British respected their culture, but controlled the important people.
Conservatism Indian Nationalism
After mid 19 th Century, the British had more to offer
Educated people tolerated better British
Indian Army rebellion, 1857
South Africa was under British control
Zulu War, 1906
Bagata and Chokha early 19th Century painters
Pahari paintings (17th- 19th Centuries)
Most paintings were done for British residents
Bhau Daji Lad Sangrahalaya
F. W. Stevens
Literary and musical background
He was born in Calcutta in 1861 and he died in 1941.
Tagore was a poet, novelist, musician and playwright.
He changed completely music and literature in India.
He wrote Hindustani classical music songs
In 1913 he won the Nobel Prize in literature.
This is a piece of his winning song:
আমার এ গান ছেড়েছে তার সকল অলংকার , তোমার কাছে রাখে নি আর সাজের অহংকার। অলংকার যে মাঝে পড়ে মিলনেতে আড়াল করে , তোমার কথা ঢাকে যে তার মুখর ঝংকার। তোমার কাছে খাটে না মোর কবির গর্ব করা , মহাকবি তোমার পায়ে দিতে যে চাই ধরা। জীবন লয়ে যতন করি যদি সরল বাঁশি গড়ি , আপন সুরে দিবে ভরি সকল ছিদ্র তার। "My song has put off her adornments. She has no pride of dress and decoration. Ornaments would mar our union; they would come between thee and me; their jingling would drown thy whispers." "My poet's vanity dies in shame before thy sight. O master poet, I have sat down at thy feet. Only let me make my life simple and straight, like a flute of reed for thee to fill with music."
MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI
Basic information about Mahatma Gandhi
His name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
BIRTH AND DEATH DATES:
He was born in 1869 in Porbandar, in the British India
He was murdered in 1948 in New Delhi.
RELIGION: Hinduism FAMILY: - His wife was called Kasturba Gandhi. - He had 4 children
He was born on the 2nd of October 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal town in India.
Father: Karamchand Gandhi
Prime Minister of Porbandar State
Mother: Putlibai Gandhi
Influence for adult life His mother and regional traditions: vegetarianism, fasting, compassion for sentient beings, and mutual tolerance between people of different believes
Shravana and Maharaja Harishchandra: ancient stories that influenced Gandhi.
He was married when he was 13 to Kasturba, who was 14
Gandhi and Kasturbai
In 1888 Gandhi traveled to London to study at the University College of London to be a barrister
He became interested in religious thoughts and began to study both, Hindus and Christian scriptures.
Then, he came back to India to implemment law in Mumbay. Unfortunately it was unsuccessful.
Gandhi also tried to be a high school teacher
Finally Gandhi signed up with a company in South Africa, part of the British Colony
He traveled to South Africa to represent Indian laborers there
DISCRIMINATION: Indians mistreatment by the British, because of racial discrimination
He became interested in the passive protests carried out by Indians living in South Africa.
He postponed his returning trip to India because of the new law that was going to be imposed.
Gandhi created parties promoting Indian civil rights
Zulu war exploded and an Indian voluntary group assisted the British
In 1906 the government wanted to create a registration for Indian people
Gandhi insisted on this community to adopt the satyagraha, which is a non-violent protest
This protest was carried out for seven years
Indians protested, refused to registrate, burnt their identification cards and followed other kinds of non-violent measurements
These Indians, during those seven years, were put in jail, beaten, or even executed.
The government managed to control the situation
When the methods used by the government were known, they were forced to negotiate with Gandhi
Return to India
In 1914 Gandhi returned home and refused to be a lawyer as he was told that he would be more important in other national affairs.
He and his wife traveled all along India, and deepened in his thoughts.
He struggled for the Indian Independence
Non-violent protests against textile imports from Britain. It ended up with his arrestment in 1922.
Hinduists and Muslims were about to break up their cooperations.
British banned Indians to produce their own salt
Salt March: Gandhi led a 200-mile march from Ahmedabad to the coastal Dandi
Quit India (1492): Gandhi proposed immediate independence
World Wars roles
First World War:
Viceroy invited him to a War Conference
Gandhi agreed with the Viceroy to recruit Indians for the British army
Second World War:
Gandhi offered non-violent moral support
The Congress was offended, since that was a unilateral decision and it had not been consulted
Finally Gandhi declared that India was not going to participate as long as it remained controlled by Britain
Gandhi intensified his demand for independence
Indian partition (1945-1947)
Gandhi did not agree on the partition of India in two halves: Muslims and Hinduists
Between 1946 and 1948 there were religious confrontations
Muslim community made pressure to accelerate the Indian partition
Gandhi had a great influence Sadar Patel managed to convince Gandhi to support the separation of India and Pakistan to avoid a civil war
30 th of January, in 1948. He was going to pray. Then he was shot three times.
He was 78 years old. The assassin, Nathuram Godse, who was a Hindu Nationalist, was against Gandhi, as he acussed him for making the new government.
One year later, Nathuram Godse, together with his co-conspirator Narayan Apte , were tried andsentenced to death.
However, the man who planned the murder, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, was acquitted for lack of evidence.
An evidence of his struggle and his search for God is in his last words before dying. He said: “Hey, Rama!”
This is interpreted as a sign of his spirituality and his idealism in the pursuit of peace.
And this is the End
“ An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.”
“ There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for” “ Hate the sin, love the sinner” “ An ounce of practice is worth more than tons of preaching” “ To forgive is not to forget. The merit lies in loving in spite of the vivid knowledge that the one that must be loved is not a friend” 26th of October 2009 IES Laguna de Joatzel 4º A María Gómez Maroto and Yolanda Martí Mateos