Zero-ODP, Low GWPNon-FlammableWorking Fluids forHigh Temperature Heat PumpsJune 7th, 2013Kostas Kontomaris, Ph.D.DuPont Fluorochemicals R&DHFO-BasedIncreasing Energy pricesClimate ProtectionCSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE, MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013“Big energy savings have been achievedby seemingly minor technological changessuch as moving from gas boilersfor space heating to heat pumps.”Financial Times, June 4th, 2013
Heat Uplifting:Mechanical Compression Heat PumpsEvaporatorCondenserExpansionValveCompressor PowerLow Temp HeatT<100-120 oCWaste HeatGeothermal HeatSolar HeatHigh Temp HeatT: 80-160 oCReverseRankineCycleMay not be of adequate quality fordirect heating or mechanical power generation
Hydro-Fluoro-OlefinsCFCs HCFCs HFCs HFOsCFC-12 HFC-134a DR-14CFC-114 HFC-245fa DR-12CFC-11 HCFC-123 DR-2Less Chlorine No Chlorine Double BondConventional Wisdom:Unsaturated fluorocarbons arenot sufficiently stable to beused as refrigerants!Paradigm Shift:Unsaturated fluorocarbon refrigerantsdecompose rapidly in the atmospherebut can remain stable in a system!
DR-14, DR-12, DR-2 Components:Stable At Least Up to 250 oCEven After 2 Wks @ 250 oC:Clear Fluid, Clean CouponsNegligible formation of decomposition productsSealed tubetestingbased onASHRAE-ANSISTD 97IN SUMMARY(*):High Thermal StabilityAttractive Safety, Health and Environmental PropertiesRange of Favorable Thermodynamics vs Incumbents:Higher Critical Temperatures, Lower Vapor Pressures(*) Based on testing to date
Summary-ConclusionsHFOs: Rich class of zero-ODP, low GWPcompounds each with its own characteristics;pipeline of candidates tailor-made for variousapplications emergingNon-flammable, HFO-based, developmental fluidsDR-14, DR-12, and DR-2 could enable hightemperature heat pumps over wide ranges ofcondensing temperatures and volumetricheating capacities with attractive energyefficienciesDR-2: Could enable condensing temperatures upto 160oC
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