Benjamin Franklin


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Benjamin Franklin

  1. 1. Adrián Fernández Gollerizo Daniel Rus Carrillo 4ºA
  2. 3. <ul><li>American revolution. Boston Tea Party 1773 (no more relatinships with Britain). War of Independence in 1775. </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence 1776. The colonies where finally independent and George Washington was elected president in 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonies were now independent and they developed trade relationships with France. </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting for the abolition of slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>French Revolution 1789. Fighting against absolutism. </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Polifonic music is old-fashioned and composers try to express their feelings through instrumental concerts. This period shows the transition of Baroque to Classic style. </li></ul><ul><li>We can distinguish three kinds of musicians: </li></ul><ul><li>Late Baroque musicians: </li></ul><ul><li>Bach, Handel... </li></ul><ul><li>Classic musicians: Mozart, Haydn... </li></ul><ul><li>Composers of concerto grosso. Vivaldi, Albinioni </li></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><li>Rococo: Artistic movement developed in France. Use of bright, smooth colors. Paintings were inspired in nature, mythollogy and nude bodies. Antoine Watteau was very important. </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassicism: Artistic movement inspired in Rome and Greece and their mythologic events. Jaques-Louis David is a very important painter. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture: Buildings are structured following the Classic style. Juan de Villanueva is an important architect. </li></ul>
  5. 9. <ul><li>There were great French and English authors such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Denis Diderot </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Austen </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Swift </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Defoe </li></ul><ul><li>David Hume </li></ul>French authors ( The Enlightenment ) British authors
  6. 11. <ul><li>Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was born on Milk Street in Boston, Massachusetts on January 17, 1706. His father, Josiah Franklin, was a maker of candles and soap. His mother Abiah Folger died before he was born. He attended Boston Latin School but did not graduate. At 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer. </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, looking for a new start in a new city. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1730, Franklin had set up a printing house of his own and was the publisher of a newspaper called &quot;The Pennsylvania Gazette&quot;. </li></ul>
  7. 12. <ul><li>Franklin was initiated into the local </li></ul><ul><li>Freemason lodge in 1731. </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin married Deborah Read </li></ul><ul><li>in 1730. They had two children </li></ul><ul><li>even though one of them died </li></ul><ul><li>of smallpox. Ben also had an </li></ul><ul><li>illegitimate son called William. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1733 he started publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Richard's Almanac. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the famous phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with Franklin come </li></ul><ul><li>from this almanac. </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>Franklin dedicated the rest of his life to his inventions and discoveries together with his social and political life which was really active. Franklin wrote several essays about the importance of the abolition of slavery. He was part of several associations and he took an important role in congress and in the Pennsylvania Assembly. He was ambassador several times and that’s the reason why he is considered the greatest diplomat ever. </li></ul><ul><li>Ben died peacefully in his sleep on April 17, 1790. He was 84 years old. </li></ul>
  9. 15. <ul><li>Benjamin Franklin was inspired to create his version of the armonica because of a Handel’s concert. </li></ul><ul><li>It was created in 1761 and was smaller than the originals and did not require water tuning. </li></ul><ul><li>His armonica won popularity in Europe. Beethoven and Mozart composed music for it. </li></ul>
  10. 16. <ul><li>Fireplaces were the main source of heat in the 18th century but they were very inefficient. </li></ul><ul><li>His invention of an iron furnace stove allowed people to warm their homes with less wood and producing more heat. </li></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>In 1752, Benjamin Franklin conducted his famous kite flying experiments and proved that lightning is electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>He invented the lightning rod which protected buildings from lightning damage. </li></ul><ul><li>The rod attracts the lightning and sends the charge into the ground, decrease the amount of fires. </li></ul>
  12. 18. <ul><li>Ben had poor vision and he needed glasses to read and to see objects at a far distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting tired of switching between two types of glasses, he devised a way to have both types of lenses fit into the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1784, he developed bifocal glasses. </li></ul>
  13. 19. Ben's older brother John suffered from kidney stones. Ben developed a flexible urinary catheter to help him with his problem. A catheter is a thin and flexible tube inserted into a bodily passage or cavity in order to allow fluids to pass into or out of it
  14. 20. <ul><li>He invented a simple odometer to help measure the mileage of the routes. </li></ul><ul><li>He attached it to his carriage to analyze the best routes for delivering the mail. </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Combining both his wisdom and political convictions he represented his own thoughts through political cartoons. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Join or Die&quot;, is the first political cartoon ever. It appears in Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette, concerning the Albany Plan of Union </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>When he went to England he visited the British House of Commons and as it was a cold winter the interior was extremely freezing so he created hot-water pipes to warm up the chilly building. </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>At age 46, Franklin developed another device to help him understand electricity, called lightning bells. These bells would jingle when lightning was in the air. </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>Franklin’s sea anchor was used to slow the speed i.e. when a boat is going against the direction of the wind the sea anchor is used to stop it. </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>Franklin made modifications to improve his library chair. He attached a fan that was operated by a foot pedal and modified the chair so that it functioned as a seat. </li></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>To help him reach books that were out of his reach, he created an extension arm. </li></ul><ul><li>The device had two &quot;fingers&quot; that were attached to the end of a long stick. The fingers could be opened or closed by pulling on a string. </li></ul>
  21. 27. Franklin invented a 24-hour, three-wheel clock that was much simpler than most clock designs of the time. In 1758, one of Franklin's friends, improved it.
  22. 28. Franklin developed swim fins because he was an avid swimmer. They were two wooden palettes, oval in shape and with a hole to put one's thumb.
  23. 29. <ul><li>He improved the oil lamp which sometimes caused big fires because they had no security. </li></ul><ul><li>He improved the printing-press and invented a new one much faster and economic. He also created a new kind of type. </li></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>As early as 1784, Franklin suggested dividing ships into compartments so that if a leak occurred in one compartment, the water would not spread and sink the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin was one of the first people to chart the Gulf Stream. He suggested that the Gulf Stream could be used to improve the speed of vessels sailing between America and England. </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>Electrostatic machines are devices that produce electricity at continuous (DC) high voltage. They were fundamental in the early studies about electricity and Benjamin Franklin was one of the first scientists to study the effect they could have producing cheaper electricity. </li></ul>
  26. 34. <ul><li>Ben Franklin believed that people should use daylight productively. By increasing the available amount of daylight during the summer and decreasing it during the winter season, Franklin hoped to provide the world with a greater opportunity of doing productive work </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>&quot;People often catch cold from one another when shut up together in small close rooms, coaches, & when sitting near and conversing so as to breathe in each other's transpiration.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Before the knowledge of viruses and germs, Franklin had determined that the common cold was transmitted through the air. </li></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>Franklin's observations were among the earliest to link health problems with exposure to lead. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I have long been of the opinion that that distemper [dry gripes] proceeds always from a metallic cause only, observing that it affects among tradesmen those that use lead, however different their trades, as glazers, type-founders, plumbers, potters, white lead-makers and painters.&quot; </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>Franklin experimented with giving electrical shocks to individuals who had paralysis in their limbs. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Modern medical doctors stimulate immobile muscles with electrical impulses to help prevent atrophy. &quot; </li></ul>
  30. 38. <ul><li>Benjamin Franklin deduced that storms do not always travel in the direction of the prevailing wind, a concept which would have great influence in meteorology. </li></ul><ul><li>In the future generations this observation had a great effect in modern science. </li></ul>
  31. 39. <ul><li>Whirlwinds </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Franklin’s effect </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh air baths </li></ul><ul><li>Colored cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Weather and meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>Air mail via balloon </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Supported exercise </li></ul>
  32. 41. <ul><li>Declaration of Independence (1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Alliance, Amity, and Commerce with France (1778) </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Peace between England, France, and the United States (1782) </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution (1787). </li></ul>
  33. 42. <ul><li>The University of Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>American Philosophical Society </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin and Marshall College </li></ul>
  34. 43. <ul><li>Street lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Paving </li></ul><ul><li>Post office, </li></ul><ul><li>Fire company (1736) </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance Company </li></ul><ul><li>Library Company (1731) </li></ul>
  35. 44. <ul><li>6th President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania 1785-1788 </li></ul><ul><li>23rd Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly 1765 </li></ul><ul><li>United States Minister to France 1778-1785 </li></ul><ul><li>United States Minister to Sweden 1782-1783 </li></ul><ul><li>1st United States Postmaster General 1775-1776 </li></ul>
  36. 45. <ul><li>Enciclopedia Espasa </li></ul><ul><li>La Enciclopedia del Estudiante Santillana Volumes XVII, VII and IV </li></ul><ul><li>Enciclopedia Larousse </li></ul><ul><li>Historia del Arte- Vicens Vives </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Music-A diagram of the composers </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>