Gandhi

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Gandhi

  1. 2. Introduction
  2. 3. Historical Background <ul><li>India was still an English Colony </li></ul><ul><li>Indians were very conservative. </li></ul><ul><li>British forced them to adopt </li></ul><ul><li>their culture </li></ul><ul><li>British respected their culture, but controlled the important people. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatism Indian Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>After mid 19 th Century, the British had more to offer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated people tolerated better British </li></ul></ul>Indian Army rebellion, 1857 <ul><li>South Africa was under British control </li></ul><ul><li>Zulu War, 1906 </li></ul>
  3. 4. Artistic Background <ul><li>Bagata and Chokha early 19th Century painters </li></ul><ul><li>Pahari paintings (17th- 19th Centuries) </li></ul><ul><li>Most paintings were done for British residents </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Bhau Daji Lad Sangrahalaya </li></ul><ul><li>Allbless family </li></ul><ul><li>F. W. Stevens </li></ul>
  5. 6. Literary and musical background <ul><li>Rabindranath Tagore: </li></ul><ul><li>He was born in Calcutta in 1861 and he died in 1941. </li></ul><ul><li>Tagore was a poet, novelist, musician and playwright. </li></ul><ul><li>He changed completely music and literature in India. </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote Hindustani classical music songs </li></ul><ul><li>In 1913 he won the Nobel Prize in literature. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a piece of his winning song: </li></ul>আমার এ গান ছেড়েছে তার সকল অলংকার , তোমার কাছে রাখে নি আর সাজের অহংকার। অলংকার যে মাঝে পড়ে মিলনেতে আড়াল করে , তোমার কথা ঢাকে যে তার মুখর ঝংকার। তোমার কাছে খাটে না মোর কবির গর্ব করা , মহাকবি তোমার পায়ে দিতে যে চাই ধরা। জীবন লয়ে যতন করি যদি সরল বাঁশি গড়ি , আপন সুরে দিবে ভরি সকল ছিদ্র তার। &quot;My song has put off her adornments. She has no pride of dress and decoration. Ornaments would mar our union; they would come between thee and me; their jingling would drown thy whispers.&quot; &quot;My poet's vanity dies in shame before thy sight. O master poet, I have sat down at thy feet. Only let me make my life simple and straight, like a flute of reed for thee to fill with music.&quot;
  6. 7. Music styles <ul><li>Folk music: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bauls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhangra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhavageete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dandiya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lavani </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qawwali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabindra Sangeet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rajasthan </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI
  8. 9. Basic information about Mahatma Gandhi <ul><li>REAL NAME: </li></ul><ul><li>His name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>BIRTH AND DEATH DATES: </li></ul><ul><li>He was born in 1869 in Porbandar, in the British India </li></ul><ul><li>He was murdered in 1948 in New Delhi. </li></ul>RELIGION: Hinduism FAMILY: - His wife was called Kasturba Gandhi. - He had 4 children <ul><li>PROFESSION: </li></ul><ul><li>- Lawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Politician </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual leader </li></ul>
  9. 10. Early life <ul><li>He was born on the 2nd of October 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal town in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Father: Karamchand Gandhi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Minister of Porbandar State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mother: Putlibai Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>Influence for adult life His mother and regional traditions: vegetarianism, fasting, compassion for sentient beings, and mutual tolerance between people of different believes </li></ul><ul><li>Shravana and Maharaja Harishchandra: ancient stories that influenced Gandhi. </li></ul><ul><li>He was married when he was 13 to Kasturba, who was 14 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Gandhi and Kasturbai
  11. 12. Studies <ul><li>In 1888 Gandhi traveled to London to study at the University College of London to be a barrister </li></ul><ul><li>He became interested in religious thoughts and began to study both, Hindus and Christian scriptures. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, he came back to India to implemment law in Mumbay. Unfortunately it was unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi also tried to be a high school teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Finally Gandhi signed up with a company in South Africa, part of the British Colony </li></ul>
  12. 13. South Africa <ul><li>He traveled to South Africa to represent Indian laborers there </li></ul><ul><li>DISCRIMINATION: Indians mistreatment by the British, because of racial discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>He became interested in the passive protests carried out by Indians living in South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>He postponed his returning trip to India because of the new law that was going to be imposed. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi created parties promoting Indian civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Zulu war exploded and an Indian voluntary group assisted the British </li></ul>
  13. 14. Non-violent protests <ul><li>In 1906 the government wanted to create a registration for Indian people </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi insisted on this community to adopt the satyagraha, which is a non-violent protest </li></ul><ul><li>This protest was carried out for seven years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians protested, refused to registrate, burnt their identification cards and followed other kinds of non-violent measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These Indians, during those seven years, were put in jail, beaten, or even executed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The government managed to control the situation </li></ul><ul><li>When the methods used by the government were known, they were forced to negotiate with Gandhi </li></ul>
  14. 15. Return to India <ul><li>In 1914 Gandhi returned home and refused to be a lawyer as he was told that he would be more important in other national affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>He and his wife traveled all along India, and deepened in his thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>He struggled for the Indian Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Non-violent protests against textile imports from Britain. It ended up with his arrestment in 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduists and Muslims were about to break up their cooperations. </li></ul><ul><li>British banned Indians to produce their own salt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt March: Gandhi led a 200-mile march from Ahmedabad to the coastal Dandi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quit India (1492): Gandhi proposed immediate independence </li></ul>
  15. 16. World Wars roles <ul><li>First World War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viceroy invited him to a War Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhi agreed with the Viceroy to recruit Indians for the British army </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second World War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhi offered non-violent moral support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Congress was offended, since that was a unilateral decision and it had not been consulted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally Gandhi declared that India was not going to participate as long as it remained controlled by Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhi intensified his demand for independence </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Indian partition (1945-1947) <ul><li>Gandhi did not agree on the partition of India in two halves: Muslims and Hinduists </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1946 and 1948 there were religious confrontations </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim community made pressure to accelerate the Indian partition </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi had a great influence Sadar Patel managed to convince Gandhi to support the separation of India and Pakistan to avoid a civil war </li></ul>
  17. 18. Gandhi’s assassination <ul><li>30 th of January, in 1948. He was going to pray. Then he was shot three times. </li></ul><ul><li>He was 78 years old. The assassin, Nathuram Godse, who was a Hindu Nationalist, was against Gandhi, as he acussed him for making the new government. </li></ul><ul><li>One year later, Nathuram Godse, together with his co-conspirator Narayan Apte , were tried andsentenced to death. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the man who planned the murder, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, was acquitted for lack of evidence. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>An evidence of his struggle and his search for God is in his last words before dying. He said: “Hey, Rama!” </li></ul><ul><li>   This is interpreted as a sign of his spirituality and his idealism in the pursuit of peace. </li></ul>And this is the End
  19. 20. <ul><li>“ An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.” </li></ul>“ There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for” “ Hate the sin, love the sinner” “ An ounce of practice is worth more than tons of preaching” “ To forgive is not to forget. The merit lies in loving in spite of the vivid knowledge that the one that must be loved is not a friend” 26th of October 2009 IES Laguna de Joatzel 4º A María Gómez Maroto and Yolanda Martí Mateos
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