Antimicrobial - pharmacology
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Antimicrobial - pharmacology

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pharmacology

pharmacology
uploaded by : Morteza Parmis
MCU

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Antimicrobial - pharmacology Antimicrobial - pharmacology Presentation Transcript

    • Drugs
    • hemostatics/ antihemorragic
    • Antibiotic
    • Antihistmine
    • Analgesic, Antipyretic
    • Antiinflammatory
    • V. Anesthetics
    • VI . Minor tranquilizer, sedative-hypnotic
    • sedative antihistamine
    • Bleeding
    • infection
    • Allergy
    • Pain, Fever Inflammation
    • Pain
    • Anxiety/fear
  • Drugs that suppress the growth of kill bacteria and other microorganism
    • Categories
    • □ Antibiotic
    • □ Sulfonamide
    View slide
  • Characteristics of an ideal antibiotic
    • □ Be selective and effective without injury to the
    • host
    • □ Destroy microorganism (bacteriocidal)
    • □ Do not become ineffective because of bacterial
    • resistance
    • Types of Bacterial Resistance
    • * Natural
    • e.g. Penicillinase resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
    • * Acquired
    • * Cross
    • e.g. Penicillin and Cephalosporin
    View slide
    • □ not be inactivated by plasma protein,
    • enzymes or body fluid
    • □ have minimal adverse effects
    • Indications
    • (√) 1. an infection is genuinely present
    • (√) 2. the infection is likely to respond to the
    • antibiotic
    • (√) 3. the infection is sever enough to warrant treatment
    • (√) 4. antibiotic is the best form of treatment
  • Points to Remember
    • (√) antibiotic should not be used unless the
    • need for them is certain
    • (√) an adequate history must be taken prior
    • to treatment
    • (√) less than therapeutic dose must never be prescribed
    • (√) administration of 1 ½ hours before and 3 hours after
    • meals is advisable
    • (√) there should be prompt response that is beneficial
    • usually 24-48 hrs
    • (√) therapy should continue 2-3 days pass the
    • asymptomatic point
    • (√) if antibiotic fails do not hesitate to utilized other
    • antibiotic therapy or dosage
    • (√) attention must be paid at all times to possible
    • development of adverse effect
  • Classification of Antibiotic
    • I. Type of Action
    • bactriocidal bacteriostatic
    • II. Mechanism of action
    • * inhibition of cell wall
    • * affect cell membrane permeability
    • * interferes with protein synthesis
    • * competitive antagonism
    • III. Spectrum ( Range of activity)
    • narrow broad
    • IV. Similarity in chemical structure
    • penicillin – cephalosporin
    • erythromycin- lincomycin
  • General Adverse Effects
    • □ superinfection (fungal infection)
    • □ allergies
    • □ drug interactions
    • □ GIT irritations
  • Antimicrobials in Dentistry
  • Penicillin Type of Action Mechanism of Action Spectrum Category bacteriocidal Cell wall Narrow- Gm(+) aerobic and facultative Gm (-) N. Gonorrhea N. Meningitides
    • Prototype
    • Oral
    • Penecillinase
    • resistant
    • IV extended spectrum
  • Categories
    • Prototype penicillin
    • Pen G
    • Best for treating sensitive microorganism
    • II. Oral penicillin
    • Pen V (Phenoxymethyl penicillin)
    • Often used for dental infection
    • Available as potassium (K) and free acid
    • Dosage: 250mg- 500mg every 6 hours
  • Categories
    • I. Prototype penicillin
    • Pen G
    • Best for treating sensitive microorganism
    • 1 mg sodium Pen G= 1665 units
    • 1 mg of potassium Pen G = 1595 units
  • Categories
    • II. Oral penicillin
    • Pen V (Phenoxymethyl penicillin)
    • Often used for dental infection (Pen vk)
    • Available as potassium (k) and free acid
    • Dosage: 250mg- 500mg every 6 hours
    • III. Penicillin Resistant Penicillin
    • * cloxacillin, methicillin, oxacillin
    • IV Extended Spectrum Penicillin
    • Ampicillin-like
      • ampicillin (Ampicin) 250mg-500mg every 6 hours
    • amoxicillin ( Amoxil) 250mg-500mg every 8 hours
    • b. Carbenicillin-like
    • c. Amdinopenicillin
    • * Clavulanic acid
    • Oral and parenteral
    • Degraded by gastric juice
    • Crosses placental barrier
    • Excretion: kidney
    • Uses: dental infection
    • : prevent bacterial endocarditis
  • Erythromycin (Macrolide) Type of Action Mechanism of Action Spectrum Kinds bacteriostatic/ Bacteriocidal Protein synthesis narrow Base Stearate Ethylsuccinate estolate
    • Best substitute for patient allergic to penicillin
    • Adverse effect : cholestatic jaundice
    • precaution: liver disease
    • Dosage: 250 mg - 500mg every 4-6 hours
  • Tetracycline Type or Action Mechanism of Action Spectrum Kinds bacteriostatic Protein synthesis Broad Tetracycline Oxytetracycine Doxycyline Minocycline Methacycline demeclocyline
    • Usually given by mouth
    • Stored in the dentin and enamel of unerupted teeth
    • Concentrated in the gingival crevicular fluid
    • Do not give with food with high calcium content, aluminum oral iron supplements of antacids
    • Adverse effects:
    • GIT effects
    • Hepatotoxicity
    • Renal toxicity
    • Effect in teeth and bone
    • Photosensitivity
    • superinfection
  • Dosage
    • Tetracycline/ Oxytetracycline
    • 250mg-500mg every 4-6 hours
    • Doxycyline
    • 50 mg every 12 hrs or 100mg every 24 hours
    • Minocycline
    • 100mg every 12 hours
    • Methacycline/ Demeclocycline
    • 150mg every 6 hours 300mh every 12 hours
  • Cephalosporin
    • Type of action, mechanism of action spectrum- similar to penicillin
    • Contraindication: kidney disease
    • Agents recommended for dentistry: Cephalexin, cephradine
    • Dosage: 250mg -500mg every 4-6 hours
  • Clindamycin / Lincomycin
    • Bacteriostatic/ bacteriocidal
    • Narrow spectrum
    • Protein synthesis
    • Recommended for Osteomyelitis
    • Adverse effect: Pseudomembranous colitis
    • Dosage: Clindamycin (Dalacin C) 150-300mg every 4-6 hour
    • Lincomycin (Lincosin) 250-500mg every 4-6 hours
  • Other antimicrobials
    • Metronidazole (Flagyl)
    • Aminoglycoside: for Gm – infection
    • Chloramphenicol ( Chloromycetin) Drug of choice for typhoid fever
    • Sulfonamides:
    • □ mechanism of action : competitive antagonism
    • □ recommended for lower urinary tract infection
    • □ adverse effect: Urinary tract crystals
    • * Flouroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin (Ciprobay)
  • Antifungal agents
    • Types Fungal infection
    • Involve the skin
    • Involve the oral mucosa (Candida species)
    • Produce systemic disease
  • Oral Candidiasis ( Thrush Mouth)
    • Drug of choice: Nystatin (Mycostatin)
    • □ Mechanism of action: binds to fungal cell
    • membrane
    • □ Fungistatic/fungicidal
    • □ Dosage: 400,000-600, 000 units (4-6ml) 4 x a
    • day
    • Other agetns:
    • clotrimazole: Canesten
    • ketoconazole: Nizoral
    • Ampotheracin ( Fungizone)
  • Antiviral
    • Acyclovir(Zovirax)
    • Inteferon ( Intron A)
    • Idoxuridine( Herplex)