Márcio Padilha

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  • entheogen is a term used to refer to any psychoactive substances when used for their religious or spiritual effects, whether or not in a formal religious or traditional structure
  • MidwakhSmall pipe of Arabian originPrimarily found in the United Arab Emirates
  • No less than 30% of the packet cover 50% or more recommendedNo Deceptive labels ("mild", "light", etc.) are prohibited.
  • Márcio Padilha

    1. 1. Tobacco Márcio Padilha College of Southern Idaho ADDS 201 – Goffin Fall / 2009
    2. 2. Before the Common EraCirca • Experts believe the tobacco plant, as we know it today,6000 begins growing in the Americas. • (Whiteman, Day, & Nash, 2007)BCE:Circa • Historians believe American inhabitants begin finding ways to use tobacco, including smoking, chewing and hallucinogenic enemas. 1 • (Borio, 2001)BCE:Circa • Tobacco was "nearly everywhere" in the Americas. • (Borio, 1997)1 CE:
    3. 3. Early Middle Ages Between 470-630 CE: • The Mayas began to disperse, spreading their custom to the neighboring peoples. • Believing their gods reveal themselves in the rising smoke, tobacco smoking becomes an entheogen. • A complex system of religious and political rites is created around tobacco. • (Hoffman, Radin, & Schoolcraft, 2007)
    4. 4. Early Modern Age Natives wrap leaves “in the manner of aColumbus lands on musket formed ofthe Bahamas and Europeans observe paper” and, after receives “certain that such leaves are lighting one end,dried leaves" from in high value among "drink" the smokethe natives, which the natives. through the other. are thrown away. • (Borio, 1993)
    5. 5. Early Modern Age Rodrigo de Jerez is thought to be the first confirmed European smoker. He took the habit back to Spain. However, smoke coming from his mouth and nose frightens his neighbors. Imprisoned by the Holy Inquisitors for 7 years. By the time he was released, smoking was a Spanish craze. • (Weaver, 2004)
    6. 6. Late Modern Age Post XVI Century: • “All along the sea routes ... wherever they had trading posts, the Portuguese began the limited planting of tobacco. Before the end of the sixteenth century they had developed these small farms to a point where they could be assured of enough tobacco to meet their personal needs, for gifts, and for barter. By the beginning of the seventeenth century these farms had, in many places, become plantations, often under native control.” • (Brecher, 2007)
    7. 7. Late Modern Age (Wikipedia, 2009)
    8. 8. Tobacco in Early America (Wikipedia, 2006)
    9. 9. Nicotiana Nicotiana Nicotiana Nicotiana Langsdorffi Rustica Obtusifolia i (Wikipedia, 2006) (Wikipedia, 2006) (Wikipedia, 2007)
    10. 10. Nicotiana Nicotiana Nicotiana Nicotiana Alata Glauca Sylvestris (Wikipedia, 2009) (Wikipedia, 2008) (Wikipedia, 2007)
    11. 11. PharmacologyInhaled nicotine is distributed quickly in the body through the bloodstream.Can cross the blood-brain barrier.On average it takes about seven seconds for the substance to reach the brainwhen inhaled.Both a stimulant and a relaxant.Activates reward pathways with intense addictive qualities.Many studies it has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine and heroin. (Xiu X, 2009)
    12. 12. Types of Tobacco • Sun-cured,Aromatic • Cured by gentle Turkishfire-cured aromatic, small- open fire smoke Tobacco leafed variety • Most commonly • Pressure-BrightleafTobacco known brad leaf Perique fermented. Too tobacco strong to smoke Shade • Cultivated in BurleyTobacco • Air-cured tobacco CT/MA. Puritan’s Tobacco “Evil Weed” • Curing process and White • OH-planted, air-Cavendish cutting method Burley cured, milder Wild • Native to the SW Criollo • One of the original USA, Mex, parts of STobacco Caribbean tobaccos Tobacco Ame • Iranian, mixed with • Cross-bred, unusuallyDokham leaves, bark and Y1 high nicotine content. herb (World Health Organization, 2002)
    13. 13. Modes of Consumption Passive Smoking • Involuntary consumption of smoked tobacco • Second-hand smoke: burning end is present • Third-hand smoke: remaining smoke after the burning extinguished Chewing/Smokeless Tobacco • Consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or teeth and chewing Cigars • Tightly rolled, dried and fermented tobacco, not inhaled due to high alkalinity • The United States is the top consuming country (World Health Organization, 2002)
    14. 14. Modes of Consumption Electronic Cigarettes • No tobacco is consumed, battery-powered device, provides doses of vaporized nicotine Hookah • Single or multi-stemmed, often glass-based, Operates by water filtration and indirect heat • Originally from India, Popular in the Middle East Kretek • Complex blend of tobacco, cloves and a flavoring “sauce” • Introduced in the 1880’s in Java to deliver medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs. (World Health Organization, 2002)
    15. 15. Modes of Consumption Pipe • Small chamber (the bowl), thin stem (shank), mouthpiece (the bit). • Tobaccos for pipe-smoking are carefully treated and blended to achieve flavor nuances not available in other tobacco products. Midwakh • Small pipe of Arabian origin • Primarily found in the United Arab Emirates Vaporizer • No burning of the herb, materials are heated in a partial vacuum, plant active compounds boil off into a vapor • Tobacco vaporizes between 284 °F – 392 °F (140°C/200°C) (World Health Organization, 2002)
    16. 16. Modes of Consumption Bidi • Thin, often flavored, made of tobacco, wrapped in a tendu leaf • Low cost, Popular in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and India Hand-rolled Cigarette • Hand-rolled cigarettes, very popular in European countries • Prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers and filters all bought separately, usually much cheaper to make Industrialized Cigarette • Consumed through smoking/inhaling, manufactured out of finely-cut cured tobacco leaves, reconstituted tobacco and additive. (World Health Organization, 2002)
    17. 17. What’s in a cigarette? (Cornell University, 2008)
    18. 18. Making of a CigaretteWhat’s in acigarette? http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=vNCIVetOmEY (History Channel, 2007)
    19. 19. Acute Effects of TobaccoUsage (Center for Desease Control, 2009)
    20. 20. Tobacco Tolerance Nicotine Strength Quantity Speed Frequency (Center for Desease Control, 2009)
    21. 21. Physical Effects of TobaccoUsage (Wikipedia, 2009)
    22. 22. Chronic Effects of TobaccoUsage Cerebral Cognitive Atrophy dysfunction Reduced Increased cognitive risk of abilities in Alzheimers adolescent disease smokers Reduced memory in adolescent smokers (WHO, 2009)
    23. 23. Withdrawal SymptomsJitteriness Dry Mouth Irritability Tachycardia Insomnia Depression (WHO, 2009)
    24. 24. Overdose Symptoms Nausea Palpitations Vomiting Stomach Pain Diarrhea Stomach Cramps Headaches Seizures Difficulty Breathing Weakness Sweating Drooling (Center for Desease Control, 2009)
    25. 25. Nicotine Poisoning Five cigarettes for an adult. One half cigar for an adult. One cigarette for a toddler. (Center for Desease Control, 2009)
    26. 26. Children and NicotinePoisoning Many children get nicotine poisoning after eating cigarettes or cigarette butts. Children have also become poisoned by topical medicinal creams containing nicotine. (Center for Desease Control, 2009)
    27. 27. Synergism • Masculinity • Power Social: • Social Status • Promiscuity Demographic • Developing countries and transitional economies are more likely to consume s: tobacco than developed countries. • Leads to a vast array of diseases Health: primarily affecting the heart and lungs as well as different types of cancer. • Much of the disease burden and Economic: premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor. • Tobacco lobby gives money to Political: politicians to vote in favor of deregulating tobacco. (WHO, 2003)
    28. 28. SynergismStates,1940’sUnited http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=gCMzjJjuxQI (Camel, 1942)
    29. 29. SynergismStates,1960’sUnited http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Bvt8skgm2l8 (Winston, 1962)
    30. 30. SynergismWorldwide, 1990’s http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=jo6MXUPI22g (Hollywood, 1991)
    31. 31. Unique Pocket of Resistance (Wikipedia, 2006)
    32. 32. Have you seen this picturebefore? (Wikipedia, 2006)
    33. 33. The only country where tobacco sales isillegal BHUTAN (Wikipedia, 2009)
    34. 34. Tobacco Treatment IssuesAge of Onset Tobacco Tobaccoand Length of Legality Availability Addiction Non- Tobacco hallucinogenic Physical Low Cost Dependence Properties (Center for Desease Control, 2009)
    35. 35. Treatment Self Motivation Rally support Therapeutic Assistance Courage and willingness to bounce back from relapse (Center for Desease Control, 2009)
    36. 36. Societal Effects Average Shortening of Lifespan inMORTALIT Years 14.5 Y 13.2 Males Females (WHO, 2008)
    37. 37. Societal Effects Males FemalesCANCER BEFORE RISK OF DYING 22.1 FROM LUNG AGE 85 11.9 1.1 0.8 Smoker Non-Smoker (WHO, 2008)
    38. 38. Societal EffectsCANCER LUNG http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=muNne9qBmMk (Australia N. A.-T., 1997)
    39. 39. Societal Costs Health Care Property Damage Judicial System
    40. 40. Percentage of females smoking any tobacco product. Societal Usage of Tobacco(WHO, 2008)
    41. 41. Percentage of males smoking any tobacco product. Societal Usage of Tobacco(WHO, 2008)
    42. 42. Prevention: World HealthOrganization
    43. 43. Adversities to Prevention Trade Liberalization International Direct Foreign Contraband and Investment Counterfeit Transnational Advertising, Promotion Global Marketing and Sponsorship (WHO, 2003)
    44. 44. World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Asserts the Paradigm Reaffirms importance shift in the right of of demand developingEvidence- all people to reduction a regulatory based. the highest strategies strategy to standard of as well as address health. supply addictive issues. substances. (WHO, 2003)
    45. 45. World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco ControlAdopted by the One of the most As of Entered into 05/10/2004: World Health widely 166 11/18/2009, not force on USA became a Assembly on embraced Signatories. ratified by the 02/27/2005. signatory.May 21, 2003. treaties. USA. (WHO, 2003)
    46. 46. 12/21/2011
    47. 47. World Health Organization Article 5.3: Articles 6 & 7: • Call for a limitation in the • Tax and other measures to Framework Convention interactions between lawmakers reduce tobacco demand. and the tobacco industry. on Tobacco ControlArticle 9 & 11: Article 10: Article 8:• Large health warning (at least • The contents and emissions of • Obligation to protect all people 30% of the packet cover, 50% or tobacco products are to be from exposure to tobacco smoke more recommended); deceptive regulated and ingredients are to in indoor workplaces, public labels ("mild", "light", etc.) are be disclosed. transport and indoor public prohibited. places. (WHO, 2003)
    48. 48. World Health OrganizationArticle 12: Article 13: Article 14:• Public awareness for the • Comprehensive • Addiction and cessation consequences of smoking. ban, unless the national programs. constitution forbids it.Articles 20, 21, & 22: Article 16: Article 15:• Tobacco-related research • Restricted sales to minors. • Action is required to and information sharing eliminate illicit trade of among the parties. tobacco products. (WHO, 2003)
    49. 49. Prevention Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970 "Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determinedthat Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health.”Banned cigarette advertisements on American radio and television. (Center for Desease Control, 2000)
    50. 50. Prevention Comprehensive Smoking Education Act of 1984 (PL 98–474) SURGEON GENERAL’S SURGEON GENERAL’S SURGEON GENERAL’S SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: WARNING: WARNING: WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Quitting Smoking Now Smoking by Pregnant Cigarette Smoke Contains Cancer, Heart Greatly Reduces Serious Women May Result in Fetal Carbon Monoxide.Disease, Emphysema, and Risks to Your Health. Injury, Premature Birth, andMay Complicate Pregnancy. Low Birth Weight. (Center for Desease Control, 2000)
    51. 51. PreventionFramewor k • Large HealthConventio Warning n on Tobacco • No Deceptive Labels Control (WHO, 2003)
    52. 52. Prevention (Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)
    53. 53. Prevention (Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)
    54. 54. PreventionVictim of this Product: Gangrene:This product intoxicates mother and child Using this product clogs up arteries making bloodcausing premature birth and death circulation difficult. (Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)
    55. 55. PreventionDeath: Heart Attack:Using this product causes death due to Using this product causes death due tolung cancer and emphysema. cardiac diseases. (Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)
    56. 56. PreventionToxic Smoke: Horror:Breathing this product’s smoke causes This product causes premature skin aging.pneumonia and bronchitis. (Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)
    57. 57. PreventionImpotence: Stroke:Using this product diminishes, causes difficulties Using this product will increase the risk of stroke.or impedes erections. (Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)
    58. 58. PreventionToxic Product: Suffering:This product contains toxic substances Nicotine dependence leads to sadness, pain and death.which cause sickness and death. (Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 2009)
    59. 59. PreventionMauritius:Smoking causes a slow and painful death. Canada (WHO, 2009)
    60. 60. PreventionChile: Panama:In Chile, tobacco kills 16,000 persons every year. Smoking causes cardiovascular diseases.The next can be you. (WHO, 2009)
    61. 61. PreventionPeru:Smoking causes miscarriages. Singapore (WHO, 2009)
    62. 62. PreventionIran:Smoking can cause permanent damage to theeyes, nerve tissues and it can make you blind after all. Belgium (WHO, 2009)
    63. 63. Prevention Thailand:Hong Kong Smoking and Larynx Cancer (WHO, 2009)
    64. 64. PreventionNew Zealand Australia (WHO, 2009)
    65. 65. Prevention CHILE http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=-F8X_OZgbrw (Chile, 2009)
    66. 66. Prevention BRAZIL http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=yJJhInXnQjY (Brasil, 2004)
    67. 67. Prevention INDIA http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=Sm5UyrEqGhQ (India, 2009)
    68. 68. Prevention AUSTRALIA http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=-YjrkBYDDQM (Australia, 2006)
    69. 69. Praxis of Prevention in theUSAEmphasis Legislative Punitive
    70. 70. Smoking Ban in the UnitedStates (Wikipedia, 2009)
    71. 71. Smoking Ban in the UnitedStates (Wikipedia, 2009)
    72. 72. PreventionFramework • InteractionConvention limitation between on lawmakers and Tobacco the tobacco Control industry (WHO, 2003)
    73. 73. The 1992 Lobby Industry in US$ Thousands $2,004,866 $1,853,741 $1,675,219 $1,484,731 $1,444,412 $1,354,547 $1,338,659 $957,261 $865,230 $803,197 $514,447 (Ferraro, 1992)
    74. 74. Factoid At US$2,004,866,000; the 1992 Tobacco Industry Lobby Budget in the United States is greater than the 2008 Gross Internal Product of 14 Sovereign Nations in world.
    75. 75. US$ 1,880,000,000 Djibouti (Wikipedia, 2009)
    76. 76. US$ 1,749,000,000VerdeCape (Wikipedia, 2009)
    77. 77. US$ 1,471,000,000 Liberia (Wikipedia, 2009)
    78. 78. US$ 1,261,000,000Maldive s (Wikipedia, 2009)
    79. 79. US$ 1,088,000,000 Samoa (Wikipedia, 2009)
    80. 80. US$ 848,000,000Guinea-Bissau (Wikipedia, 2009)
    81. 81. US$ 810,000,000Gambi a (Wikipedia, 2009)
    82. 82. US$ 642,000,000Solomon Islands (Wikipedia, 2009)
    83. 83. US$ 573,000,000Vanuat u (Wikipedia, 2009)
    84. 84. US$ 532,000,000Comoro s (Wikipedia, 2009)
    85. 85. US$ 499,000,000Timor East (Wikipedia, 2009)
    86. 86. US$ 175,000,000and Príncipe São Tomé (Wikipedia, 2009)
    87. 87. US$ 137,000,000 Kiribati (Wikipedia, 2009)
    88. 88. US$ 14,000,000Tuvalu (Wikipedia, 2009)
    89. 89. PreventionFramework • PublicConvention awareness for on the Tobacco consequences Control of smoking. (WHO, 2003)
    90. 90. PreventionCDC 2009 WHO 2009
    91. 91. Prevention So… …which type of prevention approach do you feel to be the most efficient?
    92. 92. Works Cited: Australia, N. A.-T. (Director). (1997). Lung [Motion Picture]. Australia, V. S. (Director). (2006). Mouth Cancer [Motion Picture]. Borio, G. (2001). History of Tobacco. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium: http://www.ttac.org/products/Tobacco_101/content/Resources/History_of_T obacco.pdf Borio, G. (1997, 04 22). The History of Tobacco (Part 1). Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from HistoryNet: http://www.historian.org/bysubject/tobacco1.htm Borio, G. (1993). Tobacco, Health and the Law. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Tobacco Timeline: http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/tobacco/history2.htm Brasil, M. d. (Director). (2004). Renata [Motion Picture]. Brecher, E. M. (2007, 12 13). Tobacco. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Schaffer Library of Drug Policy: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/Library/studies/cu/cu23.html Camel (Director). (1942). More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette [Motion Picture].
    93. 93. Works Cited: Center for Disease Control. (2009, 06 19). Smoking & Tobacco Use. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Tobacco Control Programs: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/tobacco_control_programs/index.htm Center for Disease Control. (2000, 08 09). Smoking & Tobacco Use: Highlights: Warning Labels. Retrieved 11 14, 2008, from Center for Disease Control: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2000/highlights/labels/index. htm Channel, H. (Director). (2007). Modern Marvels: Tobacco [Motion Picture]. Chile, M. d. (Director). (2009). Los Hijos [Motion Picture]. Cornell University. (2008). Reality Check. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Cornell University, Cooperative Extension, Wyoming County: http://counties.cce.cornell.edu/Wyoming/family/reality_check/cigarette.jpg Ferraro, T. (1992). The Tobacco Lobby. Multinational.org. Hoffman, W. J., Radin, P., & Schoolcraft, H. R. (2007). Were Native American Indians the first to invent, use, and smoke tobacco? Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Yahoo! Answers: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070730195305AAe7rXw Hollywood (Director). (1991). Break thru the Barrier [Motion Picture
    94. 94. Works Cited: India, C. P. (Director). (2009). Impotence [Motion Picture]. Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Brazil). (2009). Health Warnings on Tobacco Products. Brasília: Ministry of Health. Norman A. Krasnegor, P. (1979, 08). Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/26.pdf Tobacco, T. M. (Director). (2007). How to Grow Tobacco [Motion Picture]. Weaver, J. (2004). Nic- the Habi. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Cigarettesmokingkills.com: http://cigarettesmokingkills.com/Timeline.html Whiteman, M., Day, S., & Nash, S. (2007, 11 18). Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Indigenous Peoples Task Force: http://www.indigenouspeoplestf.org/toolkit/traditional_use/kfai_18nov2007.p df WHO. (2009). Mayo report on addressing the worldwide tobacco epidemic through effective, evidence-based treatment. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from WHO: http://www.who.int/tobacco/resources/publications/mayo/en/index.html
    95. 95. Works Cited: WHO. (2009). Showing the truth, saving lives: the case for pictorial health warnings. Geneva: WHO. WHO. (2003). WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva: WHO. WHO. (2008). WHO REPORT on the global TOBACCO epidemic. Geneva: WHO. India, C. P. (Director). (2009). Impotence [Motion Picture]. Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Brazil). (2009). Health Warnings on Tobacco Products. Brasília: Ministry of Health. Wikipedia. (2007, 08 10). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from File:Nicotiana langsdorfii 20070810-1226-74.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_langsdorfii_20070810-1226- 74.jpg Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). Cape Verde. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
    96. 96. Works Cited: Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). Comoros. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comoros Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). Djibouti. Retrieved 11 15, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djibouti Wikipedia. (2009, 10 11). East Timor. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor Wikipedia. (2009, 05 11). File:Bhutan (orthographic projection).svg. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bhutan_(orthographic_projection).svg Wikipedia. (2006, 02 24). File:Flag of Bhutan.svg. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Bhutan.svg Wikipedia. (2007, 11 11). File:Nicotiana sylvestris 001.JPG. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_sylvestris_001.JPG
    97. 97. Works Cited: Wikipedia. (2008, 03 30). File:Nicotiana-glauca-20080330.JPG. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana-glauca-20080330.JPG Wikipedia. (2004, 10 28). File:Nicotinana alata0.jpg. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotinana_alata0.jpg Wikipedia. (2009, 10 01). File:Smokingheltheffect.gif. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Smokingheltheffect.gif Wikipedia. (2009, 07 29). File:Spanish Empire Anachronous 0.PNG. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spanish_Empire_Anachronous_0.PNG Wikipedia. (2006, 09 10). File:Taktshang.jpg. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taktshang.jpg
    98. 98. Works Cited: Wikipedia. (2006, 03 13). File:Tobacco.JPG. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tobacco.JPG Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Guinea Bissau. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea-Bissau Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Kiribati. Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiribati Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Liberia. Retrieved 11 14, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberia Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). List of smoking bans in the United States. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_smoking_bans_in_the_United_States Wikipedia. (2009, 11 16). Maldives. Retrieved 11 16, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maldives
    99. 99. Works Cited: Wikipedia. (2009, 11 11). Samoa. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samoa Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). São Tomé and Príncipe. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A3o_Tom%C3%A9_and_Pr%C3%ADnc ipe Wikipedia. (2009, 11 09). Solomon Islands. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Islands Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). The Gambia. Retrieved 11 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gambia Wikipedia. (2009, 11 12). Tuvalu. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvalu Wikipedia. (2009, 11 14). Vanuatu. Retrieved 11 15, 2009, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanuatu
    100. 100. Works Cited: Wikipedia. (2006, 12 30). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from File:Nicotiana obtusifolia 3.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_obtusifolia_3.jpg Wikipedia. (2006, 07 13). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 12, 2009, from File:Nicotiana Tobacco Plants 1909px.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicotiana_Tobacco_Plants_1909px.jpg Wikipedia. (2007, 03 03). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 15, 2009, from File:SAN FRAN-1.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SAN_FRAN-1.jpg Wikipedia. (2009, 07 10). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 13, 2009, from File:6H Nicotiana alata.jpg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:6H_Nicotiana_alata.jpg Winston (Director). (1962). Flintstones Winston Cigarettes Commercials [Motion Picture].
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