Didier COULOMBInternational Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) - www.iifiir.orgMILANO, ItalyFriday, June 7, 2013INTRODUCTION...
The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) is anindependent intergovernmental science and technology basedorganiza...
It comprises 60 member countries (both developed and developingcountries) including of course Italy, 500 experts and 600 c...
Refrigeration is increasingly necessaryRefrigeration is necessary to mankindWhy? Temperature is a magnitude and a key var...
- Refrigeration is everywhere:• Cryogenics (petrochemical refining, steel industry, space industry,nuclear fusion…)• Medic...
Increasing needs in developing and emerging countries 1600 deaths/year in the USA are due to pathogens, at leastpartly as...
Increasing needs in developing and emerging countries 1 billion people are undernourished; 23% of food losses arecaused b...
There are two consequences: We need to reduce the impact of refrigerants on the environment, because ofthe protection of ...
• Vapour-compression systems will remain predominant in the short and mediumterm and thus we will need more refrigerants i...
The following table summarizes the impact of the main refrigerants on the ozonelayer (Ozone Depleting Potential = ODP) and...
CFCs and HCFCs are mainly replaced by HFCs,which generally have a high GWPSource UNEPXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th...
Source UNEPXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder ...
HFCs currently represent less than 1% of CO2 equivalent emissions. In 2050, they will represent7 to 45% (more likely 7%) o...
Hence, discussions are held at an international level (Montreal Protocol and KyotoProtocol meetings) on the future of HFCs...
However, the phase down of HFCs was mentioned in the final declaration ofRio+20 (June 2012), adopted by 191 countries and ...
An international decision is linked to other decisions regarding globalwarming. The new time schedule is 2015 for a new ag...
- Reducing the refrigerant chargeIt is both an issue of safety and of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.Research and d...
Key elements to take into account when choosing a low-GWPrefrigerant- No very low-GWP refrigerant is perfect -they all pre...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspice...
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Didier Coulomb - IIR - I CAMBIAMENTI NELL’INDUSTRIA DELLA REFRIGERAZIONE E DELL’ARIA CONDIZIONATA

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  • OSAKA- July 2012.ppt (24 dias) - julillet 2012
  • OSAKA- July 2012.ppt (24 dias) - julillet 2012
  • OSAKA- July 2012.ppt (24 dias) - julillet 2012
  • OSAKA- July 2012.ppt (24 dias) - julillet 2012
  • OSAKA- July 2012.ppt (24 dias) - julillet 2012
  • OSAKA- July 2012.ppt (24 dias) - julillet 2012
  • OSAKA- July 2012.ppt (24 dias) - julillet 2012
  • Didier Coulomb - IIR - I CAMBIAMENTI NELL’INDUSTRIA DELLA REFRIGERAZIONE E DELL’ARIA CONDIZIONATA

    1. 1. Didier COULOMBInternational Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) - www.iifiir.orgMILANO, ItalyFriday, June 7, 2013INTRODUCTIONNew regulations on F-gases and new refrigerants.New plants with reference to energy andenvironmental optimization. World situation.XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    2. 2. The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) is anindependent intergovernmental science and technology basedorganization which promotes knowledge of refrigeration andassociated technologies that improve quality of life in a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner including:• Food quality and safety from farm to consumer• Comfort in homes and commercial buildings• Health products and services• Low temperature technology and liquefied gas technology• Energy efficiency• Use of non-ozone-depleting and low global warming refrigerantsin a safe mannerXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    3. 3. It comprises 60 member countries (both developed and developingcountries) including of course Italy, 500 experts and 600 corporateand private members: private companies (refrigeration equipment,public services, food and pharmaceutical sectors…), consultants,academics, students…It was founded in 1908.The head office is in Paris. The IIR’s information services comprisethe refrigeration portal with almost 100 000 references, thepublication of journals (the IJR: the highest impact factor in itsfield), books, Informatory Notes, statements, and its activitiesinclude conferences and working parties, research projects…XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    4. 4. Refrigeration is increasingly necessaryRefrigeration is necessary to mankindWhy? Temperature is a magnitude and a key variable in physics, chemistryand biology. It characterizes the state of matter and liquid, solid and gaseousphases. It thus drives to materials applications. It is vital to all living beings and each living being (bacteria, plant,animal) has a temperature range within which it can live (more or lessoptimally: metabolism slowdown – or even arrest, hibernation…).XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    5. 5. - Refrigeration is everywhere:• Cryogenics (petrochemical refining, steel industry, space industry,nuclear fusion…)• Medicine and health products (cryosurgery, anaesthesia, scanners,vaccines…)• Air conditioning (buildings, data centres…)• Food industry and the cold chain• Energy sector (including heat pumps, LNG, hydrogen…)• Environment (including carbon capture and storage), public works,leisure activities…XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    6. 6. Increasing needs in developing and emerging countries 1600 deaths/year in the USA are due to pathogens, at leastpartly associated with temperature control and many more in“developing” countries. According to a WHO report (2008)refrigeration and improved hygiene have reduced stomach cancerby 89% in men and 92% in women since 1930 in the USA. Anotherestimation: about 3 million deaths/year related to refrigerationworldwide. There is an increase in the global population, particularly in Africaand South Asia (9-10 billion in 2050, about 8 billion in developingcountries) 70% (50% now) will be in urban areas (doubling in developingcountries) and this will increase the need for cold chains, becauseof longer distances between production sites and markets, andbecause of increasingly westernized models (meat...)XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    7. 7. Increasing needs in developing and emerging countries 1 billion people are undernourished; 23% of food losses arecaused by a lack of refrigeration (vs 9% in developed countries) There are needs related to better health everywhere (reliablecold chain, air conditioning), particularly because of an ageingpopulation.According to a recent study from the MIT, mortality during hotdays (temperatures higner than 32°C) decreased of 80%between 1900-1959 and 1960-2004 in the USA and « theadoption of residential air conditioning explains essentially theentire decline in the temperature-mortality relationship »This increase especially in emerging and developing countries willincrease the impact on the environmentXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    8. 8. There are two consequences: We need to reduce the impact of refrigerants on the environment, because ofthe protection of the ozone layer (already almost done) and because of globalwarming (to be done) We need to reduce the energy consumption of systems and components, sincerefrigeration is a major energy consumer and its indirect impact on globalwarming is higher that its direct impact. We need to have an LCCP approach.The aim of this conference is to present new developments in these areas and todebate the measures which will have to be taken, especially at the Europeanlevel.Have a fruitful conference!XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    9. 9. • Vapour-compression systems will remain predominant in the short and mediumterm and thus we will need more refrigerants in the future.• Because of their impact on the stratospheric ozone layer; chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are included in the MontrealProtocol and each country (developed and developing countries) had to implementphase-out plans. This issue will thus soon be behind us except the bank issue(refrigerants in existing equipment to be destroyed in the future).• There are alternative refrigerants:- Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have no impact on the ozone layer but an impact onglobal warming (they are included in the Rio Convention and the Kyoto Protocol).HFOs are HFCs with a very low GWP.- Natural refrigerants (ammonia, CO2, hydrocarbons, water, air) have a very lowimpact on global warming.- Mixtures, combinations (cascades, secondary fluids) are being developed forvarious uses.FIRST SESSIONNew refrigerants and perspectivesXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    10. 10. The following table summarizes the impact of the main refrigerants on the ozonelayer (Ozone Depleting Potential = ODP) and on climate change (Global WarmingPotential = GWP). Even if CFCs have a very high ODP and GWP, HCFCs and HFCs havesimilar impacts.XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    11. 11. CFCs and HCFCs are mainly replaced by HFCs,which generally have a high GWPSource UNEPXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    12. 12. Source UNEPXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    13. 13. HFCs currently represent less than 1% of CO2 equivalent emissions. In 2050, they will represent7 to 45% (more likely 7%) of CO2 equivalent emissions.HFC emissions in 2050 could offset the achievements of the Montreal Protocol related to thephase-out of CFCs.Source UNEPHFCs are mainly used in refrigeration and air conditioningXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    14. 14. Hence, discussions are held at an international level (Montreal Protocol and KyotoProtocol meetings) on the future of HFCs: replacing HCFCs with HFCs could be areal threat to the climate.On the contrary, HFCs are short-lived substances compared with CO2. Thus, thephasing down of HFCs would have short-lived results and the USA, Canada, Mexico,Sweden, Ghana and Bangladesh launched a new initiative at the beginning of 2012.Previously, North America (the USA, Canada, Mexico) and Island states (Mauritius,Micronesia) proposed several times since 2008 during the Montreal and the KyotoProtocol United Nations meetings to phase down (15% of previous emissions in 2033and 2043 for developed vs developing countries) the consumption and production ofHFCs, in all countries. The amounts would be weighted according to their GlobalWarming Potential. Most countries agree. However, there is currently oppositionfrom India, China, Brazil and the Gulf countries.XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    15. 15. However, the phase down of HFCs was mentioned in the final declaration ofRio+20 (June 2012), adopted by 191 countries and a phase down according tothe Montreal Protocol was officially proposed by several countries during thelatest United Nations Conference on climate change in Doha (Qatar) inDecember 2012.• Other initiatives recently took place: Taxes and bans on HFCs in certain countries (Scandinavia, Australia…) The European F-gas regulation and the Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC)directive.We will discuss it later.XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    16. 16. An international decision is linked to other decisions regarding globalwarming. The new time schedule is 2015 for a new agreement on this issue.Various technical solutions- There are other technologies: absorption, adsorption, solar refrigeration,magnetic refrigeration, thermoelectric cooling, cryogenics (nitrogen, CO2)but they still require technological improvements (cost, energy efficiency,capacity). Thus, they are only niche technologies at the moment.- Reducing leakageBecause of important variability within similar equipment working undersimilar conditions, there are margins for progress.The F-gas regulation in the European Union will strengthen controls onleakage. Reducing leakage would avoid an increase of the global warmingimpact of refrigerants in Europe but not a reduction.Training is the biggest obstacle. However, reducing leakage has clearadvantages in terms of savings and safety.XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    17. 17. - Reducing the refrigerant chargeIt is both an issue of safety and of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.Research and development thus focus on all refrigerants, secondaryrefrigerants and microchannels…- Choosing a low-GWP refrigerant:What is a low-GWP refrigerant? This question could be a delicateregulation issue, at least on an international level. We need a sector-by-sector approach, including high ambient-temperature conditions. “Low” or“moderate” GWP, such as R32.HFCs can be used, but often only as a possible intermediate step. Movingdirectly to “very low” GWP HFCs (150 is the maximum allowed in the MACdirective in Europe and could become an international reference in the nearfuture; HFOs would be the main “very-low”-GWP HFCs) and of coursenatural refrigerants are a better option where possible (efficiency…)XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    18. 18. Key elements to take into account when choosing a low-GWPrefrigerant- No very low-GWP refrigerant is perfect -they all present safety risks and drawbacks- Fair comparisons (outdoor temperature, type of equipment, suitable oils…)concerning efficiency are rare.- Safety regulations: They are a barrier to ammonia; They are also a barrier to hydrocarbons and even for very low-GWP HFCs- Adaptation to warm climatesThere are still few recent examples: HFOs are not commercialized and naturalrefrigerant technical development is mostly in Europe and Eastern Asia.- Industrial strategies: Refrigerant manufacturers Equipment manufacturers Installers- Refrigerant prices:There will be shortages of HCFCs and HFCsXV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
    19. 19. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8thJUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSAll these considerations shall be discussed. However, aphase down of HFCs will take place very soon in Europe andvery probably in the future, everywhere in the world: weneed to prepare it.The IIR helps you, through its conferences, its publications…See our Web site: www.iifiir.orgBecome a member.Thank you.
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