Place and Promotion 7.10.2010
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  • 1. Placeandpromotion SOCIALMARKETINGMIX:STRATEGIES+SOLUTIONS Prof. L. Suzanne Suggs, PhD Marco Bardus, MA Università della Svizzera italiana Autumn semester 2010, Week 3 Thursday October 7
  • 2. Overviewofpresentation Todaywefocuson: Place(Chap.12) Promotion(Chap.13) –CreativeBrief –CreativeStrategy –Messages Lugano, 10/7/2010 2Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 3. Place Making access convenient and pleasant
  • 4. TabulaPeutingeriana Lugano, 10/7/2010 4Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 5. WhatisPlaceinsocialmarketingterms? Physicallocations:walkingtrails Phone:domesticviolencehelpline Mail:immunizationwalletcardtokeeptrackofachild’s immunization;adietary-exerciselog(seeFAN) Fax:signedpatientagreementwithphysiciantoquitis faxedtoaquitline Internet:ridesharematching, MobileUnit:forhazardouswaste,blooddonations, mammograms,etc. Lugano, 10/7/2010 5Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 6. 6 The Social Marketing Mix Tool Definition Examples Key marketing question Product The behavioural offer made to target adopters Adoption of idea (belief, attitude, value) Adoption of behaviour (one-off, sustained) Distance from current behaviour Non-adoption of future behaviour How appealing is the offer? Price The costs that target adopters have to bear and barriers they have to overcome Psychological, emotional Cultural, social Behavioural Temporal, practical Physical, financial How affordable is it? Place The channels by which the change is promoted and places in which the change is supported and encouraged Media channels Distribution channels Interpersonal channels Physical places Non-physical places (e.g. social and cultural climate) How readily available is it? Promotion The means by which the change is promoted to the target Advertising Public relations Media advocacy Direct mail Interpersonal How well known and appreciated is it? Your task: choose a behaviour-change challenge – speeding in your town for instance, or teen antisocial behaviour – and design a marketing mix for it. Consider how useful the various Ps are and how they might vary given another project or the same project at a different stage. Source: adapted from MacFadyen et al. (2002, reproduced in Hastings (2007) Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 7. On-lineplacesbecomerealoff-linevenues Lugano, 10/7/2010 8Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 8. UshahidiInformation Collection, Visualization, & Interactive Mapping Ushahidi builds tools for democratizing information, increasing transparency and lowering the barriers for individuals to share their stories. Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 9
  • 9. BikesharinginLugano Lugano, 10/7/2010 10Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 10. Usetechnology,butbeaware ofpossibledrawbacks…
  • 11. 12
  • 12. Developingplacestrategy
  • 13. Examplesofplacestrategies(1) #1Makelocationcloser Mobilevanfordentalservicesorforneedle exchangeservices #2Extendedhours VotebyMail,RecyclingcentresopenonSundays #3Bethereatthepointofdecisionmaking Placingaglassbowloffruitsateyelevel 14Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 14. Examplesofplacestrategies(2) #4Makethelocationmoreappealing Bicyclepathsandlanes #5Overcomepsychologicalbarriers Needleexchangeservices,counselingsupportby emailonaquit-smokingwebsite #6Bemoreaccessiblethanthecompetition Schoolvendingmachinereform,Applevending machines 15Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 15. Examplesofplacestrategies(3) #7Makeaccesstocompetitionmoredifficult Smokingbans #8BewhereyourTAshops+#9whereTAhangsout MammogramsintheMall,HPVtesting vans #10Workwithexistingdistributionchannels Littering collectionpacks,condoms Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 16
  • 16. Nudging(recommendedreading) Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 17
  • 17. Managingdistributionchannels
  • 18. Typesofdistributionchannels Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 19 Change agent Distributor Wholesaler Retailer Adopter Three-level channel Change agent Distributor Retailer Adopter Two-level channel Change agent Retailer Adopter One-level channel Change agent Adopter Zero-level channel
  • 19. Timeforabreak
  • 20. Promotion Making access convenient and pleasant “Say the right thing in the right way to the right person in the right places enough times” - Lynne Doner Lotenberg (Kotler & Lee, 2008. p. 265)
  • 21. TheFourth“P”:Promotion Promotionsarepersuasivecommunicationsdesignedand deliveredtoinspireyourtargetaudiencetoaction. Whatarethefourmajorcomponents? Messages Messengers Creative strategy Communication channels Lugano, 10/7/2010 22Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 22. Messagestrategies
  • 23. Messagestrategy Whatdoyouwantyourtargetaudiencetodo? Whatdoyouwantthemtoknow? Whatdoyouwantthemtobelieve? Describethedifferencebetween“know”and“believe” Lugano, 10/7/2010 24Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 24. BreakingThrough(Parrott,1995) Benovel Useunexpectedcontentorplace Instructtheaudiencetopaymoreattention(e.g.,“now hearthis”) Uselanguagethatconveysimmediacyandpersonal relevance(use“your”,activepresent-tenseverbs;avoid qualifiers) 25Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 25. HealthCommunicationMessageReviewTool(–(1) Themessagewillgetandmaintaintheattention. Thestrongestpointsaregivenatthebeginningofthemessage. Themessageisclear. Theactionyouareaskingisreasonablyeasy. Themessageusesincentiveseffectively. Goodevidenceforthreatsandbenefits. 26Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 26. HealthCommunicationMessageReviewTool( Themessengerisseenasacrediblesource. Messagesarebelievable. Themessagesuseanappropriatetone. Themessageusesanappealthatisappropriate (i.e.,rationaloremotional). Themessagewillnotharmorbeoffensivetopeoplewhoseeit (includingavoiding‘victimblaming’). Identityisdisplayedthroughout. 27Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 27. Messagedesign Messageappeal Rational(factual)vs.Emotional(elicitpositiveornegativefeelingabout behavior) One-sided(praise)vs.two-sided(praise&condemn)? Messageframing Gainvs.Loss? Moral:it’stheright/wrongthingtodo Nonverbal:visualcues Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 28
  • 28. Messengerstrategies
  • 29. Who’sthespokesperson? PartnersandSponsors Spokespersons(e.g.ObamainWorldAIDSday) Endorsement Howdoyouchoose? Credibility Expertise Trustworthyness Likability Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 30
  • 30. Digression:fear appeals
  • 31. FearMessages Witte(2001)suggeststhatappropriatefearmessages include: 34Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 A high threat message personal and vivid A high-efficacy message that explains how to implement the recommended response, addresses barriers to the recommended response, gives evidence of the recommended response’s effectiveness, and that may role play (i.e., simulate) the recommended response. +
  • 32. Let’srecap:creativestrategytips
  • 33. Creativestrategytips(1) K.I.S.S. (KeepItSimpleandClear) Focusonaudiencebenefits Whenusingfear,followupwithsolutionsandusecrediblesources Tryformessagesthatarevivid,personalandconcrete Makemessageseasytoremember Lugano, 10/7/2010 36Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 34. Creativestrategytips(2) Sometimeshavealittle fun Tryfora“bigidea” Consider aquestion insteadofanag Highlightrelevantsocial norms Lugano, 10/7/2010 37Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 35. Creativebriefs
  • 36. WhatisaCreativeBrief? Abridgebetweenresearchandcreative Thefoundationforstrategy A“creativecontract”agreeduponbyallpartnersat theoutsetofthecreativeprocess
  • 37. CreativeBriefs Provideafocusedbrief(1to2pages)towritersandgraphic designers,including: • Abriefdescriptionoftheprojectandaudience(keyfactorsandinsights fromtheaudienceanalysis) • Specificobjectivesintermsofwhatyouwanttheaudiencetoknow,think anddoaftertheyreceivethemessage • Mainmessage(s)anddesiredoutcome(s)(whatpeoplewilltakeaway) • Benefitsandothercontentelementstosupportyourmainmessage • Typeofappeal(s):Rational(one-sided,two-sided),emotional(suchas fear,humour,feelinggood),functional,moral,normative,relational • Musthaveanddon’twant • Channelstobeusedandspecifications • Budget • Deadlines 40Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 38. TheCreativeBrief 1.TargetAudience(s) Whomdoyouwanttoreachwithyour communication? 2.Objective(s) Whatdoyouwantyourtargetaudiencesto do,think,orfeel? 3.Obstacles Whatbeliefs,culturalpractices,pressure, misinformation,etc.standbetweenyour audienceandthedesiredobjective? 4.KeyPromise What’sinitfortheaudience? 5.SupportStatements ReasonstheKeyPromiseistrue 6.Tone Whatfeelingorpersonalityshouldyour communicationhave? 7.Media Whatchannel(s)orformwillthe communicationstake? 8.Openings Whenorwherearetheteachablemoments? 9.CreativeConsiderations Anythingelsethecreativepeopleshould know? Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 41
  • 39. Aproperlydesignedpre-testcanassess whethermaterialsareunderstandable, attention-getting,memorable,andrelevantto targetaudiencemembers. Itcanalsoidentify anysourceofconfusionoroffence. (Siegel&DonerLotenberg,2007) Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 43
  • 40. Potentialpre-testingtechniques FocusGroups PersonalInterviews ExpertReview Donotoverreacttopre-testresults–useyourjudgment. Soundplanninginpreviousstepsshouldnotcreatetoo manysurprises. Donotforgetthatthefindingshavetobefinallyand thoroughlyrevised! Lugano, 10/7/2010 45Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 41. Pre-testing(cont’d) Thefollowingitemsshouldbeincludedwhenpre-testingmessagesand materials(Siegel&DonerLotenberg,2007): Whatisthemainideaofthe(ad,booklet,etc.)? What,ifanything,wasparticularlyliked? What,ifanything,wasparticularlydisliked? Wasanythingoffensive?(What?Whowoulditoffend?) Wasanythinghardtounderstand?(What?) Wasanythinghardtobelieve?(What?Why?) Whoisthisfor?Whowouldgetthemostoutofit? What,ifanything,shouldbechanged,added,ordeleted? Whyoptionwouldbemostlikelytoinducethedesiredaction? 46Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 42. Wordsofcautionaboutpre-testing Notaboutwhethertheylikethead Consider testingconceptstatements Testconceptualspotsinlineupbeforefinishedspots Thoroughly briefclientsandcolleagues notfamiliar withtheprocess Lugano, 10/7/2010 47Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 43. Finally,besureto: Detailtheproduct Benefits Features Associatedtangiblegood&services DetailthePrice Whatwillitcost(monetaryandnon-monetary) DetailthePlace Wheredotheyhavetogo? Lugano, 10/7/2010 48Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 44. Remember,themessage: Shouldbewhattheconsumertakesoutofit notwhatyouputinit shouldbe: Meaningful Believable Distinctive Lugano, 10/7/2010 49Social Marketing, Fall 2010
  • 45. Activity Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010 50
  • 46. Activity -Place&Promotion Work with the groups formed in “getting to know an issue” and think about possible place and creative message strategies to pursue the goals of a campaign Think about Ways to reduce barriers and improve access (making it easier, including location, hours, mobile/going where the audience is, distribution channels, intermediaries)? Write a message aimed at one of your key audiences that answers the following questions: – What? – So What? – Now What (call to action)? – Who are you (source and/or testimonial/leader)? Specify the approach (appeal, norm, fear, …) Justify the approach referring back to the audience analysis and other components of your strategy 51Lugano, 10/7/2010 Social Marketing, Fall 2010