Vocabulary Largest predictor of college success Number of exposures = ownership
Vocabulary Critical Features of Vocabulary Instruction
Words to Teach Academic Word List (AWL) Tier 2 Words Oxford All students who need vocabulary can work on the same words since they are academic vocab.
Assessment WMT – Word Meaning Test (oral) Breadth– number and kinds of word meanings known Depth – flexibility of knowledge (rubric) 1. never heard it before 2. heard it, but don’t know what it means 3. kind of know it 4. know it well
Problems with Traditional Teaching Strategies Context Clues Pedionomite The pedionomite was struck by lightning. The pedionomite was reserved, but friendly. What does pedionomite mean? A pedionomite is a person who lives on a plain. Research shows that context clues are not an effective way to teach vocabulary.
Problems with Traditional Teaching Strategies Dictionary Definitions Dictionary definitions are not necessarily clear. Also, there may be multiple meanings and students do not know which one to choose. When students used dictionaries to create sentences: 63% of the sentences were judged “odd” and 60% were judged “unacceptable.” (Isabel Beck)
Pre- and Post Tests Sample Adequate Appeal Establish – something that is stable all ready Potential – what somdoby or something has to do something Respond – is the respond that you give to a question
Direct, Explicit Instruction use direct instruction to introduce the word meanings solicit examples from students to illustrate the words across different contexts Example: utilize: to make (good) use of; to make the most of
Low Impact Exercises highly supportive and have only 1 correct answer context is supplied, so not as personal or rigorous
High Impact Exercises explore meaning in more depth open-ended, so students develop own contexts
Sentence Completions Something that I can do adequately (but not outstandingly) is _____________. Something that I am awkward at is _____________________________. One family rule my parents established when I was young was ____________. Try it: Use a word from the work bank to write a statement.
Read-and-Respond Sample questions : words – utilize, challenge, adequate, considerable. What are some of the challenges in recycling plastic? How can you utilize your recycling bin more effectively? Should we spend considerable time thinking about how we can adequatelyutilize our resources?
Yes/No – Why? Is it customary to feel inadequate if our potential is not met? Does it feel awkward to appeal to someone for money, even if it’s for a humane reason? When someone doesn’t respond to you, does it make you feel as if you’ve vanished? Try it: Use a word from the work bank to write a question.
Similarities and Differences Instruction should emphasize differences as well as similarities among word meanings. Try It How are these words similar and different? Lie Misconception Fabrication Perjury
Makes Sense?Martin, L. Adult Learning Resource Center, www.thecenterweb.org. Example: The “E” on the fuel gauge in my car indicates that my car is almost out of gas. The “E” on the fuel gauge in my car indicates that my car has plenty of gas. The “E” on the fuel gauge in my car indicates that my car is full of gas. Try it: Use a word from the work bank to write a statement.
Quick Write/TalkMartin, L. Adult Learning Resource Center, www.thecenterweb.org. Example Prompts What do you do consistently? What is something that you analyze regularly? See also Vocabulary Power
Examples and Non-ExamplesBeck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction (pp.74-75). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Example: consistent Javier always comes to work on time. Javier usually comes to class on time. Try it: Use a word from the word bank above and write two sentences. One should reflect the meaning of the word, and the other should not.
Describing Pictures Try it: Using the words below, write sentences that describe the picture.
Independent Word Practice (advanced vocabulary practice) The Conversation Game Apples to Apples Jeopardy 10,000 Pyramid **will be demonstrated after workshop**
Writing Assignments Example: Do you think your current neighbors would welcome the opportunity to get to know each other better? Write an essay telling why or why not. Use at least three vocabulary words.
Raising Vocabulary AwarenessStahl, S.A., & Nagy, W.E. (2006). Teaching Word Meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. word of the week/ day word wall word spotting – where did you hear/see words outside of class (write down for homework)? puns tracking vocabulary progress (vocabulary journal, quizzes, word knowledge charts)
Other Activities vocabucks for students who use vocabulary in class (prizes) word sorts/ word categories analogies teaching morpheme patterns: prefixes, suffixes, roots semantic maps semantic features analysis extensive reading
Comprehension Assessment Bader reading assessment Use comprehension questions to assess student understanding
Factors to consider: Matching the level of the text to the learner’s instructional reading level Choosing materials that are interesting and purposeful for the reader and suitable for adults Choosing materials that lend themselves to the strategies that will be taught Selecting a variety of text types and structures; starting with the most familiar to the reader (e.g., narrative). But need to expose students to more expository texts.
Teaching Strategies: Model, guided practice, whole class on easy reading (lowest reading level in class) Practice in groups according to level to work on reading at their level Teach one group of students who need help with a particular strategy while other students work independently, applying a strategy already learned
Sources of materials: Six Way Paragraphs. www.marshalladulteducation.org Fry Readability Chart (online) Can contact publisher to find out reading level of material.
Goals connecting sentences to form ideas relating ideas to what they already know recognizing when an idea is missed and knowing what to do
Comprehension Strategies and Activities Teach fewer strategies and teach them well Summarization and questioning are the 2 strongest techniques
Summarizing What is the topic of the paragraph? what is the paragraph about? what is the focus? What is the most important point the author makes about the topic?
Questioning Way for learners to integrate information from the text e.g., Earhart disappeared on a flight around the world. What happened to Earhart? What was she on when she disappeared? NOT: Where did she disappear? (answer not in the statement)
Combining Summarizing and Questioning Susan Perez Demo
K-W-L Helps students to draw connections between what they read in a text and their own knowledge and experiences
Text Structures Help students to see how ideas in the text relate to one another Cause and Effect Compare and/or Contrast Sequence Description Story Try It
Text Marking Strategy use text marking especially to monitor reading – check for understanding use a limited number of symbols – easier for students to use also monitor if the question is answered later in the text Try It
Retelling Follows order of the original text Has more details What do you remember about the passage?