Daikin Dhont - R-32 refrigerant installation & design aspects

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  • 1. R32 refrigerant Installation & Design aspects Hilde Dhont, Daikin Europe N.V. Environment Research Center Mostra Convegno 2014 Copyright Daikin 1
  • 2. Typical refrigerants used today in stationary air conditioning & heat pumps R410A : GWP2088 R407C : GWP1774 R290 : GWP3 Focus of this presentation R410A : GWP2088 R410A : GWP2088 R134a : GWP1430 Cooling and Heating capacities range from <1 kW to > 10,000 kW
  • 3. Revised F gas regulation : GWP limits for air conditioners & heat pumps No GWP limit for charges > 3kg No GWP limit for multi split or VRF All HFCs used in the equipment will be subject to the HFC “phase down”, even if there is no specific ban or GWP limit. “No GWP limit” is NOT equal to “business as usual” ! Ban on HFC with GWP 150 from 2020 For SINGLE split air conditioners with a charge BELOW 3 kg : Ban on HFC with GWP 750 from 2025 No GWP limit for Chillers (unless Chiller is used for refrigeration applications where GWP 2500 is not allowed)
  • 4. Revised F gas regulation : HFC “phase down” targets In CO2equivalent HFC PHASE DOWN TARGETS Baseline Avg. 2009-2012 2015 100% 2016-2017 93% 2018-2020 63% 2021-2023 45% 2024-2026 31% 2027-2029 24% 2030 21% Nearly 80% reduction ! Reduction on the placing on EU market of HFCs – in CO2 equivalent = quantity x GWP 4
  • 5. How to achieve this HFC phase down ? Where possible : 1) Change to HFC refrigerants with a lower GWP 2) Change to non-HFC refrigerants 3) Reduce the HFC refrigerant quantity 4) Recover and reuse HFCs 5) Any combination of 1) 3) 4) 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. Europe 7 First European models introduced by Daikin since Autumn 2013
  • 8. What is R32 ? • R32= CH2F2 = difluoromethane = single substance (no blend) • R410A = blend of 50% R32 + 50% R125 8
  • 9. GWP comparison of R410A & R32 Quantity GWP x Quantity > 75% Reduction • The GWP of R32 is only 1/3rd of R410A • Taking into account the refrigerant charge, the GWP is only 1/4th ! GWP Values according to IPCC 4th Assessment Report For the EU F gas regulation the GWP values of IPCC 3rd report are valid (R410A = 1975, R32 = 650) 9
  • 10. Impact of changing R410A  R32 in CO2equivalent Tonne CO2 equivalent = kg of charge x GWP / 1000 1 kg of R410A = 2.088 TCO2eq = > 2 TCO2eq R410A R32 1 kg of R32 = 0.675 TCO2eq  For same kg of charge, the TCO2eq of R32 is 3 times lower compared to R410A R32 0.7 kg of R32 = 0.4725 TCO2eq  With lower kg of charge, the TCO2eq of R32 can be further reduced, up to 4 times lower compared to R410A (depends on model design) 10
  • 11. Technically, installation of R32 unit is the same as R410A Tools are slightly different Tooling R410A R32 Manifold Normal Different Scale Normal Normal Vacuum pump Normal Normal Leak detector Normal Different Recovery unit Normal Different Ventilation Recommended Necessary Impact on installation / service 11
  • 12. Because R32 is a single component refrigerant (no blend) : 1. It is easier to handle › can be charged in both gas and liquid phase › no need to worry about composition change after leakage 2. It is easier to recycle and reuse. Impact on installation / service 12
  • 13. Some important design aspects of using R32: Refrigerant properties Compressor performance Selection of oils System dimensions 13
  • 14. Properties of R32 • Potential theoretical capacity :1.6 times larger compared to R410A • Lower pressure loss : for same capacity , smaller piping diameter is possible • Higher coefficient of heat transfer compared to R410A • Charge volume reduction • Liquid density 90% of R410A • Volume reduction → up to 30% reduction against R410A possible 14
  • 15. If R32 is mixed with R1234ze(E), the average heat transfer coefficient drops. As this becomes more prominent at lower mass flow, seasonal energy efficiency will be negatively affected further 1) Average condensing heat transfer coefficient 2) Average evaporating heat transfer coefficient R32-R1234ze(E) blend [R32 mass%] R32-R1234ze(E) blend [R32 mass%] Source:Akio Miyara et.al. Proeedings from 46th The society of Heating, Air-Conditioning Sanitary Engineers of Japan (2012) Impact of blending 15
  • 16. Charge △20% R410A R32 Unit size Amount of Ref. 1250g 1000g Class 1.0HP(2.2-.5kW/8500Btu) 1.0HP(2.2-2.5kW/8500Btu) H693×W795×D300 795 H599×W718×D315 718 Volume △18% Case of Japan sales model (Nov.2012 on sale ) 6% R410A R32 Unit size APF(Energy efficiency) 6.6 7.0 Class 1.7HP(4.0kW/13,600Btu) 1.7HP(4.0kW 13,600Btu) H693×W795×D300 795 Same Size Down Sized High Energy Efficiency H693×W795×D300 795 APF:6.6 APF:6.6 System dimensions 16
  • 17. • R32 compressor discharge temperature is generally higher than R32/HFO blends, however it is not an issue in most conditions, even in high ambient cooling condition. • In very low ambient heating condition, discharge temperature may need to be controlled, e.g. by wet suction control. 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 X.suc [-] DischargeTemp.[deg] Te = -20 [deg] - 40 Tc [deg] ◆ ▲ 50 45 Comp. Efficiency [%] 50 60 - 40 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 X.suc [-] DischargeTemp.[deg] Te = -30 [deg] Tc [deg] ◆ ▲ - 50 45 40 Comp. Efficiency [%] 50 60 Impact of wet suction control on R32 discharge temperatures Compressor discharge temperature 17
  • 18. • POE or PVE oils currently used for R410A have poor miscibility with R32 • New POE or PVE oils have good miscibility with R410A and R32. Selection of oils
  • 19. 19 Source: the presentation of JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation (June 25, 2013) New POE oils are available now which are excellent for both R32 and R410A.
  • 20. Source: the presentation of JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation (June 25, 2013)
  • 21. Flammability classification of R32 = 2L Class 1 Class 2L Class 2 Class 3 Not flammable Slightly flammable burning velocity ≤10 cm/s Low flammable Highly flammable R744 (CO2) R1234yf / ze R152a R290 R410A R32 R717 (Ammonia) Flammability of 2L refrigerants is very low. The burning velocity (≤ 10 cm/s) is too slow to cause horizontal flame propagation or explosion. Classification according to ASHRAE34 & ISO817. 21
  • 22. R32 There is no “one-size-fits all” refrigerant • Each manufacturer needs to make choices depending on the application and the needs of the market & taking into account local legislations & standards. • Daikin is developing R32 split air –conditioners from residential to commercial range because R32 is suitable for these applications 22
  • 23. Is there a future for R32 in Europe ? Yes Do we still need R410A in Europe ? Yes • R32 fits in the EU “phase down” strategy to reduce F gas emissions • R410A will still be needed for those applications where the use of flammable refrigerants is restricted. 23
  • 24. R32 has excellent energy performance characteristics in air conditioners and heat pumps. R32 allows for reduced refrigerant charge and system dimensions while maintaining or increasing energy efficiency. The higher discharge temperature of R32 is manageable Suitable oils for R32 are available R32 has the advantage of being a single component refrigerant Conclusions
  • 25. Thank you !
  • 26. GWP values Refrigerant GWP current F gas regulation Based on 3rd Assessment report of IPCC GWP new F gas regulation Based on 4th Assessment report of IPCC HFC R32 550 675 R125 3400 3500 R134a 1300 1430 R143a 4300 4470 R404A (Blend of 44% R-125 + 52% R143a + 4% 134a) 3784 3922 R410A (Blend of 50% R32 + 50% R125) 1975 2088 HFO (unsaturated HFC) R1234yf - 4 R1234ze - 7 Non HFC R744 (CO2) 1 1 R290 (propane) - 3 „Global Warming Potential‟ means the climatic warming potential of a fluorinated greenhouse gas relative to that of carbon dioxide. The global warming potential (GWP) is calculated in terms of the 100-year warming potential of one kilogram of a gas relative to one kilogram of CO2 26