XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Consumption2
F-92 BUILDING FEATURESLatitude 42°03’NLongitude 12°18’EstClimaticZone (Italy)DArea 381 m2 mqCASE STUDY: Solar heating and ...
CASE STUDY: Innovative Solar heating and cooling system at service of F-92 building of ENEACASACCIA Research Centre (ROMA)...
Heating with Sun…A) Solar heating:WINTER TIME: room heating is realized with radiant heating system, powered with low temp...
Heating with the Sun…using radiant heating systemA) Solar heating:The highest pavimenttemperature depends onenviroment kin...
Main system’s Components:A) Solar heating:Evacuated tube solar collectors:Technical Data:-Single collector gross area = 3,...
A) Solar heating: SYSTEM LAYOUT, during the research activity we analyze the different energy cotributionsFE01FE07FE03FE02...
Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012A) Solar heating:GAS BOILERSOLAR FIELDEnergy contributionEnergy contrib...
Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012A) Solar heating:09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012SOLAR FRACTIONINTEGRATION G...
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”At the end of our research activity about solar heating andcoolin...
A) Solar heating: obtained indoor environmental temperatureWinter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012SET POINT9 -...
A) Solar heating: Comparision between February 2012 and February 2013GAS BOILEREnergy contribution9 - 17 February 2012 Wor...
Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012A) Solar heating:There is DissipatedEnergy….BUT INTEGRATIONGAS BOILER I...
PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank to reduce dissipated energy:Sensible water accumulation of 3500 lkJ730005187...
PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”UNIVERSITA’ DI PADOV...
PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank to reduce dissipated energy:CHARGE PHASE DISCHARGE PHASESensibleSensibleSens...
TRADITIONAL TANK“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”TE07TE08TE07TE08C = 1500 litres C = 1000 litresPC...
Comparison Traditional Tank C=1500 litres - PCM Tank C=1000 litres“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning...
-20020406080100080910111213141516171819202122230001020304050607°C-30-101030507090kWhFE02Tank_to_loadTE07TE08kW“Use of sola...
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Experimental test of a single PCM Vessel (HYDRATED SALTS)PCM vess...
PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RIG“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RIG“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Typical test conditions:• Water ...
FAST TEMPERATURE RAMP (10⁰C/min)“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”No visible effect on the outputte...
PCM: IMPROVEMENTS“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”INCREASE OF PCM CONDUCTIVITY WITH HIGH CONDUCTIV...
Solar cooling System with Absorption ChillerB) Solar cooling:Vacuum SolarCollector250 m2Cold WaterAccumulationtank 15.000 ...
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Solar cooling System with Absorption ChillerB) Solar cooling:
SUMMER MONITORING:B) Solar cooling:“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
Main system Components:B) Solar cooling:Absorption Chiller(water – lithium bromide):Technical Data:- Cooling Power =18 [kW...
Electric Power Absorbed: 48 [W]Temperature [°C]T Heat Medium Inlet 88T Heat Medium Outlet 83Chilled Water Inlet 12,5Chille...
B) Solar cooling:SYSTEM LAYOUT: during the research activity we analyze the different energy contributionsFE01FE07FE03FE02...
B) Solar cooling:Summer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 201201 JUNE 2012 - 15 SEPTEMBER 2012: Working System DISCO...
B) Solar cooling:Summer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 201201-30 June 2012Monitoring Thermal Solar Collectors01 J...
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”At the end of our research activity about solar heating and cooli...
B) Solar cooling: obtained indoor environmental temperatureSummer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 2012SET POINT01 ...
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: BX EINSTEINOperative Data andweather conditionsManagement, Control andBack up PCServo motor...
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESENTED CASE STUDY“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”ONE OF THE FIVEBETTER CASE STUDY
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”WITHOUT BONUSSolar heating and cooling: PAYBACK PERIODPAYBACK PER...
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”WITH BONUSINTRODUCED BYD.M. del 28/12/2012Solar heating and cooli...
Our research and development activities:Thanks for your attention“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
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Andrea Calabrese - ENEA - IMPIANTI DI SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING: UN CONTRIBUTO POSITIVO ALLE PROBLEMATICHE ENERGETICHE ED AMBIENTALI

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Andrea Calabrese - ENEA - IMPIANTI DI SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING: UN CONTRIBUTO POSITIVO ALLE PROBLEMATICHE ENERGETICHE ED AMBIENTALI

  1. 1. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS“SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS:A POSITIVE CONTRIBUTE TO ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES”CASE STUDY: Innovative Solar heating and cooling system with PCM tank at service of F-92 Building ofENEA CASACCIA Research Centre (ROMA)XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE Milan, June 7th 2013Scientific referents:Ing. Nicolandrea CalabreseIng. Francesco D’AnnibaleIng. Carla MenaleIng. Paola RovellaFor info: andrea.calabrese@enea.itwww.climatizzazioneconfontirinnovabili.enea.it
  2. 2. “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Consumption2
  3. 3. F-92 BUILDING FEATURESLatitude 42°03’NLongitude 12°18’EstClimaticZone (Italy)DArea 381 m2 mqCASE STUDY: Solar heating and cooling system at service of F-92 Building of ENEA CASACCIAResearch Centre (ROMA)“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”https://maps.google.it/maps/ms?gl=it&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&msid=103631601450429953584.00047466407d1fa933f1a
  4. 4. CASE STUDY: Innovative Solar heating and cooling system at service of F-92 building of ENEACASACCIA Research Centre (ROMA)A NETWORK OF UNDERGROUND PIPING CONNECTS THE HEATINGAND REFRIGERATION STATION TO THE BUILDING“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  5. 5. Heating with Sun…A) Solar heating:WINTER TIME: room heating is realized with radiant heating system, powered with low temperature to maximize theuse of thermal solar energy.Evacuated tubes collectors type all glass(WINTER: 40-50°C)(SUMMER: 80 – 110°C)“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  6. 6. Heating with the Sun…using radiant heating systemA) Solar heating:The highest pavimenttemperature depends onenviroment kind:Range Tmandata panels: 40 – 50 °CDtmaximum panels’s track: 20°C“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  7. 7. Main system’s Components:A) Solar heating:Evacuated tube solar collectors:Technical Data:-Single collector gross area = 3,75 [m2];-Solar field gross area = 56 [m2];-Thermal Power ≈ 25 [kWth].“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  8. 8. A) Solar heating: SYSTEM LAYOUT, during the research activity we analyze the different energy cotributionsFE01FE07FE03FE02Solar fieldHot tankGas boilerRequest of Energyfrom buildingWINTER WORKINGIN BUILDINGTHERMAL CENTRAL“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  9. 9. Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012A) Solar heating:GAS BOILERSOLAR FIELDEnergy contributionEnergy contribution of Integration Gas Boiler and Solar Field09-29 February 2012 01-31 March 2012 01-15 April 2012kWh IntegrationGas BoilerkWh UsefulSolar Field“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  10. 10. Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012A) Solar heating:09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012SOLAR FRACTIONINTEGRATION GAS BOILER: 3.628,0 kWhSOLAR FIELD: 4.532,0 kWh09-29 February 2012 01-31 March 2012 01-15 April 2012Monitoring Thermal Solar CollectorsSolar radiation incident on the solar field [kWh]Energy Produced by Solar field and used (FE01) [kWh]Energy produced by the solar field and dissipated by Dry cooler“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Energy dissipated…
  11. 11. “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”At the end of our research activity about solar heating andcooling system for WINTER season we obtained that the energyrequired to heat F-92 building was provided for:- 56 % by solar energy- 44 % by gas boiler (methane gas)These results were obtained ensuring COMFORT conditions intothe building.Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012
  12. 12. A) Solar heating: obtained indoor environmental temperatureWinter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012SET POINT9 - 17 February 2012:Fixed environmentsetpointTmin = 19°CTmax = 21°C19 February - 15 April2012:Fixed environmentsetpointTmin = 18°CTmax = 20°CNote: set TA01Tmin = 14°CTmax = 16°CEnvironment Temperatures [⁰C]9 - 17 February 2012 Working System CONTINUE19 February 2012 - 15 April 2012: Working System DISCONTINUOUS (from 7.00 am to 17.00 pm)“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”[Monitoring’s Day]Environment Temperatures [⁰C]
  13. 13. A) Solar heating: Comparision between February 2012 and February 2013GAS BOILEREnergy contribution9 - 17 February 2012 Working System CONTINUE19 February 2012 – 29 February 2012: Working SystemDISCONTINUOUS (from 7.00 am to 17.00 pm)February 2012 February 20131975 kWh(46,5%)2275 kWh(53,5%)Energy contribution01-28 February 2013 : Working System DISCONTINUOUS(from 7.00 am to 17.00 pm)GAS BOILERSOLAR FIELDSOLAR FIELD10 - 12 February 2013:Solar collectors NOTcovered by snow10 - 12 February 2012:Solar collectors coveredby snow“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”SOLARFRACTION
  14. 14. Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012A) Solar heating:There is DissipatedEnergy….BUT INTEGRATIONGAS BOILER IS USED!!It would be necessary anaccumulation tank for thermalenergy, DURING WINTERPERIOD, with a biggercapacity (experimentalanalisys 2012 year withsensible Accumulation tank ofC=1.500 liters)NEW GENERATIONACCUMULATION SYSTEM:PCM“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  15. 15. PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank to reduce dissipated energy:Sensible water accumulation of 3500 lkJ730005187.43500outinlwatersens TTcmEkJ69000533130,tubeslattubeslat cNELatent PCM Accumulation(PCM S46 TubeICE) of 1000 lHYDRATED SALTS OFS89-S7 SERIES placedin sealed tubesCold WaterHot WaterSolar FieldControlUnitGasBoilerHotWaterTank“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  16. 16. PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”UNIVERSITA’ DI PADOVADipartimento di Tecnica eGestionedei sistemi industriali
  17. 17. PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank to reduce dissipated energy:CHARGE PHASE DISCHARGE PHASESensibleSensibleSensibleLatentTemperature ofthe phase changeSensibleSensibleSensibleLatentTemperature ofthe phase change“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  18. 18. TRADITIONAL TANK“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”TE07TE08TE07TE08C = 1500 litres C = 1000 litresPCM TANKComparison Traditional Tank (ONLY WATER) - PCM Tank (HYDRATED SALTS)
  19. 19. Comparison Traditional Tank C=1500 litres - PCM Tank C=1000 litres“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Days of April 2012 and Aprile 2013 (more comparable than days of March because days of April 2012 and days ofApril 2013 have medium temperatures more similar than March 2012 and March 2013) have an index FE07/GGmore similar than those of March, respectively 19 kWh/GG and 24 kWh/GG.If we considere tank contribute to F–92 building heating (TANK_TO_LOAD) we obtain a higher value for 2013 equalto 16 kWh / GG compared to 13 kWh / GG of 2012.The contribution of the accumulation to the needs of the building (TANK_TO_LOAD/FE07) was the same: 69% for2012 and 68% for 2013 (SAME SOLAR FRACTION).The percentage of utilization of solar energy (TANK_TO_LOAD/FE02) with PCM accumulation amounted to 76%compared with 64% of the accumulation standard.where:• n: days number of the conventional heating period• T0: environment conventional temperature• Te: medium extenal daily temperatureAPRILE 2012 APRILE 2013TEMPERATURA MEDIAPERIODO13.3 14.3 [°C]VOLUME ACCUMULO 1500 900 [l]TEMPERATURA INTERNAEDIFICIO20.0 22.0 [°C]GG] FE07/GG 19 24 [kWh/GG]GG] TANK_TO_LOAD/GG 13 16 [kWh/GG]] FE07 1 070 1 556 [kWh]] FE03 331 503 [kWh]] FE02 1 159 1 394 [kWh]] TANK_TO_LOAD 739 1 053 [kWh]SOLAR FRACTION 69% 68% %APRIL 2012TANK VOLUMEINTERNAL BUILDINGTEMPERATUREAPRIL 2013
  20. 20. -20020406080100080910111213141516171819202122230001020304050607°C-30-101030507090kWhFE02Tank_to_loadTE07TE08kW“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Solid phase PCMFirst phase charge during the day: the tank receivesfrom 8:00 to 12:40 an energy of 56 kWhThere aren’t heat fluxes in orout from tankHeat accumulationdue to PCM tubesmelting20 kWh of thermal energyare picked up from thetankthe tank remainswell stratifiedLight heat input of PCM(discharge) which compensatesthe heat loss of the tankLatent heat Sensible heat
  21. 21. “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Experimental test of a single PCM Vessel (HYDRATED SALTS)PCM vessel:De = 50 mmL = 1000 mmHYDRATED SALTS
  22. 22. PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RIG“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  23. 23. PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RIG“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Typical test conditions:• Water velocity in the anulus: 0.2 to 0.4 m/s• Inlet temperature Ti : 20 to 85 °C• Pressure P: 1.0 to 1.3 bar• Temperature ramp gradient: 5 to 600 °C/hGeometry equivalent to asubchannel in the real vesselPCM vessel:De = 50 mmL = 1000 mmTest section:Di = 60 mmL = 1000 mm
  24. 24. FAST TEMPERATURE RAMP (10⁰C/min)“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”No visible effect on the outputtemperature gradient aroundthe melting temperatureT=46°CThe melting energy isabsorbed and released inhours and its effect can not bedistinguished from thethermal capacity of the singlephase materialSLOW TEMPERATURE RAMP (10⁰C/h)PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
  25. 25. PCM: IMPROVEMENTS“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”INCREASE OF PCM CONDUCTIVITY WITH HIGH CONDUCTIVITY FOAMS:CERAMICS, METALS OR GRAPHITEAISI 316 SiC (Silicon Carbide)
  26. 26. Solar cooling System with Absorption ChillerB) Solar cooling:Vacuum SolarCollector250 m2Cold WaterAccumulationtank 15.000 lColdWater100 kWHot Water150 kWCHILLERSOLAR COOLING system with integration gas boiler and accumulation system for hot and cold water. Idraulic scheme (doc. SYSTEMA S.p.A)SUMMER PERIOD: coincidence between cool energy request peak and period of maximum availability of solarenergy.“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  27. 27. “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”Solar cooling System with Absorption ChillerB) Solar cooling:
  28. 28. SUMMER MONITORING:B) Solar cooling:“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  29. 29. Main system Components:B) Solar cooling:Absorption Chiller(water – lithium bromide):Technical Data:- Cooling Power =18 [kWf];- Heating Power in =25 [kWt];Accumulation tank forcold water:Technical Data:- volume 1000 [ L];Evaporative Tower:Technical Data:-Potentiality = 43 [kW](Tbu=25,6[°C]; TH2O in=35[°C];TH2O out=30 [°C]);-Air Flow = 7.500,0 [m3/h];-Water Flow = 7.400,0 [l/h]“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  30. 30. Electric Power Absorbed: 48 [W]Temperature [°C]T Heat Medium Inlet 88T Heat Medium Outlet 83Chilled Water Inlet 12,5Chilled Water Outlet 7Cooling Water Inlet 31Cooling Water Outlet 35http://www.yazaki-airconditioning.com/fileadmin/templates/img_airconditioning/swf/080925_chiller_absorption_ani.htmlB) Solar cooling:Layout of Absorption chiller water-lithium bromide“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  31. 31. B) Solar cooling:SYSTEM LAYOUT: during the research activity we analyze the different energy contributionsFE01FE07FE03FE02FE04 FE05FE06Required buildingCold rated outputHeat rate inputSUMMER WORKINGWater/Lithium-bromide Chiller“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  32. 32. B) Solar cooling:Summer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 201201 JUNE 2012 - 15 SEPTEMBER 2012: Working System DISCONTINUOUS (from 9.00 am to 19.00 pm)GAS BOILERSOLAR FIELDEnergy contributionEnergy Contributution of Integration Gas Boiler and Solar Field01-30 June 2012kWh Integration Gas BoilerkWh Useful Solar Field01-31 July 2012 01-31 August 2012 01-15 September 2012“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  33. 33. B) Solar cooling:Summer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 201201-30 June 2012Monitoring Thermal Solar Collectors01 JUNE – 15 SEPTEMBER 2012SOLAR FRACTIONINTEGRATION GAS BOILER: 4.657,0 kWhSOLAR FIELD: 8.909,0 kWhSolar radiation incident on the solar field [kWh]Energy Produced by Solar field and used (FE01) [kWh]Energy produced by the solar field and dissipated by Dry cooler01-31 July 2012 01-15 September 201201-31 August 2012“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  34. 34. “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”At the end of our research activity about solar heating and coolingsystem for SUMMER season we obtained that the thermal energyrequired by CHILLER to conditionig F-92 building was provided for:- 66 % by solar energy- 34 % by gas boiler (methane gas)These results were obtained ensuring COMFORT conditions into thebuilding.Summer Monitoring Data: 01 JUNE – 15 SEPTEMBER 2012
  35. 35. B) Solar cooling: obtained indoor environmental temperatureSummer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 2012SET POINT01 June - 15September 2012:FixedenvironmentsetpointTmin = 22°C eTmax = 24°CNote: TA01no controlled01 JUNE 2012 - 15SEPTEMBER 2012:Working SystemDISCONTINUOUS(from 9.00 am to19.00 pm)T external medium(09:00 – 19:00)03/09/2012: 24°C04/09/2012: 19°C05/09/2012: 24°C06/09/2012: 28°C07/09/2012: 29°C08/09/2012: 29°C09/09/2012: 28°C10/09/2012: 28°CT external medium(09:00 – 19:00)21/07/2012: 31°C22/07/2012: 29°C23/07/2012: 25°C24/07/2012: 27°C25/07/2012: 30°C26/07/2012: 32°CSTOP OF SYSTEMFORMAINTENANCE:21/08/201222/08/201223/08/201226/08/2012Environment Temperatures [⁰C][Monitoring’s Day]“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  36. 36. CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: BX EINSTEINOperative Data andweather conditionsManagement, Control andBack up PCServo motors electric valvesregulation Variable flow pumpsEnergy counters“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”
  37. 37. HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESENTED CASE STUDY“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”ONE OF THE FIVEBETTER CASE STUDY
  38. 38. “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”WITHOUT BONUSSolar heating and cooling: PAYBACK PERIODPAYBACK PERIOD RELATIVE DIFFERENT PLACES AND SYSTEM POWER
  39. 39. “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”WITH BONUSINTRODUCED BYD.M. del 28/12/2012Solar heating and cooling: PAYBACK PERIODPAYBACK PERIOD RELATIVE DIFFERENT PLACES AND SYSTEM POWER
  40. 40. Our research and development activities:Thanks for your attention“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”

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