MTAs: A Key to the Bio-Prospecting Challenge<br />Marcel D. MongeonIntellectual Property Coach<br />
Outline<br />MTAs and provisions<br />The ‘model’ MTA<br />Access and Benefit Sharing<br />The reality of CBD Implementati...
SomeIdeas<br />Bio-Prospecting:<br />the collection and screening of plant and other biological material for commercial pu...
Material Transfer Agreements<br />Helps document ‘ethical’ bio-prospecting<br />Scientific obligation on publications whic...
The Reality of MTAs<br />Hundreds or thousands are signed<br />Little (if any) auditing or follow-up<br />What Kenyan reso...
MTAs: Terms and Conditions<br />Definitions of Material<br />Restrictions on Recipient’s use of the Material<br />Provider...
MTAs: Use<br />WHO - distribution restrictions<br />WHAT - Material and project<br />THIRD PARTY funding - IP Options<br /...
MTAs: Intellectual Property<br />Ownership or sharing of inventions<br />Right of First Refusal vs ‘more favourable terms’...
MTAs: Use of Research Data<br />Obligations to submit a report<br />Use of data and confidentiality<br />Ownership of data...
The ‘Model’ MTA<br />KEMRI MTA<br />The uBMTA<br />Company models<br />University models<br />
Access and Benefit Sharing<br />Important concept in Convention on Biological Diversity<br />But, what is commercial reali...
The Current Status of TK/IK<br />WIPO was advancing issue as part of emerging economies agenda<br />In part, TK/IK is used...
What is TK/IK?<br />Under existing IP regimes, various implications<br />Most have fixed terms of protection<br />Challeng...
My Approach to TK/IK<br />Use existing rules:<br />Patents Prior Art<br />Projects to document<br />Copyrights/TMs  Unau...
Best Benefit Sharing Approach<br />Don’t let material out of Kenya!<br />Do the work here<br />Establish research base in ...
Current Status of CBD<br />Although US is signatory, not ratified<br />Therefore, no legal effect in US<br />Will be resis...
National Rights<br />Sometimes useful to explore history of IPRs<br />In 1850s who was largest infringer of IPRs?<br />In ...
Your National Question<br />If you want to abide by international IP rules it only works if you are generating IP<br />Gen...
Marcel D. Mongeon<br />+1 (905) 481 0133<br />UK: +44 (0) 1905 70 1818<br />marcel@mongeonconsulting.com<br />Questions?<b...
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Material Transfer Agreements

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This presentation examined the role of Material Transfer Agreements in bioprospecting relationships. Also covered were issues on benefits sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity and the implementation of the CBD.

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Material Transfer Agreements

  1. 1. MTAs: A Key to the Bio-Prospecting Challenge<br />Marcel D. MongeonIntellectual Property Coach<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />MTAs and provisions<br />The ‘model’ MTA<br />Access and Benefit Sharing<br />The reality of CBD Implementation<br />
  3. 3. SomeIdeas<br />Bio-Prospecting:<br />the collection and screening of plant and other biological material for commercial purposes, such as the development of new drugs, seeds and cosmetics<br />Ethical bio-prospecting<br />accessing natural resources through legal means, securing prior informed consent from the custodians of the relevant natural resources, and promoting equitable benefit-sharing with the appropriate parties <br />Unethical bio-prospecting, or Biopiracy:<br />the uncompensated (and unauthorized) commercial use of biological resources and/or associated TK from developing countries, as well as the patenting by corporations of claimed inventions based on such resources or knowledge<br />
  4. 4. Material Transfer Agreements<br />Helps document ‘ethical’ bio-prospecting<br />Scientific obligation on publications which applies even to companies is to make material “freely available”<br />Provides transfer of material and then creates legal obligations<br />
  5. 5. The Reality of MTAs<br />Hundreds or thousands are signed<br />Little (if any) auditing or follow-up<br />What Kenyan resources exist to audit or track all outbound material transfers?<br />Especially in Europe and North America?<br />Would your foreign missions know what to look for?<br />
  6. 6. MTAs: Terms and Conditions<br />Definitions of Material<br />Restrictions on Recipient’s use of the Material<br />Provider’s rights to inventionsand research results<br />Confidentiality<br />Providers access/restriction on reports and publications<br />Warranty disclaimer and indemnification<br />
  7. 7. MTAs: Use<br />WHO - distribution restrictions<br />WHAT - Material and project<br />THIRD PARTY funding - IP Options<br />“Commercial Purposes”<br />
  8. 8. MTAs: Intellectual Property<br />Ownership or sharing of inventions<br />Right of First Refusal vs ‘more favourable terms’<br />Normally under patent rules, provision of base material would not create ownership rights<br />What happens if patents are filed in spite of MTA?<br />What Kenyan resources exist to sue in foreign jurisdictions?<br />
  9. 9. MTAs: Use of Research Data<br />Obligations to submit a report<br />Use of data and confidentiality<br />Ownership of data<br />Links to Confidentiality and IP Issues<br />
  10. 10. The ‘Model’ MTA<br />KEMRI MTA<br />The uBMTA<br />Company models<br />University models<br />
  11. 11. Access and Benefit Sharing<br />Important concept in Convention on Biological Diversity<br />But, what is commercial reality?<br />Valuation of early stage research:<br />50% rule of thumb:<br />At introduction of market-readyproduct 50% of risk remains.<br />Earlier stages have even higher levels of risk<br />Benefits are likely to be single digits at best<br />
  12. 12. The Current Status of TK/IK<br />WIPO was advancing issue as part of emerging economies agenda<br />In part, TK/IK is used as a balance to developed economies ownership of patents/copyrights etc<br />The discussions have broken down on TK/IK<br />Inability to agree what it means<br />
  13. 13. What is TK/IK?<br />Under existing IP regimes, various implications<br />Most have fixed terms of protection<br />Challenge with TK/IK is infinite term is sought<br />Then the law of unintended consequences<br />Is there other TK/IK that people will claim rights to?<br />i.e. the Alphabet?<br />
  14. 14. My Approach to TK/IK<br />Use existing rules:<br />Patents Prior Art<br />Projects to document<br />Copyrights/TMs  Unauthorized Use<br />Need to begin suits as appropriate<br />
  15. 15. Best Benefit Sharing Approach<br />Don’t let material out of Kenya!<br />Do the work here<br />Establish research base in the area<br />Make the developments here in Kenya<br />Then benefit sharing is a minor issue<br />
  16. 16. Current Status of CBD<br />Although US is signatory, not ratified<br />Therefore, no legal effect in US<br />Will be resistance to patent disclosure<br />Reality is CBD is largely ignored by US patent system<br />
  17. 17. National Rights<br />Sometimes useful to explore history of IPRs<br />In 1850s who was largest infringer of IPRs?<br />In 1950s? In 1990s?<br />Is it reasonable national policy to be an IP Infringer?<br />Real issue is need to protect own IPRs<br />As countries generate IP, they will protect<br />
  18. 18. Your National Question<br />If you want to abide by international IP rules it only works if you are generating IP<br />Generation of IP requires government and corporate investments in scientific research<br />
  19. 19. Marcel D. Mongeon<br />+1 (905) 481 0133<br />UK: +44 (0) 1905 70 1818<br />marcel@mongeonconsulting.com<br />Questions?<br />

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