IIR Coulomb - the refrigerants future

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Mostra Convegno Expocomfort, XVI EU Conference on "The Refrigerant Revolution , a 79% reduction" - Milan 20th March 2014

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IIR Coulomb - the refrigerants future

  1. 1. www.iifiir.org The IIR
  2. 2. www.iifiir.org • Food quality and safety from farm to consumer • Comfort in homes and commercial buildings • Health products and services • Low temperature technology and liquefied gas technology • Energy efficiency • Use of non-ozone-depleting and low global warming refrigerants in a safe manner The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR), an independent intergovernmental science and technology based organization, promotes refrigeration knowledge and associated technologies that improve quality of life in a cost effective and environmentally sustainable manner including:
  3. 3. www.iifiir.org 60 member countries worldwide 500 experts 600 corporate and private members www.iifiir.org
  4. 4. www.iifiir.org Services: FRIDOC, a refrigeration portal with over 100,000 references Journals: the International Journal of Refrigeration (IJR – the best scientific journal in its field!), IIR Newsletter, books, Informatory Notes, and Statements. Activities: Conferences Working Parties Research Projects Preparation of Standards
  5. 5. www.iifiir.org INCREASING NEEDS OF REFRIGERATION INCREASING ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES www.iifiir.org
  6. 6. www.iifiir.org The refrigerants issue
  7. 7. www.iifiir.org FAMILY OF REFRIGERANTS MAIN REFRIGERANTS ODP GWP CFC 11 1 4 750 CFCs CFC 12 1 10 900 Others 0.4 -> 1 6 000 -> 15 000 HCFCs HCFC 22 0,05 1 810 Others 0.020 -> 0.070 70 -> 2 400 HFC 134a 0 1 430 HFC 404A 0 3 900 HFC 407C 0 1 800 HFCs HFC 410A 0 2 100 HFC 32 0 720 HFC 1234yf 0 1 Others 0 4 -> 4 500 (except HFC 23 = 14 800) HC 290 0 20 HC 600a 0 20 HC 1270 0 20 Natural Refrigerants R717 (ammonia) 0 ~ 0 R744 (Carbon dioxide) 0 1 Air, water 0 ~ 0
  8. 8. www.iifiir.org www.iifiir.org
  9. 9. www.iifiir.org Consequences: • Thanks to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs and HCFCs will disappear and the ozone layer will recover. • Now CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs represent about 2% of greenhouse gas emissions. They will represent 7% in 2050. •HFCs are mainly used as refrigerants (80% of use). • Easy to manage • Interests of refrigerant manufacturers • Short lifetime within the atmosphere. • Even if energy issues have a more important impact than refrigerant issues: energy efficiency of the equipment remains a major issue.
  10. 10. www.iifiir.org 1st question EU regulation Discussions in UN Conferences 2 Parallel Processes: • Montreal / Vienna ― Kyoto / Rio • North America / Micronesia ― Amendments to the Montreal Protocol since 2009 Pros: the European Union, African and Island countries Cons: India, China, Brazil, Gulf countries • Hot political subject since 2012 • Difficult « negotiations » in Bangkok, October 2013: The state of the art of the discussions
  11. 11. www.iifiir.org The time schedule Obtaining an agreement on climate change by key date : 2015 Possible actions before 2020? In any case more delays are needed: 2040 vs 2033 for developed countries? 2050 vs 2043 for developing countries? with a European « advance » of about 10 years? Without any agreement: voluntary commitments • Role of refrigerant manufacturers including China • Price of HFCs, HFOs … • Sector by sector approach • Region by region approach
  12. 12. www.iifiir.org Future technical solutions and safety consequences (1) Technologies without refrigerants: • Absorption / adsorption → conf. in the USA • Magnetic refrigeration → WP; conf. in Canada; Elicit project. • Cryogenics → conf. In the Czech Republic • Others Reducing leakage (cf The EU F-gas regulation) → IN (Secondary fluids) Refrigeration charge reduction → IN • Savings and safety 2nd question
  13. 13. www.iifiir.org Future technical solutions and safety consequences (2) Choosing a low-GWP refrigerant: other HFCs, mixtures, natural refrigerants • Energy efficiency • Safety issues → GL conferences (China) … Strategic issues: • Standards on flammability • Regulations at international and national levels
  14. 14. www.iifiir.org • Phase down very soon of HFCs in Europe followed by everywhere else with or without an international agreement • Different strategies old / new equipment • Training for engineers and technicians is necessary as well as research and technological developments • Belonging to an international scientific and technical network The role of the IIR www.iifiir.org
  15. 15. www.iifiir.org Thank you! Visit : www.iifiir.org #refrigeration

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