Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical
overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada
Marc-André Grimpe M. B....
Summary
• A historical perspective of Québec-The Quiet Revolution
• The two major reforms that came out of the Quiet revol...
Historical perspective : Before the 1960’s
• “if Quebecers are not free, nor
rich, it is because that freedom
is primarily...
Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, place an...
Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution
• Quick F.A.Q
– What was the quiet revolution?
• Answer: Periodof intense ch...
Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution
• Quick F.A.Q
– Why was it named “the quiet revolution”
• Answer: Intense ch...
Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution
• The early 1960’s aftersomehesitation, the
Quebecgovernment replaces the Ch...
Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, place an...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution
• Le rapport Parent, 1963-1964 (Educational Reform)
• Le rapport...
Le rapport Parent, 1963-1964 (Educational Reform)
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, plac...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport parent (educational reform)
• The creation of the M...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport parent (educational reform)
Marc-André Grimpe M. B....
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport parent (educational reform)
• From 1967 to 1986 : t...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport parent (educational reform)
Marc-André Grimpe M. B....
Le rapport La Haye, 1968 (Urban planning reform)
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, place...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform)
• A raft of adminis...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform)
Few Examples
• Les ...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform)
Marc-André Grimpe M...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform)
• Withholding the f...
The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution :
Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform)
• The Quiet Revolut...
Comparing the collective dimensions behind these two
reforms
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of ...
Understanding the planning context of Québec
• As a result, the Quebecapproach to urban planning and
development, defined ...
Understanding the planning context of Québec
• This becomes particularly clear when looking recent national
projects such ...
Understanding the planning context of Québec
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, place and...
Consequences of this lack of vision
???
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, place and belo...
Case example : Québec city and itssuburbangrowth
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, place...
Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth
• What characterizesperi-urbanenvironments?
– From a morphological poin...
Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, pla...
Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth
• The suburban area of Quebecis far fromhomogeneous. From
the north sho...
Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth
• The metropolitan region of Québec with its “leapfrog”
typesuburbanspr...
Case example :
Québec city and itsperi-urban
growth
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, pl...
Case example : Québec city and itssuberbangrowth
• The 1950-60’s were a period of gratesuburbansprawl but since the
90’s, ...
Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, pla...
Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, pla...
Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, pla...
Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, pla...
Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth
• The suburb is sprawling uncontrollably and is guided by the
presence ...
Thankyou!
Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M.
Sc. Design urbain
Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical
overview ...
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Russia, Sochi 2013

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Russia, Sochi 2013

  1. 1. Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  2. 2. Summary • A historical perspective of Québec-The Quiet Revolution • The two major reforms that came out of the Quiet revolution • Comparing the collective dimensions behind these two reforms • Understanding the planning context of Québec • The case example of Québec city and its suburban growth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  3. 3. Historical perspective : Before the 1960’s • “if Quebecers are not free, nor rich, it is because that freedom is primarily of the spiritual realm and that real wealth is more than materialistic needs, it is especially from the moral and religious sphere. The reward of the righteous is not of this world but rather after death where they will be distributed” (translated from French to English) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  4. 4. Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 Québec, 1962Québec, 1960 René Lévesque, 1962
  5. 5. Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution • Quick F.A.Q – What was the quiet revolution? • Answer: Periodof intense change in Québec (1960’s), Canada, characterized by the rapid and effective secularization of society, the creation of a welfarestate, and realignment of politicsintofederalist and separatist factions. Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  6. 6. Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution • Quick F.A.Q – Why was it named “the quiet revolution” • Answer: Intense change came without considerable opposition Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  7. 7. Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution • The early 1960’s aftersomehesitation, the Quebecgovernment replaces the Church. It supports whatfellwithin the latter and addsseveralsectors of the economy : education, health, culture, language, social support, collective management of financialassets, use of water resources, business support. Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  8. 8. Historical perspective : The Quiet Revolution Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 The quiet revolution Taking control and expanding public services Educationalreform UrbanPlanning reform Roman catholic church Provincial government
  9. 9. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution • Le rapport Parent, 1963-1964 (Educational Reform) • Le rapport La Haye, 1968 (Urban Planning Reform) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  10. 10. Le rapport Parent, 1963-1964 (Educational Reform) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  11. 11. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport parent (educational reform) • The creation of the Ministry of Education of Quebec • Compulsoryschoolinguntil the age of 16 • The creation of general and vocationalcolleges (CEGEPs) to replace the colleges of the time run by nuns and priests • Extensive training of teachers • Easyaccess to universities for all social groups Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  12. 12. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport parent (educational reform) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 Université du Québec à Montréal Cégep du vieux Montréal Cégep de Rivière-du-Loup
  13. 13. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport parent (educational reform) • From 1967 to 1986 : the rate of attendance is multiplied by – 10 times for Cegeps – 4,5 times for Universities Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 • For many, thiseducationalreformwouldbethe result of a social contractwhose main cornerstonewouldbesolidarity
  14. 14. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport parent (educational reform) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 • Clear collective goals that correlate with greater physical and economical accessibility to education
  15. 15. Le rapport La Haye, 1968 (Urban planning reform) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  16. 16. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform) • A raft of administrative reforms and implementation of tools to allow the state and municipalities to fulfilltheir mission • The creation, 10 yearslater, of la Loi sur l’urbanisme et l’aménagement (Law on Planning and Development) • Under the technocratic planning design favored by le rapport La Haye, the Law on Planning and Development has been mainlyprocedural, sinceitestablished a set of management systems for planning, public consultations , as well as the adoption and application of tools Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  17. 17. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform) Few Examples • Les travaux du bureau d’aménagement de l’Est du Québec (1963 à 1966) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  18. 18. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform) Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 Few Examples • The construction of the highway network (end of the 1950’s)
  19. 19. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform) • Withholding the financial dimension, there would be no ambitious initiative or extensive achievements, similar to the ones achieved during the Educational reform Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  20. 20. The two big reforms that came out of the Quiet Revolution : Le rapport La Haye (Urban planning reform) • The Quiet Revolution did not know how to address the urban question! Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  21. 21. Comparing the collective dimensions behind these two reforms Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 ACCESSIBILITY VS.A PROCEDURAL PROCESS
  22. 22. Understanding the planning context of Québec • As a result, the Quebecapproach to urban planning and development, defined by le rapport La Hague, will not focus on any territorial project, unlike le rapport Parent • The territory has been reduced to a resourcethat has to beexploited Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  23. 23. Understanding the planning context of Québec • This becomes particularly clear when looking recent national projects such as the “Plan Nord” Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  24. 24. Understanding the planning context of Québec Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  25. 25. Consequences of this lack of vision ??? Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  26. 26. Case example : Québec city and itssuburbangrowth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  27. 27. Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth • What characterizesperi-urbanenvironments? – From a morphological point of view, landscape distinguishes itself by the dominance of non-built over built – Recentlowdensity constructions are sparselyscatteredalongroads, insertedbetweenolder buildings, or as residential or commercial enclaves. Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  28. 28. Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 peri-urbangrowth Suburbangrowth
  29. 29. Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth • The suburban area of Quebecis far fromhomogeneous. From the north shore to the south shore, east and west, urbansprawldoes not operate on the sameterms • …withdifferenteffects on the environment and landscape Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  30. 30. Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth • The metropolitan region of Québec with its “leapfrog” typesuburbansprawling. • On the north shore, an “octopus” like structure scattering the built environment along roads and valleys. • On the south shore, a satellite like structure arising from the presence of low density residential subdivisions, separated by farmland and wooded areas. Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  31. 31. Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urban growth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 Bachiri, 2011, p.42 South shore North shore • 2 major enablers of growth can be observed, influenced by the presence of different barriers. • Barriers are either • natural (like a river) or • anthropogenic (such as a highway).
  32. 32. Case example : Québec city and itssuberbangrowth • The 1950-60’s were a period of gratesuburbansprawl but since the 90’s, we’ve been witnessing a “leapfrog’’ type sprawling • Several rural limits are gradually disappearing, as land subdivisions are being developed, and catching up with villages and natural resorts • Bringingsettlement patterns and architecture typical of suburbia Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  33. 33. Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013 patterns and architecture typical of suburbia
  34. 34. Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  35. 35. Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  36. 36. Case example : Québec city and its suburban growth Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  37. 37. Case example : Québec city and itsperi-urbangrowth • The suburb is sprawling uncontrollably and is guided by the presence of natural and anthropogenic factors (rivers and roads) • This is happening at the expense of sustainability and rural areas Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
  38. 38. Thankyou! Marc-André Grimpe M. B. Urb. / M. Sc. Design urbain Sense of space, place and belonging : A historical overview of planning policies in Québec, Canada Summershool of architecture : SOCHI 2013
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