Zero-ODP, Low GWPNon-FlammableWorking Fluids forHigh Temperature Heat PumpsJune 7th, 2013Kostas Kontomaris, Ph.D.DuPont Fl...
Heat Uplifting:Mechanical Compression Heat PumpsEvaporatorCondenserExpansionValveCompressor  PowerLow Temp HeatT<100-120 ...
Hydro-Fluoro-OlefinsCFCs  HCFCs  HFCs  HFOsCFC-12 HFC-134a DR-14CFC-114 HFC-245fa DR-12CFC-11 HCFC-123 DR-2Less Chlorin...
Developmental Refrigerant: DR-14HFC-134a DR-14Chemical Formula CH2FCF3 AzeotropeFlam Class(ASHRAE Std 34)1 1(*)ODP None No...
Developmental Refrigerant: DR-12(*) ExpectedHFC-245fa DR-12Flam Class(ASHRAE Std 34)1 1(*)ALT [yrs] 7.6 0.24 (~90 Days)ODP...
Developmental Refrigerant: DR-2(*) ExpectedHFC-245fa DR-2Flam Class(ASHRAE Std 34)1 1(*)ALT [yrs] 7.6 0.0658 (24 days)ODP ...
DR-14, DR-12, DR-2 Components:Stable At Least Up to 250 oCEven After 2 Wks @ 250 oC:Clear Fluid, Clean CouponsNegligible f...
0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190VaporPressure,...
0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190VaporPressure,...
4.505.005.506.006.507.0050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180COPhCondenser Temperature, oCPredicted Heating P...
01,0002,0003,0004,0005,0006,0007,0008,0009,00050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180VolumetricHeatingCapacity,...
2.503.003.5050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180COPhCondenser Temperature, oCHFC-134aDR-14DR-12 HFC-245faDR-...
2.503.003.5050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180COPhCondenser Temperature, oCHFC-134aDR-14DR-12 HFC-245faDR-...
05001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,0004,50050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180VolumetricHeatingCapacitykJ/...
05001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,0004,50050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180VolumetricHeatingCapacitykJ/...
Summary-ConclusionsHFOs: Rich class of zero-ODP, low GWPcompounds each with its own characteristics;pipeline of candidates...
Thank you!Email:konstantinos.kontomaris@dupont.comDisclaimer: The information set forth herein is furnished free of charge...
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Konstantinos Kontomaris - DuPont Fluoroproducts - FLUIDI REFRIGERANTI A BASSO GWP PER POMPE DI CALORE PER ALTE TEMPERATURE

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  • End all curves at Tcr-10 oC
  • (*) HCFC-123 Chiller: CAPc~386.5 kJ/m3
  • Konstantinos Kontomaris - DuPont Fluoroproducts - FLUIDI REFRIGERANTI A BASSO GWP PER POMPE DI CALORE PER ALTE TEMPERATURE

    1. 1. Zero-ODP, Low GWPNon-FlammableWorking Fluids forHigh Temperature Heat PumpsJune 7th, 2013Kostas Kontomaris, Ph.D.DuPont Fluorochemicals R&DHFO-BasedIncreasing Energy pricesClimate ProtectionCSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE, MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013“Big energy savings have been achievedby seemingly minor technological changessuch as moving from gas boilersfor space heating to heat pumps.”Financial Times, June 4th, 2013
    2. 2. Heat Uplifting:Mechanical Compression Heat PumpsEvaporatorCondenserExpansionValveCompressor  PowerLow Temp HeatT<100-120 oCWaste HeatGeothermal HeatSolar HeatHigh Temp HeatT: 80-160 oCReverseRankineCycleMay not be of adequate quality fordirect heating or mechanical power generation
    3. 3. Hydro-Fluoro-OlefinsCFCs  HCFCs  HFCs  HFOsCFC-12 HFC-134a DR-14CFC-114 HFC-245fa DR-12CFC-11 HCFC-123 DR-2Less Chlorine No Chlorine Double BondConventional Wisdom:Unsaturated fluorocarbons arenot sufficiently stable to beused as refrigerants!Paradigm Shift:Unsaturated fluorocarbon refrigerantsdecompose rapidly in the atmospherebut can remain stable in a system!
    4. 4. Developmental Refrigerant: DR-14HFC-134a DR-14Chemical Formula CH2FCF3 AzeotropeFlam Class(ASHRAE Std 34)1 1(*)ODP None NoneGWP100 1,430 ~375Tcr [oC] 101.1 111.6Pcr [MPa] 4.06 3.96Tb [oC] -26.1 -20.5Glide [oC] N/A Negligible(*) Expected
    5. 5. Developmental Refrigerant: DR-12(*) ExpectedHFC-245fa DR-12Flam Class(ASHRAE Std 34)1 1(*)ALT [yrs] 7.6 0.24 (~90 Days)ODP none noneGWP1001,030 32Tb [oC] 15.1 <10Tcr [oC] 154 137.7Pcr [MPa] 3.65 ~3.0Very Low GWP AND Non-Flammable
    6. 6. Developmental Refrigerant: DR-2(*) ExpectedHFC-245fa DR-2Flam Class(ASHRAE Std 34)1 1(*)ALT [yrs] 7.6 0.0658 (24 days)ODP none NoneGWP1001,030 9Tb [oC] 15.1 33.4Tcr [oC] 154 171.3Pcr [MPa] 3.65 2.9Very Low GWP AND Non-Flammable
    7. 7. DR-14, DR-12, DR-2 Components:Stable At Least Up to 250 oCEven After 2 Wks @ 250 oC:Clear Fluid, Clean CouponsNegligible formation of decomposition productsSealed tubetestingbased onASHRAE-ANSISTD 97IN SUMMARY(*):High Thermal StabilityAttractive Safety, Health and Environmental PropertiesRange of Favorable Thermodynamics vs Incumbents:Higher Critical Temperatures, Lower Vapor Pressures(*) Based on testing to date
    8. 8. 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190VaporPressure,MPaTemperature, oCVapor PressureHFC-134a DR-14DR-12HFC-245faDR-2HFC-134a DR-14 DR-12 HFC-245fa DR-2Tcr, oC 101.1 111.6 137.7 154.0 171.3
    9. 9. 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190VaporPressure,MPaTemperature, oCHFC-134a DR-14DR-12HFC-245faDR-2Maximum Condensing TemperatureHFC-134a DR-14 DR-12 HFC-245fa DR-2T2.5, oC 77.5 87.8 125.4 133.5 162.8
    10. 10. 4.505.005.506.006.507.0050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180COPhCondenser Temperature, oCPredicted Heating Performance: COPhDTLIFT= 40 oCHFC-134aDR-14DR-12 HFC-245faDR-2DTsuperh, oC 11DTsubc, oC 5EFFcompr 0.8ATTRACTIVE COPhUNDER ALL FEASIBLE CONDITIONSDR-2: Highest COPh
    11. 11. 01,0002,0003,0004,0005,0006,0007,0008,0009,00050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180VolumetricHeatingCapacity,kJ/m3Condenser Temperature, oCHFC-134aDR-14DR-12HFC-245faDR-2DTsuperh, oC 11DTsubc, oC 5EFFcompr 0.8Predicted Heating Performance: CAPh(*)DTLIFT= 40 oCDR-14: Highest CAPh Among Low GWP Fluids)
    12. 12. 2.503.003.5050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180COPhCondenser Temperature, oCHFC-134aDR-14DR-12 HFC-245faDR-2DTsuperh, oC 20DTsubc, oC 5EFFcompr 0.8Predicted Heating Performance: COPhDTLIFT= 70 oCCOPh: Decreases with Increasing Lift But …
    13. 13. 2.503.003.5050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180COPhCondenser Temperature, oCHFC-134aDR-14DR-12 HFC-245faDR-2DTsuperh, oC 20DTsubc, oC 5EFFcompr 0.8Predicted Heating Performance: COPhDTLIFT= 70 oCCOPh: Still Attractive Under Broad Conditions
    14. 14. 05001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,0004,50050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180VolumetricHeatingCapacitykJ/m3Condenser Temperature, oCDTsuperh, oC 20DTsubc, oC 5EFFcompr 0.8HFC-134aDR-14DR-12HFC-245faDR-2Predicted Heating Performance: CAPhDTLIFT= 70 oCCAPh: Decreasing with Increasing Lift But …
    15. 15. 05001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,0004,50050 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180VolumetricHeatingCapacitykJ/m3Condenser Temperature, oCDTsuperh, oC 20DTsubc, oC 5EFFcompr 0.8HFC-134aDR-14DR-12HFC-245faDR-2Predicted Heating Performance: CAPhDTLIFT= 70 oCCAPh: Still Practical Under Broad Conditions…
    16. 16. Summary-ConclusionsHFOs: Rich class of zero-ODP, low GWPcompounds each with its own characteristics;pipeline of candidates tailor-made for variousapplications emergingNon-flammable, HFO-based, developmental fluidsDR-14, DR-12, and DR-2 could enable hightemperature heat pumps over wide ranges ofcondensing temperatures and volumetricheating capacities with attractive energyefficienciesDR-2: Could enable condensing temperatures upto 160oC
    17. 17. Thank you!Email:konstantinos.kontomaris@dupont.comDisclaimer: The information set forth herein is furnished free of charge and based on technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is intended for use by persons havingtechnical skill, at their own risk. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, expressed or implied and assume no liability in connection with any use of thisinformation. Nothing herein is to be taken as a license to operate under, or a recommendation to infringe any patents or patent applications.Claus-Peter KellerFluorochemicals Business Development EMEADu Pont de Nemours (Deutschland) GmbHTel: ++49 (0) 6102 / 18-2806Mobile: ++49 (0) 175 573 0043e-mail: claus-peter.keller@dupont.com
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