CONDITIONING AND HEAT PUMPS TECHNICAL OPTIONS COMMITTEE 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  13. 13. Technical Options in RAC• In two stage systems centralised systems for supermarkets in Europe, R-744 (CO2) is used at the low-temperature level and HFC-134a, R-744 and HCs at the medium temperature level.• In industrial refrigeration, R-717 (ammonia) and HCFC-22 are still the most common refrigerants; R-744 (CO2) is gaining in low-temperature, cascaded systems where it primarily replaces R-717 (ammonia), though the market volume is small.• In air-to-air air conditioning, HFC blends, primarily R-410A, but to a limited degree also R- 407C, are still the dominant near-term replacements for HCFC-22 in air-cooled systems.• HC- 290 is also being used to replace HCFC-22 in low charge split system, window and portable air conditioners in some countries. Most Article 5 countries are continuing to utilise HCFC-22 as the predominant refrigerant in air conditioning applications.• Up to now, car manufacturers and suppliers have evaluated several refrigerant options for new car (and truck) air conditioning systems including R-744, (CO2) HFC-152a and HFC-1234yf, all with GWPs below the EU threshold of 150 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  14. 14. An unprecedented opportunity toadopt ozone and climate friendlytechnologies and policies? The dual gains for the ozone layer and climate system will be realised only if countries choose the technology options which enable this and may not be the ‘business as usual’ option and which may require additional consideration by those making the decision2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008 OzonAction Programme UNEP DTIE
  15. 15. HFC amendment proposal• In 2009, the Federated States of Micronesia andMauritius (plus others) submitted a proposal toamend the Montreal Protocol to phase down theproduction and consumption of high-GWP HFCs.• Mexico, Canada and the US also submitted asimilar proposal to phase-down HFCs later thatyear.• Proposals have been submitted in subsequentyears.• At the 2011 Meeting of the Parties, 108 Partiessupported a declaration calling for low-GWPalternatives for HFCs.• The issue will be re-visited in 2012.2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  16. 16. HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer • The climate benefits of the Montreal Protocol may be offset by increases in HFCs • There are options available to minimize the climate influence of HFCs • To further analyze technical and regulatory barriers, and how to overcome them • Examine the ‘life-cycle’ impacts of various options to ensure that they do not have unacceptable side effects on society or the environmenthttp://www.unep.org/dewa/Portals/67/pdf/HFC_report.pdf 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  17. 17. Barriers to adoption of low GWP alternatives“The technical options areuniversal, but local laws,regulations, standards, economics,competitive situations and otherfactors influence regional and localchoices.” 2010 REPORT OF THE REFRIGERATION, AIR CONDITIONING AND HEAT PUMPS TECHNICAL OPTIONS COMMITTEE 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008
  18. 18. Resources:AssistanceAssistance through UNEP’s Compliance assistanceprogrammeInformation toolsFor technicians and servicing personnel, Customsand enforcementTrainingsFor technicians and servicing personnel, Customsand enforcementHCFC Help CentreAn information resource supporting the preparationof HCFC Phase out Management Plans 2008 CAP Advisory Group, Paris, 4-5 September 2008 OzonAction Programme UNEP DTIE
  19. 19. We invite you to provide: • Policy and technical case studies where non- ODP and low to zero GWP alternatives have been adopted • Developed and developing country experiences • Information/examples of barriers to adoption of technologieswww.unep.fr/ozonaction/topics/hcfc.asp UNEP DTIE OzonAction Programme
  20. 20. Thank you ozonaction@unep.org ezra.clark@unep.org www.unep.org/ozonactionwww.unep.fr/ozonaction/topics/hcfc.asp UNEP DTIE OzonAction Programme

×