MENTAL HEALTH Week 1 LectureStandards:HE. H.S.1: Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and diseaseprevention to enhance health.Lecture was taken from the text:Merki, M. & Merki, D. 1996. Health a guide to wellness. New York: Glencoe McGraw-Hill. Mental Disorders and Mental HealthWhat are Mental Disorders?Mental illness is a medical disease that affects the mind and prevents a person from leading ahappy, healthful life. Mental health carries a mark of shame in American society. People thathave been treated for mental illness say that their biggest problem is their inability to be acceptedby other people. Mental Health professionals are working hard to help people better understandmental illness and lessen some of the negative attitudes that exist toward it.Types of Mental DisordersMental disorder is a term that is used to describe many different types of emotional and mentalproblems. There are two types of mental disorders: organic and functional. Organic disorder iscaused by a physical illness or injury to the brain such as brain tumors, alcoholism, infectionssuch as syphilis and meningitis, and stroke. Functional disorders are a result of psychologicalcauses in which no brain damage is involved which are the result of stress, emotional conflict,fear, or poor coping skills. The categories of functional disorders are anxiety disorders,somatoform, affective disorders, and personality disorders.Anxiety DisordersAnxiety disorders are when real or imagined fears prevent a person from enjoying life. Peopleusually arrange their lives so that they can avoid that which makes them anxious and fearful. Thefour types of anxiety disorders are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders, general-anxietydisorders and post-traumatic stress disorders.Phobia is when a person goes to the extreme to avoid a fear and reacts in a way that limitsnormal functioning. They be unable to out their daily activities. Mental health professionalsbelieve that a phobia is related to some past experience that was upsetting to that individual.Even if there is no longer any threat or danger, the fear is still very real to that individual.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a person has an unreasonable need to think or act in acertain way. The obsessions are persistent thoughts or ideas that keep the person from thinkingabout other things. A person may feel the need to wash their hands 20-30 times a day, or avoidstepping on cracks in the sidewalk.
General Anxiety Disorder is when a person an anxiety disorder feels anxious, fearful, and upsetmost of the time but for no specific reason. This constant state may lead to panic disorder, asudden attack of fear and terror often characterized by trembling, difficulty breathing, and afeeling of loss of control.Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a condition in which a person who has experienced atraumatic event feels severe and long-lasting aftereffects. This type of disorder is commonamong veterans of military combat, rape survivors, and survivors of a natural disaster such as aflood or a plane crash. Symptoms of this disorder are dreams about the event, insomnia, feelingsof guilt or an extreme reaction to an image or sound that reminds the person of the event.Somatoform DisordersSomatoform disorder is a condition in which a person complains of disease symptoms but nophysical cause can be found. Hypochondria is a preoccupation with the body and fear ofpresumed diseases, is an example of a somatoform disorder. A person that is a hypochondriaconstantly feels aches and pains and worries about developing cancer.Affective DisordersAffective disorder involves different types of mood swings. The person may go from happinessto sadness which may last for long periods of time. Affective disorder occurs when these moodswings interfere with the person’s everyday living.Clinical depression is feelings of sadness or hopelessness last for more than a few weeks andinterfere with daily activities and interest.Manic-Depressive Disorder is when a person’s mood shift dramatically from one emotionalextreme to another for no apparent reason.Teenage suicide is the intended taking of one’s own life. It has become an increasing problem inthe US. There are thousands of teenagers each year that attempt suicide and it is now the secondleading of cause of death for people between the ages of 15 and 19. The rate of teenage suicideamong young people has tripled in the last 30 years and continues to increase. There are manycauses of suicide such as coping with who they are, where they belong and who cares aboutthem. Teenagers may have pressures to be responsible and to succeed, failure in a relationship atschool or even on a job, pregnancy, alcohol and drug abuse problems, having a sexuallytransmitted disease or trouble with the law can all be overwhelming to teenagers. Warning signscan be reflected in the person’s behavior such as:Depression, lack of energy;A change in sleep patternsAn increase or decrease in appetiteWithdrawal from usual social activitiesFrequent accidentsDrop in grades
Giving away possessions;Personality change-withdrawal, apathy, moodiness;Personality DisordersThere are a variety of conditions that are described as personality disorders. Personality disordersdo not have any distinct signs or symptoms. The person continues to function effectively in hisor her environment.Antisocial Personality DisorderAntisocial personality disorder is when a person has a constant conflict with society.Passive-Aggressive Personality DisorderSchizophrenia is a disorder that means split mind. It affects about 1 to 2 percent of thepopulationLesson 2Knowing When Someone Need HelpThere are many different types of mental disorders whether they are severe or not varies greatly.Some signs of mental problems are:Sadness over a specific event or for no reasonHopelessnessViolent or erratic mood shiftsFear and anger at the world trouble getting along with othersSevere sleep disturbances-nightmaresFrequent physical alimentsHealth-Care Services for Mental HealthIt is difficult for a person to do their own mental health checkup. Sometimes others are neededsuch as a friend that may offer emotional first aid that is support and a listening ear. Theprincipal health-care providers are psychiatrists, psychiatric, social workers, clinicalpsychologists, neurologists and occupational therapists. The principal health care providers formental health are psychiatrist, neurologist, clinical psychologist, educational counselor, socialworker, behavioral therapist and occupational therapist.